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Photovoltaic system at St. Jude's church.

Green living (or sustainable livingW) is about practical choices, large and small, to preserve the earth and have a better quality of lifeW. It is a lifestyleW that attempts to reduce an individual'sW or society'sW use of the Earth'sW natural resourcesW and his or her own resources.[1]

In order to make sustainable choices, it is very helpful to have solid, reliable information that tells us which behaviors are sustainable and which are unsustainable. In quantitativeW terms, which actions will make the greatest difference, and should be prioritized. Green living can be high tech (buying a hybrid vehicleW), low tech (green cleaningW, or completely "back to nature." It can be smart gridW or off the gridW. Sustainable city living explains some of the areas of action for a city dweller.

Practitioners of sustainable living often attempt to reduce their carbon footprintW by altering methods of transportationW, energy consumptionW and dietW.[2] Proponents of sustainable living aim to conduct their lives in ways that are consistent with sustainabilityW, in natural balance and respectful of humanity's symbioticW relationship with the Earth's natural ecologyW and cycles.[3] The practice and general philosophy of ecological living is highly interrelated with the overall principles of sustainable developmentW.

Lester R. BrownW, a prominent environmentalistW and founder of the Worldwatch InstituteW and Earth Policy InstituteW, describes sustainable living in the 21st century as "shifting to a renewable energy-based, reuse/recycle economy with a diversified transport system."[4]

Appropedia is a green living wikiW, so you can create and edit content to share information and collaborate with others on how we can lighten our ecological footprintW and live in harmony with nature and our environment. A key aim of Appropedia is to provide this information, to support sustainable choices - sharing knowledge to build rich, sustainable lives.

Definition[edit | edit source]

Sustainable tools[5] to meet fundamental human needsW

Green or sustainable living is fundamentally the application of sustainabilityW to lifestyle choice and decisions. Sustainability itself is expressed as meeting present ecological, societal, and economical needs without compromising these factors for future generations[6][7] Sustainable living can therefore be described as living within the innate carrying capacities defined by these factors.

Sustainable designW and sustainable developmentW are critical factors to sustainable living. Sustainable design encompasses the development of appropriate technologyW, which is a staple of sustainable living practices.[8] Sustainable development in turn is the use of these technologies in infrastructure. Sustainable architectureW and agricultureW are the most common examples of this practice.[9]

History[edit | edit source]

  • 1854 Henry David ThoreauW published WaldenW, which is the earliest piece of literature to specifically address the issue of sustainable living.[10]
  • 1954 The publication of Living the Good Life by Helen and Scott NearingW marked the beginning of the modern day sustainable living movement. The publication paved the way for the "back-to-the-land movementW" in the late 1960s and early 1970s.[11][12]
  • 1962 The publication of Silent SpringW by Rachel CarsonW marked another major milestone for the sustainability movement.[13]
  • 1972 Donella MeadowsW wrote the international bestseller The Limits to GrowthW, which reported on a study of long-term global trends in [poulationW, economicsW and the environmentW. It sold millions of copies and was translated into 28 languages.[14]
  • 1973 E. F. SchumacherW published a collection of essays on shifting towards sustainable living through the appropriate use of technology in his book Small is BeautifulW.[15]
  • 1992–2002 The United NationsW held a series of conferences, which focused on increasing sustainability within societies in order to conserve the Earth's natural resources. The Earth SummitW conferences were held in 1972W, 1992 and 2002W.[16]
  • 2007 the United NationsW published Sustainable Consumption and Production, Promoting Climate-Friendly Household Consumption Patterns, which promoted sustainable lifestyles in communities and homes.[17]

Food and agriculture[edit | edit source]

Environmental impacts of industrial agriculture[edit | edit source]

Industrial agriculture|Industrial agricultural productionW is highly resource and energy intensive. Industrial agriculture systems typically require heavy irrigationW, extensive pesticideW and fertilizer applicationW, intensive tillageW, concentrated monocultureW production, and other continual inputs. As a result of these industrial farming conditions, today’s mounting environmental stresses are further exacerbated. These stresses include: declining water tableWs, chemical leachingW, chemical runoffW, soil erosionW, land degradationW, loss in biodiversityW, and other ecological concerns.[18]

Conventional food distribution and long distance transport[edit | edit source]

ConventionalW food distribution and long distance transport is additionally resourceW and energyW exhaustive. Substantial climate-disrupting carbon emissionsW, boosted by the transport of food over long distances, are of growing concern as the world faces such global crisisW as natural resourceW depletion, peak oilW and climate changeW.[19] “The average American meal currently costs about 1500 miles, and takes about 10 caloriesW of oil and other fossil fuelWs to produce a single calorie of food.” [20]

