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Type Paper
Cite as Citation reference for the source document. Aliaksei L. Petsiuk and Joshua M. Pearce. Open Source 3-D Filament Diameter Sensor for Recycling, Winding and Additive Manufacturing Machines. Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering. 143(10): 105001 (2021) https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4050762 Arxiv open access
FA info icon.svg Angle down icon.svg Device data
Design files https://osf.io/qdvu8/
Hardware license CERN-OHL-S
Certifications Start OSHWA certification

To overcome the challenge of upcycling plastic waste into 3D printing filament in the distributed recycling and additive manufacturing systems, this study designs, builds, tests and validates an open source 3D filament diameter sensor for recycling and winding machines. The modular system for multi-axis optical control of diameter of recycled 3D-printer filament makes it possible to analyze the surface structure of the processed filament, save the history of measurements along the entire length of the spool, as well as mark defective areas. The sensor is developed as an independent module and integrated into recyclebots. It was tested on different kinds of polymers, different sources of plastic and different colors including clear plastic. The results were compared with the manual measurements, and the measurements obtained with a one-dimensional digital light caliper. The results found that the developed open source filament sensing method allows users to obtain significantly more information in comparison with basic one-dimensional light sensors and using the received data not only for more accurate diameter measurements, but also for a detailed analysis of the recycled filament surface. The developed method ensures greater availability of plastics recycling technologies and stimulates the growth of composite materials creation. The presented system can greatly enhance the user possibilities and serve as a starting point for a complete recycling control system that will regulate motor parameters to achieve the desired filament diameter with acceptable deviations and even control the extrusion rate on a printer to recover from filament irregularities.

Keywords[edit | edit source]

Advanced materials and processing, Control and automation, Process engineering, production systems optimization, Sustainable manufacturing, 3-D printing, additive manufacturing; open-source hardware; RepRap; computer vision; quality assurance; real-time monitoring

See also[edit | edit source]

See also[edit source]

RepRapable Recyclebot and the Wild West of Recycling[edit source]


Recycling Technology[edit source]

Distributed Recycling LCA[edit source]

Literature Reviews[edit source]


Externals[edit source]

  • Economist article on U. of Washington's HDPE boat, Oprn3dp.me
  • https://ultimaker.com/en/resources/52444-ocean-plastic-community-project
  • Another possible solution - reusable containers [1]
  • Commercial https://dyzedesign.com/pulsar-pellet-extruder/
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  • Cruz, F., Lanza, S., Boudaoud, H., Hoppe, S., & Camargo, M. Polymer Recycling and Additive Manufacturing in an Open Source context: Optimization of processes and methods. [2]
  • Investigating Material Degradation through the Recycling of PLA in Additively Manufactured Parts
  • Mohammed, M.I., Das, A., Gomez-Kervin, E., Wilson, D. and Gibson, I., EcoPrinting: Investigating the use of 100% recycled Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) for Additive Manufacturing.
  • Kariz, M., Sernek, M., Obućina, M. and Kuzman, M.K., 2017. Effect of wood content in FDM filament on properties of 3D printed parts. Materials Today Communications. [3]
  • Kaynak, B., Spoerk, M., Shirole, A., Ziegler, W. and Sapkota, J., 2018. Polypropylene/Cellulose Composites for Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing. Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, p.1800037. [4]
  • O. Martikka et al., "Mechanical Properties of 3D-Printed Wood-Plastic Composites", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 777, pp. 499-507, 2018 [5]
  • Yang, T.C., 2018. Effect of Extrusion Temperature on the Physico-Mechanical Properties of Unidirectional Wood Fiber-Reinforced Polylactic Acid Composite (WFRPC) Components Using Fused Deposition Modeling. Polymers, 10(9), p.976. [6]
  • Romani, A., Rognoli, V., & Levi, M. (2021). Design, Materials, and Extrusion-Based Additive Manufacturing in Circular Economy Contexts: From Waste to New Products. Sustainability, 13(13), 7269. https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/13/13/7269/pdf
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