Project data
Authors Aliaksei Petsiuk
Nagendra G.Tanikella
Samantha Dertinger
Adam Pringle
Shane Oberloier
Joshua M. Pearce
Status Designed
Verified by MOST
Links https://www.academia.edu/43896606/Partially_RepRapable_automated_open_source_bag_valve_mask_based_ventilator&#124
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Device data
Design files https://osf.io/fjdwz/
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Energy Conservation Energy Policy Industrial SymbiosisLife Cycle Analysis Materials Science Open SourceMedical Photovoltaic Systems Solar CellsSustainable Development Sustainability Education

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This study describes the development of a simple and easy-to-build portable automated bag valve mask (BVM) compression system, which, during acute shortages and supply chain disruptions can serve as a temporary emergency ventilator. The resuscitation system is based on the Arduino controller with a real-time operating system installed on a largely RepRap 3-D printable parametric component-based structure. The cost of the materials for the system is under $170, which makes it affordable for replication by makers around the world. The device provides a controlled breathing mode with tidal volumes from 100 to 800 milliliters, breathing rates from 5 to 40 breaths/minute, and inspiratory-to-expiratory ratio from 1:1 to 1:4. The system is designed for reliability and scalability of measurement circuits through the use of the serial peripheral interface and has the ability to connect additional hardware due to the object-oriented algorithmic approach. Experimental results after testing on an artificial lung for peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), respiratory rate (RR), positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), tidal volume, proximal pressure, and lung pressure demonstrate repeatability and accuracy exceeding human capabilities in BVM-based manual ventilation. Future work is necessary to further develop and test the system to make it acceptable for deployment outside of emergencies such as with COVID-19 pandemic in clinical environments, however, the nature of the design is such that desired features are relatively easy to add with the test using protocols and parametric design files provided.


  • Aliaksei Petsiuk, Nagendra G.Tanikella, Samantha Dertinger, Adam Pringle, Shane Oberloier, Joshua M.Pearce. Partially RepRapable Automated Open Source Bag Valve Mask-based Ventilator. HardwareX, 8, (2020), e00131 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ohx.2020.e00131 open access [1]
    • Source code: https://osf.io/fjdwz/
    • Open Source License GNU General Public License (GPL) v3.0 and CERN Open Hardware License (OHL) v1.2
    • Cost of Hardware < $170

Keywords[edit | edit source]

open hardware, COVID-19, RepRap, 3-D printing, additive manufacturing, medical hardware, open source medical hardware, ventilator, pandemic, ventilation, influenza pandemic, coronavirus, coronavirus pandemic, pandemic ventilator, single-limb, open source, embedded systems, real-time operating system

See also[edit | edit source]

See also COVID-19 resources from MOST[edit | edit source]

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