Local and seasonal foods[edit | edit source]

A more sustainable means of acquiring food is to purchase locally and seasonally. Buying food from local farmers reduces carbon offsetWs, caused by long-distance food transport, and stimulates the local economy.[20] Local, small-scale farming operations also typically utilize more sustainable methods of agriculture than conventional industrial farming systems such as decreased tillage, nutrient cyclingW, fostered biodiversity and reduced chemical pesticide and fertilizer applications.[21] Adapting a more regional, seasonally-based diet is more sustainable as it entails purchasing less energy and resource demanding produce that naturally grow within a local area and require no long-distance transport. These vegetables and fruits are also grown and harvested within their suitable growing seasonW. Thus, seasonal foodW farming does not require energy intensive greenhouseW production, extensive irrigation, plastic packaging and long-distance transport from importing non-regional foods, and other environmental stressors.[22] Local, seasonal produce is typically fresher, unprocessed and argued to be more nutritious. Local produce also contains less to no chemical residues from applications required for long-distance shipping and handling.[23] Farmers' marketsW, public events where local small-scale farmers gather and sell their produce, are a good source for obtaining local food and knowledge about local farming productions. As well as promoting localization of food, farmers markets are a central gathering place for community interaction.[24] Another way to become involved in regional food distribution is by joining a local community-supported agricultureW (CSA). A CSA consists of a community of growers and consumers who pledge to support a farming operation while equally sharing the risks and benefits of food production. CSA's usually involve a system of weekly pick-ups of locally farmed vegetables and fruits, sometimes including dairy products, meat and special food items such as baked goods.[25] Considering the previously noted rising environmental crisis, the United States and much of the world is facing immense vulnerability to famine. Local food production ensures food security if potential transportation disruptions and climatic, economical, and sociopolitical disasters were to occur.[20]

Reducing meat consumption[edit | edit source]

Industrial meat production also involves high environmental costs such as land degradationW, soil erosionW and depletion of natural resourceWs, especially pertaining to water and food.[22] For more information on the environmental impacts of meat production and consumption, see the ethics of eating meatW. Reducing meat consumption, perhaps to a few meals a week, or adapting a vegetarian or vegan diet, alleviates the demand for environmentally damaging industrial meat production. Buying and consuming organically-raised, free rangeW or grass fed meatW is another alternative towards more sustainable meat consumption.[21]

Organic farming[edit | edit source]

Purchasing and supporting organic products is another fundamental contribution to sustainable living. Organic farmingW is a rapidly emerging trend in the food industry and in the web of sustainability. According to the USDAW National Organic Standards BoardW (NOSB), organic agricultureW is defined as "an ecological production management system that promotes and enhances biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil biological activity. It is based on minimal use of off-farm inputs and on management practices that restore, maintain, or enhance ecological harmony. The primary goal of organic agriculture is to optimize the health and productivity of interdependent communities of soil life, plants, animals and people." Upon sustaining these goals, organic agriculture uses techniques such as crop rotationW, permacultureW, compostW, green manureW and biological pest controlW. In addition, organic farming prohibits or strictly limits the use of manufactured fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulatorsW such as hormonesW, livestock antibioticsW, food additivesW and genetically modified organismsW.[26] Organically farmed products include vegetables, fruit, grains, herbs, meat, dairy, eggs, fibers, and flowers. See organic certificationW for more information.

Urban gardening[edit | edit source]

Construction of an Affordable Greenhouse

In addition to local, small-scale farms, there has been a recent emergence in urban agricultureW expanding from community gardensW to private home gardensW. With this trend, both farmers and ordinary people are becoming involved in food productionW. A network of urban farming systems helps to further ensure regional food security and encourages self-sufficiency and cooperative interdependence within communities.[27] With every bite of food raised from urban gardens, negative environmental impacts are reduced in numerous ways. For instance, vegetables and fruits raised within small-scale gardens and farms are not grown with tremendous applications of nitrogen fertilizerW required for industrial agricultural operations. The nitrogen fertilizers cause toxic chemical leaching and runoff that enters our water tables. Nitrogen fertilizer also produces nitrous oxideW, a more damaging greenhouse gasW than carbon dioxideW. Local, community-grown food also requires no imported, long-distance transport which further depletes our fossil fuelW reserves.[28] In developing more efficiency per land acre, urban gardens can be started in a wide variety of areas: in vacant lots, public parks, private yards, church and school yards, on roof tops (roof-top gardensW), and many other places. Communities can work together in changing zoning limitations in order for public and private gardens to be permissible.[29] Aesthetically pleasing edible landscapingW plants can also be incorporated into city landscaping such as blueberry bushes, grapevines trained on an arbor, pecan trees, etc.[24] With as small a scale as home or community farming, sustainable and organic farming methods can easily be utilized. Such sustainable, organic farming techniques include: compostingW, biological pest controlW, crop rotationW, mulchingW, drip irrigationW, nutrient cyclingW and permacultureW.[30] For more information on sustainable farming systems, see sustainable agricultureW.

