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Pearce Publications: Energy Conservation Energy Policy Industrial SymbiosisLife Cycle Analysis Materials Science Open Source Photovoltaic Systems Solar CellsSustainable Development Sustainability Education


Source

  • Theresa K. Meyer, Nagendra G. Tanikella, Matthew J. Reich, Joshua M. Pearce. Potential of distributed recycling from hybrid manufacturing of 3-D printing and injection molding of stamp sand and acrylonitrile styrene acrylate waste composite.Sustainable Materials and Technologies 25, 2020, e00169 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.susmat.2020.e00169 open access

Abstract

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In the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, over 500 million tons of copper rich rock were removed from mines and treated in chemical baths to extract copper. Toxic substances have been seeping into the watersheds from the resultant waste stamp sands. Recent work on developing a circular economy using recycled plastic for distributed manufacturing technologies has proven promising, and this study investigates the potential to use this approach to form stamp sand and acrylonitrile styrene acrylate (ASA) composites. Specifically, this study found the maximum amount of stamp sand that was able to be added to waste ASA by mass with a single auger recyclebot system for compounding was below 40%. The mechanical properties of the composite were evaluated up to 40%, and the addition of stamp sand reduced the material's ultimate tensile strength by about half compared to the strength of raw recycled ASA, regardless of the percent stamp sand in the composite. However, this strength reduction plateaus and the tensile strength of the ASA and stamp sand composites can be compared favorably with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) at any level. This makes waste ASA- stamp sand composites potential replacements for outdoor applications of ABS as well as some current ASA applications. These results are promising and call for future work to evaluate the technical, economic and environmental potential for waste ASA - stamp sand composites.

Highlights[edit | edit source]

  • 10% stamp sand added to acrylonitrile styrene acrylate reduced tensile strength.
  • After 10%, the addition of more stamp sand does not impact strength significantly.
  • The ASA stamp sand mixture has around half the strength of raw recycled ASA plastic.
  • Failure during tensile testing was not due to a concentration of sand grains.

Keywords[edit | edit source]

Circular economy; Distributed recycling; Polymer recycling; Sustainable development; distributed manufacturing; recycling; recyclebot; 3-D printing; Open source hardware; Open hardware;  RepRap; Recycling; Polymers; Plastic; Recyclebot; Waste plastic; Composites; Polymer composites; Extruder; Upcycle;  Materials science;additive manufacturing; distributed manufacturing; open-source; waste plastic; extruder; upcycle; Stamp sand; Acrylonitrile styrene acrylate

See also[edit source]

RepRapable Recyclebot and the Wild West of Recycling

Recycling Technology[edit source]

Distributed Recycling LCA[edit source]

Literature Reviews[edit source]

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Externals[edit source]


  • Cruz, F., Lanza, S., Boudaoud, H., Hoppe, S., & Camargo, M. Polymer Recycling and Additive Manufacturing in an Open Source context: Optimization of processes and methods. [2]
  • Investigating Material Degradation through the Recycling of PLA in Additively Manufactured Parts [3]
  • Mohammed, M.I., Das, A., Gomez-Kervin, E., Wilson, D. and Gibson, I., EcoPrinting: Investigating the use of 100% recycled Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) for Additive Manufacturing. [4]
  • Kariz, M., Sernek, M., Obućina, M. and Kuzman, M.K., 2017. Effect of wood content in FDM filament on properties of 3D printed parts. Materials Today Communications. [5]
  • Kaynak, B., Spoerk, M., Shirole, A., Ziegler, W. and Sapkota, J., 2018. Polypropylene/Cellulose Composites for Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing. Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, p.1800037. [6]
  • O. Martikka et al., "Mechanical Properties of 3D-Printed Wood-Plastic Composites", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 777, pp. 499-507, 2018 [7]
  • Yang, T.C., 2018. Effect of Extrusion Temperature on the Physico-Mechanical Properties of Unidirectional Wood Fiber-Reinforced Polylactic Acid Composite (WFRPC) Components Using Fused Deposition Modeling. Polymers, 10(9), p.976. [8]
  • Romani, A., Rognoli, V., & Levi, M. (2021). Design, Materials, and Extrusion-Based Additive Manufacturing in Circular Economy Contexts: From Waste to New Products. Sustainability, 13(13), 7269. https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/13/13/7269/pdf