AC/off-grid photovoltaic powered open-source ball mill
FA info icon.svgAngle down icon.svgSource data
Type Paper
Cite as Citation reference for the source document. Maryam Mottaghi, Motakabbir Rahman, Apoorv Kulkarni, Joshua M. Pearce, AC/off-grid photovoltaic powered open-source ball mill,HardwareX', 2023,e00423,
FA info icon.svgAngle down icon.svgProject data
Authors Maryam Mottaghi
Motakabbir Rahman
Apoorv Kulkarni
Joshua M. Pearce
Location London, ON, Canada
Status Designed
Verified by FAST
Uses 3D Printing
OKH Manifest Download
FA info icon.svgAngle down icon.svgDevice data
Assembly instructions
Design files
Hardware license CERN-OHL-S
Certifications Start OSHWA certification

Ball milling is used for comminution by rotating a drum to grind materials using balls with specific diameters. Ball milling advantages include the potential for high capacity, predicted fineness in a specific amount of time, reliability, safety, and simplicity, but has disadvantages of high weight, energy consumption and costs, which limit accessibility. To overcome these limitations this study applies the free and open source hardware approach coupled to distributed digital manufacturing to fabricate a ball mill with a simple, customizable design that can be used in a wide range of scientific applications and circumstances including those without access to reliable grid electricity. The highly-customizable design reduces the cost to <US$130 for an AC powered version and <US$315 for a switchable power that enables off-grid operation with a solar module and battery. Using a solar photovoltaic energy source not only improves the power reliability, but also makes it easier to move the ball mill for use in field environments. The open source ball mill is capable of reducing silicon particle sizes from the millimeter scale down to the nanometer scale.


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