Food preservation and storage[edit | edit source]

Preserving and storing foods reduces reliance on long-distance transported food and the market industry. Home-grown foods can be preserved and stored outside of their growing season and continually consumed throughout the year, enhancing self-sufficiency and independence from the supermarket. Food can be preserved and saved by dehydrationW, freezingW, vacuum packingW, canningW, bottlingW, picklingW and jellying.[31] For more information, see food preservationW.

Construction[edit | edit source]

Sustainable homes are built using sustainable methods, materials, and facilitate green practices, enabling a sustainable lifestyle. Their construction and maintenance have neutral impacts on the Earth. Oftentimes, if necessary, they are close in proximity to essential services such as grocery stores, schools, daycares, work, or public transit making it possible to commit to sustainable transportation choices.[32] Sometimes, they are off-the-gridW homes that do not require any public energy, water, or sewer service.

If not off-the-grid, sustainable homes may be linked to a grid supplied by a power plant that is using sustainable power sources, buying power as is normal convention. Additionally, sustainable homes may be connected to a grid, but generate their own electricity through renewable means and sell any excess to a utility. There are two common methods to approaching this option: net metering and double metering.[33]

Net metering uses the common meter that is installed in most homes, running forward when power is used from the grid, and running backward when power is put into the grid (which allows them to “net“ out their total energy use, putting excess energy into the grid when not needed, and using energy from the grid during peak hours, when you may not be able to produce enough immediately). Power companies can quickly purchase the power that is put back into the grid, as it is being produced. Double metering involves installing two meters: one measuring electricity consumed, the other measuring electricity created. Additionally, or in replace of selling their renewable energy, sustainable home owners may choose to bank their excess energy by using it to charge batteries. This gives them the option to use the power later during less favorable power-generating times (ie: night-time, when there has been no wind, etc), and to be completely independent of the electrical gridW.[34]

Sustainably designedW houses are generally sited so as to create as little of a negative impact on the surrounding ecosystemW as possible, oriented to the sun so that it creates the best possible microclimateW (typically, the long axis of the house or building should be oriented east-west), and provide natural shading or wind barriers where and when needed, among many other considerations. The design of a sustainable shelter affords the options it has later (ie: using passive solar lighting and heatingW, creating temperature buffer zones by adding porches, deep overhangs to help create favorable microclimates, etc).[34][35] Sustainably constructed houses involve environmentally-friendly management of waste building materials such as recycling and composting, use non-toxic and renewable, recycled, reclaimed, or low-impact production materials that have been created and treated in a sustainable fashion (such as using organic or water-based finishes), use as much locally available materials and tools as possible so as to reduce the need for transportation, and use low-impact production methods (methods that minimize effects on the environment).[36][37]

Many materials can be considered a “green” material until its background is revealed. Any material that has used toxic or carcinogenic chemicals in its treatment or manufacturing (such as formaldehydeW in glues used in woodworking), has traveled extensively from its source or manufacturer, or has been cultivated or harvested in an unsustainable manner might not be considered green. In order for any material to be considered green, it must be resource efficient, not compromise indoor air qualityW or water conservationW, and be energy efficient (both in processing and when in use in the shelter).[37] Resource efficiency can be achieved by using as much recycled content, reusable or recyclable content, materials that employ recycled or recyclable packaging, locally available material, salvaged or remanufactured material, material that employs resource efficient manufacturing, and long-lasting material as possible.[38]

List of some sustainable materials[edit | edit source]

  • Insulating concrete formsW
  • Lime renderW
  • LinoleumW
  • Lumber from Forest Stewardship CouncilW approved sources
  • Natural rubberW
  • Natural fiberW (coirW, woolW, juteW, etc)
  • Organic cotton insulation
  • PapercreteW
  • Rammed EarthW
  • Reclaimed stone
  • Reclaimed brick
  • Recycled metal
  • Recycled concrete
  • Recycled paper
  • Soy-based adhesive
  • Soy insulation
  • Straw BaleW
  • Structural insulated panelW

