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Fused Particle Fabrication 3-D Printing: Recycled Materials’ Optimization and Mechanical Properties

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Source[edit]

Abstract[edit]

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Fused particle fabrication (FPF) (or fused granular fabrication (FGF)) has potential for increasing recycled polymers in 3-D printing. Here, the open source Gigabot X is used to develop a new method to optimize FPF/FGF for recycled materials. Virgin polylactic acid (PLA) pellets and prints were analyzed and were then compared to four recycled polymers including the two most popular printing materials (PLA and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)) as well as the two most common waste plastics (polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polypropylene (PP)). The size characteristics of the various materials were quantified using digital image processing. Then, power and nozzle velocity matrices were used to optimize the print speed, and a print test was used to maximize the output for a two-temperature stage extruder for a given polymer feedstock. ASTM type 4 tensile tests were used to determine the mechanical properties of each plastic when they were printed with a particle drive extruder system and were compared with filament printing. The results showed that the Gigabot X can print materials 6.5× to 13× faster than conventional printers depending on the material, with no significant reduction in the mechanical properties. It was concluded that the Gigabot X and similar FPF/FGF printers can utilize a wide range of recycled polymer materials with minimal post processing.

Keywords[edit]

Circular economy; Distributed recycling; Energy conservation; Polymer recycling; Sustainable development; distributed manufacturing; life cycle analysis; recycling; recyclebot; 3-D printing; Open source hardware; Open hardware;  RepRap; Recycling; Polymers; Plastic; Recyclebot; Waste plastic; Composites; Polymer composites; Extruder; Upcycle;  Materials science;additive manufacturing; distributed manufacturing; open-source; waste plastic; extruder; upcycle

See Also[edit]

RepRapable Recyclebot and the Wild West of Recycling

Recycling Technology[edit]

Distributed Recycling LCA[edit]

Literature Reviews[edit]

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Externals[edit]


  • Cruz, F., Lanza, S., Boudaoud, H., Hoppe, S., & Camargo, M. Polymer Recycling and Additive Manufacturing in an Open Source context: Optimization of processes and methods. [2]
  • Investigating Material Degradation through the Recycling of PLA in Additively Manufactured Parts [3]
  • Mohammed, M.I., Das, A., Gomez-Kervin, E., Wilson, D. and Gibson, I., EcoPrinting: Investigating the use of 100% recycled Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) for Additive Manufacturing. [4]
  • Kariz, M., Sernek, M., Obućina, M. and Kuzman, M.K., 2017. Effect of wood content in FDM filament on properties of 3D printed parts. Materials Today Communications. [5]
  • Kaynak, B., Spoerk, M., Shirole, A., Ziegler, W. and Sapkota, J., 2018. Polypropylene/Cellulose Composites for Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing. Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, p.1800037. [6]
  • O. Martikka et al., "Mechanical Properties of 3D-Printed Wood-Plastic Composites", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 777, pp. 499-507, 2018 [7]
  • Yang, T.C., 2018. Effect of Extrusion Temperature on the Physico-Mechanical Properties of Unidirectional Wood Fiber-Reinforced Polylactic Acid Composite (WFRPC) Components Using Fused Deposition Modeling. Polymers, 10(9), p.976. [8]

News[edit]

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  1. Industrial 3D Printing Goes Skateboarding MTU News 14k
    1. Science Daily 2.9k
    2. Eureka Alert 16.4k
    3. TechXplore 76.3k
    4. Nanowerk 78.7k
    5. ECN Magazine 92.6k
    6. Labroots 110k
    7. Newswise 131k
    8. Zwoops 132k
    9. Space Daily 161k
    10. Bioengineer
    11. 3D Printing Progress
    12. Science Technology and Research News
    13. E Peak
    14. I Connect 007
    15. Live Science
  2. 再生塑料经3D技术加持变身运动用品 Finance East Money (China) 1056
    1. Info.21CP 45k
  3. Green Fab Lab: Using the Fab Lab To 3D Print New Things From Recycled Plastics 3DPrint 44k
  4. Michigan Tech scientists write recommendations for greener 3D printing 3D Printing Industry 71.9k
  5. Funding Makerspaces With 3D Printing? Fabaloo 114k
  6. 3D Printer Turns Recycled Plastic into Sporting Goods Design News 142k
    1. Flipboard 4.2k
    2. Quartz Share 2.8k
  7. Case Study: 3D Printer Using Fused Granular Fabrication – Cheap & Economic Efficiency 3D Printing 143k
  8. "Gigabot X" 3-D printer helps find new uses for recycled plastic Tv6 Fox UP 146k
  9. Engineers 3D Print Skateboard Using Waste Plastic - Industrial Equipment News 224k
  10. Gigabot X Prints from Waste Plastics Digital Engineering 246k
  11. 种经济环保的新型3D打印机 Materials and Testing (China) 254k
  12. Researchers Utilize Fab Lab To 3D Print Using Recycled Plastic - Manufacturing Talk Radio
  13. Tech: Industrial 3D printing goes skateboarding — (Report) Tunisiesoir
  14. Industrial 3D printing could soon be used for outdoor sporting goods The Edge
  15. How 3D Printing is Making its Way Into Outdoor Sporting Goods EE Design IT
  16. DSM and CEAD to develop new materials and applications for pelletized 3D printing 3DPrinting Industry 73k
  17. Industrial 3D printer prints directly from recycled shredded waste Design Fax
  18. China’s ban on plastics and its effect on the U.S. economy - American Recycler

Literature Reviews[edit]

In the news[edit]

  • Optimizing the Properties of Recycled 3D Printing Materials 3D Print 40.1k
  • re: 3D GIgabot X ottimizzazione delle proprietà dei materiali di stampa 3D riciclati Stampare in 3D
  • Gigabot X: Optimierung von recycelten Filamenten 3DRuck