G-code rendering of (a) a line, (b) plane, and (c) rectangular prism; Non-optimized 3D printed metal for the (d) line, (e) plane, and (f) rectangular prism (the penny for scale is 19.05 mm in diameter).
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Type Paper
Cite as Citation reference for the source document. Shane Oberloier, Wilson J Holmes, Luke A Reich, Joshua M Pearce, (2022). Particle Swarm Optimization of Printing Parameters for Open-Source TIG-Based Metal 3D Printing,Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering: Additive Manufacturing Frontiers, 1(4),100050, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjmeam.2022.100050. (OA)Academia OA
FA info icon.svg Angle down icon.svg Device data
Design files https://osf.io/muevs/
Hardware license CERN-OHL-S
Certifications Start OSHWA certification

Proprietary metal 3D printing is still relegated to relatively expensive systems that have been constructed over years of expensive trial-and-error to obtain optimum 3D printing settings. Low-cost open-source metal 3D printers can potentially democratize metal additive manufacturing; however, significant resources are required to redevelop optimal printing parameters for each metal on new machines. In this study, the particle swam optimization (PSO) experimenter, a free and open-source software package, is utilized to obtain the optimal printing parameters for a tungsten inert gas-based metal open source 3D printer. The software is a graphical user interface implementation of the PSO method and is designed specifically for hardware-in-loop testing. It uses the input of experimental variables and their respective ranges, and then proposes iterations for experiments. A custom fitness function is defined to characterize the experimental results and provide feedback to the algorithm for low-cost metal additive manufacturing. Four separate trials are performed to determine the optimal parameters for 3D printing. First, an experiment is designed to deposit and optimize the parameters for a single line. Second, the parameters for a single-layer plane is optimized experimentally. Third, the optimal printing parameters for a cube is determined experimentally. Fourth, the line optimization experiment is revised and reconducted using different shield gas parameters. The results and limitations are presented and discussed in the context of expanding wire arc additive manufacturing to more systems and material classes for distributed digital manufacturing.

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Keywords metal 3d printing, tungsten inert gas welding, tig welding, 3d printing, open-source appropriate technology, circular economy, sustainable development, distributed manufacturing, open source hardware, open hardware, reprap, materials science, particle swarm optimization
SDG SDG09 Industry innovation and infrastructure
Authors Shane Oberloier, Wilson J Holmes, Luke A Reich, Joshua M. Pearce
License CC-BY-SA-4.0
Organizations FAST, Western, MOST, MTU
Language English (en)
Related 0 subpages, 14 pages link here
Impact 314 page views
Created November 19, 2022 by Joshua M. Pearce
Modified February 28, 2024 by Felipe Schenone
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