InsulationW of a sustainable home is important because of the energy it conserves throughout the life of the home. Well insulated walls and lofts using green materials are a must as it reduces or, in combination with a house that is well designed, eliminates the need for heating and cooling altogether. Installation of insulation varies according to the type of insulation being used. Typically, lofts are insulated by strips of insulating material laid between rafters. Walls with cavities are done in much the same manner. For walls that do not have cavities behind them, solid-wall insulation may be necessary which can decrease internal space and can be expensive to install.[35] Energy-efficient windows are another important factor in insulation. Simply assuring that windows (and doors) are well sealed greatly reduces energy loss in a home.[33] Double or Triple glazed windows are the typical method to insulating windows, trapping gas or creating a vacuum between two or three panes of glass allowing heat to be trapped inside or out.[34][37] Low-emissivityW or Low-E glass is another option for window insulation. It is a coating on windowpanes of a thin, transparent layer of metal oxide and works by reflecting heat back to its source, keeping the interior warm during the winter and cool during the summer. Simply hanging heavy-backed curtains in front of windows may also help their insulation.[35] “Superwindows,” mentioned in Natural Capitalism: Creating the Next Industrial RevolutionW, became available in the 1980s and use a combination of many available technologies, including two to three transparent low-e coatings, multiple panes of glass, and a heavy gas filling. Although more expensive, they are said to be able to insulate four and a half times better than a typical double-glazed windows.[39]

Equipping roofs with highly reflective material (such as aluminum) increases a roof's albedoW and will help reduce the amount of heat it absorbs, hence, the amount of energy needed to cool the building it is on. Green roofsW or “living roofs” are a popular choice for thermally insulating a building. They are also popular for their ability to catch storm-water runoff and, when in the broader picture of a community, reduce the heat island effect (see urban heat islandW) thereby reducing energy costs of the entire area. It is arguable that they are able to replace the physical “footprint” that the building creates, helping reduce the adverse environmental impacts of the building‘s presence.[40][41]

Energy efficiency and water conservation are also major considerations in sustainable housing. If using appliances, computers, HVACW systems, electronics, or lighting the sustainable-minded often look for an Energy StarW label, which is government-backed and holds stricter regulations in energy and water efficiency than is required by law.[42][43] Ideally, a sustainable shelter should be able to completely run the appliances it uses using renewable energy and should strive to have a neutral impact on the Earth’s water sources[44]

GreywaterW, including water from washing machines, sinks, showers and baths may be reused in landscape irrigation and toilets as a method of water conservation. Likewise, rainwater harvestingW from storm-water runoff is also a sustainable method to conserve water usage in a sustainable shelter.[45] Sustainable urban drainage systemsW replicate the natural systems that clean water in wildlife and implement them in a city’s drainage system so as to minimize contaminated water and unnatural rates of runoff into the environment.[46][47]

See related articles in: LEEDW (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design)

Energy[edit | edit source]

When needed, sustainable living requires the use of sustainable energyW. This involves the use of power in such a way that fulfills the requirements of the present without compromising the requirements of the future. Or, in short, using power sources and in such a way that can be sustained infinitely. This means the energy source must be renewableW, and must not harm the environment or the people working under it. The most commonly used renewable sources of energy are: biomassW, waterW, geothermalW, windW, and solarW.

As mentioned under Shelter, some sustainable households may choose to produce their own renewable energy, while others may choose to purchase it through the grid from a power company that harnesses sustainable sources (also mentioned previously are the methods of metering the production and consumption of electricity in a household). Purchasing sustainable energy, however, may simply not be possible in some locations due to its limited availability. 6 out of the 50 states in the US do not offer green energy, for example. For those that do, its consumers typically buy a fixed amount or a percentage of their monthly consumption from a company of their choice and the bought green energy is fed into the entire national grid. Technically, in this case, the green energy is not being fed directly to the household that buys it.[48] In this case, it is possible that the actual amount of green electricity that the buying household receives is a small fraction of their total incoming electricity. This may or may not depend on the amount being purchased. The purpose of buying green electricity is to support their utility’s effort in producing sustainable energy.[49] Producing sustainable energy on an individual household or community basis is much more flexible, but can still be limited in the richness of the sources that the location may afford (some locations may not be rich in renewable energy sources while others may have an abundance of it).

When generating renewable energy and feeding it back into the grid (in participating countries such as the US and Germany), producing households are typically paid at least the full standard electricity rate by their utility and are also given separate renewable energy credits that they can then sell to their utility, additionally (utilities are interested in buying these renewable energy credits because it allows them to claim that they produce renewable energy). In some special cases, producing households may be paid up to four times the standard electricity rate, but this is not common.[50]

Solar power harnesses the energy of the sun to make electricity. Two typical methods for converting solar energy into electricity are photo-voltaic cellsW that are organized into panels and concentrated solar powerW, which uses mirrors to concentrate sunlight to either heat a fluid that runs an electrical generatorW via a steam turbineW or heat engineW, or to simply cast onto photo-voltaic cells.[51][52] The energy created by photo-voltaic cells is a direct currentW and has to be converted to alternating currentW before it can be used in a household. At this point, users can choose to either store this direct current in batteries for later use, or use an AC/DC inverter for immediate use. To get the best out of a solar panel, the angle of incidenceW of the sun should be between 20-50 degrees. Solar power via photo-voltaic cells are usually the most expensive method to harnessing renewable energy, but is falling in price as technology advances and public interest increases. It has the advantages of being portable, easy to use on an individual basis, readily available for government grants and incentives, and being flexible in regards to location (though it is most efficient when used in hot, arid areas since they tend to be the most sunny).[49][52] For those that are lucky, affordable rental schemes may be found.[49] Concentrated solar power plants are typically used on more of a community scale rather than an individual household scale, because of the amount of energy they are able to harness but can be done on an individual scale with a parabolic reflectorW.[52][53]

Solar thermal energyW is harnessed by collecting direct heat from the sun. One of the most common ways that this method is used by households is through solar water heatingW. In a broad perspective, these systems involve well insulated tanks for storage and collectors, are either passive or active systems (active systems have pumps that continuously circulate water through the collectors and storage tank) and, in active systems, involve either directly heating the water that will be used or heating a non-freezing heat-transfer fluid that then heats the water that will be used. Passive systems are cheaper than active systems since they do not require a pumping system (instead, they take advantage of the natural movement of hot water rising above cold water to cycle the water being used through the collector and storage tank).[54]

Other methods of harnessing solar power are solar space heatingW (for heating internal building spaces), solar drying (for drying wood chips, fruits, grains, etc), solar cookersW, solar distillersW, and other passive solarW technologies (simply, harnessing sunlight without any mechanical means).

Wind power is harnessed through turbines, set on tall towers (typically 20’ or 6m with 10‘ or 3m diameter blades for an individual household‘s needs) that power a generator that creates electricity.[49][52] They typically require an average of wind speed of 9 mi/hr (14 km/hr) to be worth their investment (as prescribed by the US Department of Energy), and are capable of paying for themselves within their lifetimes. Wind turbines in urban areas usually need to be mounted at least 30’ (10m) in the air in order to receive enough wind and to be void of nearby obstructions (such as neighboring buildings). Mounting a wind turbine may also require permission from authorities. Wind turbines have been criticized for the noise they produce, their appearance, and the argument that they can affect the migratory patterns of birds (their blades obstruct passage in the sky). Wind turbines are much more feasible for those living in rural areas[49] and are one of the most cost-effective forms of renewable energy per kilowatt, approaching the cost of fossil fuels, and have quick paybacks.[52]

For those that have a body of water flowing at an adequate speed (or falling from an adequate height) on their property, hydroelectricityW may be an option. On a large scale, hydroelectricity, in the form of dams, has adverse environmental and social impacts. When on a small scale, however, in the form of single turbines, hydroelectricity is very sustainable. Single water turbines or even a group of single turbines are not environmentally or socially disruptive. On an individual household basis, single turbines are the probably the only economically feasible route (but can have high paybacks and is one of the most efficient methods of renewable energy production). It is more common for an eco-village to use this method rather than a singular household.[49]

Geothermal energy production involves harnessing the hot water or steam below the earth’s surface, in reservoirs, to produce energy. Because the hot water or steam that is used is reinjected back into the reservoir, this source is considered sustainable. However, those that plan on getting their electricity from this source should be aware that there is controversy over the lifespan of each geothermal reservoir as some believe that their lifespans are naturally limited (they cool down over time, making geothermal energy production there eventually impossible). This method is often large scale as the system required to harness geothermal energy can be complex and requires deep drilling equipment. There do exist small individual scale geothermal operations, however, which harness reservoirs very close to the Earth’s surface, avoiding the need for extensive drilling and sometimes even taking advantage of lakes or ponds where there is already a depression. In this case, the heat is captured and sent to a geothermal heat pumpW system located inside the shelter or facility that needs it (oftentimes, this heat is used directly to warm a greenhouse during the colder months).[53] Although geothermal energy is available everywhere on Earth, practicality and cost-effectiveness varies, directly related to the depth required to reach reservoirs. Places such as the Philippines, Hawaii, Alaska, Iceland, California, and Nevada have geothermal reservoirs closer to the Earth’s surface, making its production cost-effective.[52]

Biomass power is created when any biological matter is burned as fuel. As with the case of using green materials in a household, it is best to use as much locally available material as possible so as to reduce the carbon footprint created by transportation. Although burning biomass for fuel releases carbon dioxideW, sulfur compounds, and nitrogen compounds into the atmosphere, a major concern in a sustainable lifestyle, the amount that is released is sustainable (it will not contribute to a rise in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere). This is because the biological matter that is being burned releases the same amount of carbon dioxide that it consumed during its lifetime.[49][52] However, burning biodieselW and bioethanol (see biofuelW) when created from virgin material, is increasingly controversial and may or may not be considered sustainable because it inadvertently increases global poverty, the clearing of more land for new agriculture fields (the source of the biofuel is also the same source of food), and may use unsustainable growing methods (such as the use of environmentally harmful pesticides and fertilizers).[49][55][52]

List of organic matter than can be burned for fuel[edit | edit source]

  • StoverW
  • Straw
  • Used vegetable oil
  • Wood

Digestion of organic material to produce methane is becoming an increasingly popular method of biomass energy production. Materials such as waste sludge can be digested to release methane gas that can then be burnt to produce electricity. Methane gas is also a natural by-product of landfills, full of decomposing waste, and can be harnessed here to produce electricity as well. The advantage in burning methane gas is that is prevents the methane from being released into the atmosphere, exacerbating the greenhouse effect. Although this method of biomass energy production is typically large scale (done in landfills), it can be done on a smaller individual or community scale as well.[52]

Health and Safety[edit | edit source]

Waste[edit | edit source]

As populations and resource demands climb, waste production contributes to emissionsW of carbon dioxideW, leaching of hazardous materials into the soil and waterways, and methaneW emissions. In America alone, over the course of a decade, 500 trillion pounds of American resources will have been transformed into nonproductive wastes and gases.[56] Thus, a crucial component of sustainable living is being waste conscious. One can do this by reducing waste, reusing commodities, and recycling.

There are a number of ways to reduce waste in sustainable living. One method is reducing paper waste, such as by taking action to cancel junk mail and move paper transactions to an online document. Another method to reduce waste is to buy in bulk, which reduces packaging materials. Preventing food waste is an alternative to organic waste compiling to create costly methane emissions. Food waste can be reintegrated into the environment through compostingW. Composting can be carried out at home or locally, with community composting. An additional example of how to reduce waste is being cognizant of not buying materials with limited use in excess, such as paint. Reduction aides in reducing the toxicity of waste if non-hazardous or less hazardous items are selected.[57]

By reusing materials, one lives sustainably by not contributing to the addition of waste to landfills. Reuse saves natural resourcesW by decreasing the necessity of raw materialW extraction. RecyclingW, a process that breaks down used items into raw materials in order to make new materials, is a particularly useful means of contributing to the renewal of goods. Recycling incorporates three primary processes; collection and processing, manufacturing, and purchasing recycled products.[58] An offshoot of recycling, upcyclingW, strives to convert a material into something of similar or greater value in its second life.[59] By integrating measures of reusing, reducing, and recycling one can effectively reduce production of waste and use materials in a sustainable manner.

Transport[edit | edit source]

With rising peak oilW concerns, climate warmingW exacerbated by carbon emissionsW and high energy prices, the conventional automobile industryW is becoming less and less feasible to the conversation of sustainability. Revisions of urban transportW systems that foster mobility, low-cost transportation and healthier urban environments are needed. Such urban transport systems should consist of a combination of rail transportW, bus transportW, bicycleW pathways and pedestrianW walkwaysW. Public transport systems such as underground rail systems and bus transit systems shift huge numbers of people away from reliance on car mobilizationW and dramatically reduce the rate of carbon emissions caused by automobile transport.[60] CarpoolingW is another alternative for reducing oil consumption and carbon emissions by transit.

In comparison with automobiles, bicycles are a paradigm of energy efficient personal transportation. Bicycles increase mobility while alleviating congestionW, lowering airW and noise pollutionW, and increasing physical exerciseW. Most importantly, they do not emit climate-disturbing carbon dioxideW.[60] Bike-sharingW programs are beginning to boom throughout the world and are modeled in leading cities such as ParisW, AmsterdamW and LondonW. Bike-sharing programs offer kiosksW and docking stations that supply hundreds to thousands of bikes for rental throughout a city through small deposits or affordable memberships.

A recent boom has occurred in electric bikesW especially in China and other Asian countries. Electric bikes are similar to plug-in hybridW vehicles in that they are battery powered and can be plugged into the provincial electric gridW for recharging as needed. In contrast to plug-in hybrid cars, electric bikes do not directly use any fossil fuelsW. Adequate sustainable urban transportation is dependent upon proper city infrastructureW and planning that incorporates efficient public transit along with bicycle and pedestrian-friendly pathways.[61]

Water[edit | edit source]

A major factor of sustainable living involves that which no human can live without, waterW. Unsustainable water usage has far reaching implications for humankind. Currently, humans use one-fourth of the earth’s total water in natural circulation, and over half the accessible runoffW.[62] Additionally, population growthW and water demand is ever increasing. Thus, it is necessary to use available water more efficiently. In sustainable living, one can use water more sustainably through a series of simple, everyday measures. These measures involve considering indoor home applianceW efficiency, outdoor water use, and daily water use awareness.

Indoor home appliances[edit | edit source]

Housing and commercial buildingsW account for 12 percent of America’s freshwater withdrawals.[62] A typical American single family home uses about 70 gallons per person per day indoors.[62] This usage can be reduced by simple alterations in behavior and upgrades to applianceW quality.

Toilets[edit | edit source]

ToiletsW account for almost 30% of residential indoor water use in the United States.[63] One flush of a standard US toilet requires more water than most individuals, and many families, in the world use for all their needs in an entire day.[64] A home’s toilet water sustainability can be improved in one of two ways: improving the current toilet or installing a more efficient toilet. To improve the current toilet, one possible method is to put weighted plastic bottles in the toilet tank. Also, there are inexpensive tank banks or float booster available for purchase. A tank bank is a plastic bag to be filled with water and hung in the toilet tank. A float booster attaches underneath the float ball of pre-1986 three and a half gallon capacity toilets. It allows these toilets to operate at the same valve and float setting but significantly reduces their water level, saving between one and one and a third gallons of water per flush. A major waste of water in existing toilets is leaks. A slow toilet leak is undetectable to the eye, but can waste hundreds of gallons each month. One way to check this is to put food dye in the tank, and to see if the water in the toilet bowl turns the same color. In the event of a leaky flapper, one can replace it with an adjustable toilet flapper, which allows self adjustment of the amount of water per flush.

If installing a new toilet there are a number of options to obtain the most water efficient model. A low flush toiletW uses one to two gallons per flush. Traditionally, toilets use three to five gallons per flush. If an eighteen liter per flush toilet is removed and a six liter per flush toilet is put in its place, 70% of the water flushed will be saved while the overall indoor water usage by will be reduced by 30%.[65] It is possible to have a toilet that uses no water. A composting toiletW treats human waste through compostingW and dehydrationW, producing a valuable soil additive.[66] These toilets feature a two-compartment bowl to separate urine from feces. The urine can be collected or sold as fertilizer. The feces can be dried and bagged or composted. These toilets cost scarcely more than regularly installed toilets and do not require a sewer hookup. In addition to providing valuable fertilizer, these toilets are highly sustainable because they save sewage collection and treatment, as well as lessen agricultural costs and improve topsoilW.

Additionally, one can reduce toilet water sustainability by limiting total toilet flushing. For instance, instead of flushing small wastes, such as tissues, one can dispose of these items using alternate measures.

Showers[edit | edit source]

On average, showers are 18% of indoor water use, at 6-8 gallons per minute traditionally in America.[63] A simple method to reduce this usage is to switch to low-flow, high-performance showerheads. These showerheads use only 1.0-1.5 gpm or less. An alternative to replacing the showerhead is to install a converter. This device arrests a running shower upon reaching the desired temperature. Solar water heaters can be used to obtain optimal water temperature, and are more sustainable because they reduce dependence on fossil fuels. To lessen excess water usage, water pipes can be insulated with pre-slit foam pipe insulation. This insulation decreases hot water generation time. A simple, straightforward method to conserve water when showering is to take shorter showers. One method to accomplish this is to turn off the water when it is not necessary (such as while lathering) and resuming the shower when water is necessary.

Dishwasher/Sinks[edit | edit source]

On average, sinks are 15% of indoor water use.[63] There are, however, easy methods to rectify excessive water loss. Available for purchase is a screw-on aerator. This device works by combining water with air thus generating a frothy substance that has more moisture and reduces water usage by half. Additionally, there is a flip-valve available that allows flow to be turned off and back on at the previously reached temperature. Finally, a laminar flow device creates a 1.5-2.4 gpm stream of water that reduces water usage by half, but can be turned to normal water level when optimal. In addition to buying the above devices, one can live more sustainably by checking sinks for leaks, and fixing these links if they exist. According to the EPA, "A small drip from a worn faucet washer can waste 20 gallons of water per day, while larger leaks can waste hundreds of gallons":[63] When using a sink, being more aware of water usage is a very simple way to use water more sustainably. For instance, when washing dishes by hand, it is not necessary to leave the water running for rinsing. It is more sustainable to rinse dishes simultaneously. On average, dishwashing consumes 1% of indoor water use.[63] When using a dishwasherW, water can be conserved by only running the machine when it is completely full. Additionally, it can be set to Lowflow setting, in order to use less water per wash cycle. The enzymatic detergentsW available clean dishes more efficiently and more successfully with a smaller amount of water at a lower temperature.

Washing machines[edit | edit source]

On average, 23% of indoor water use is due to clothes washing.[63] In contrast to other machines, American washing machinesW have changed little to become more sustainable. A typical washing machine has a vertical-axis design, in which clothes are agitated in a tubful of water. Horizontal-axis machines, in contrast, put less water into the bottom of the rub and rotate clothes through it. These machines are more efficient in terms of soap usage and clothing stability.

Outdoor water usage[edit | edit source]

There are a number of ways one can incorporate a personal yardW, roofW, and gardenW in more sustainable living. While conserving water is a major element of sustainability, so is sequestering water.

Conserving Water[edit | edit source]

In planning a yard and garden space, it is most sustainable to consider the plants, soil, and available water. Drought resistant shrubs, plants, and grasses require a smaller amount of water in comparison to more traditional species. Additionally, native plants (as opposed to herbaceous perennials) will use a smaller supply of water and have a heightened resistance to plant diseases of the area. XeriscapeW, a system that accounts for endemic features such as slopeW, soil typeW, and native plantW range, can reduce landscape water use by 50 – 70%, while providing habitatW space for wildlife. By planting slopes one can reduce runoffW. Grouping plants by watering needs further reduces water waste.

After planting, placing a circumference of mulchW surrounding plants functions to lessen evaporationW. To do this, firmly press two to four inches of organic matter along the plant's dripline. This prevents water runoffW. When watering, consider the range of sprinklers; watering paved areas is unnecessary. Additionally, to conserve the maximum amount of water, watering should be carried out during early mornings on non-windy days in order to reduce water loss to evaporation. Drip-irrigation systems and soaker hoses are a more sustainable alternative to the traditional sprinkler system. Drip-irrigation systems employ small gaps at standard distances in a hose, leading to the slow trickle of water droplets which percolate the soil over a protracted period. These systems use 30 – 50% less water than conventional methods.[67] Soaker hoses help to reduce water use by up to 90%.[68] They connect to a garden hose and lay along the row of plants under a layer of mulch. A layer of organic materialW added to the soil helps to increase its absorption and water retention; previously planted areas can be covered with compostW.

In caring for a lawn, there are a number of measures that can increase the sustainability of lawn maintenance techniques. A primary aspect of lawn care is watering. In order to conserve water, it is important to only water when necessary, and to deep soak when watering. Additionally, a lawn may be left to go dormant, renewing after a dry spell to its original vitality.

Sequestering Water[edit | edit source]

A common method of water sequestrations is rainwater harvestingW, which incorporates the collection and storage of rain. Primarily, the rain is obtained from a roof, and stored on the ground in catchment tanks. Water sequestration varies based on extent, cost, and complexity. A simple method involves a single barrel at the bottom of a downspout, while a more complex method involves multiple tanks. It is highly sustainable to use stored water in place of purified water for activities such as irrigation and flushing toilets. Additionally, using stored rainwater reduces the amount of runoff pollutionW, picked up from roofs and pavements that would normally enter streams through storm drains. The following equation can be used to estimate annual water supply:

Collection area (square feet) x Rainfall (inch/year) / 12 (inch/foot) = Cubic Feet of Water/Year

Cubic Feet/Year x 7.43 (Gallons/Cubic Foot) = Gallons/year

Note, however, this calculation does not account for losses such as evaporation or leakage.[69]

Greywater systems function in sequestering used indoor water, such as laundry, bath and sink water, and filtering it for reuse. GreywaterW can be reused in irrigationW and toilet flushing. There are two types of greywater systems: gravity fed manual systems and package systems.[70] The manual systems do not require electricity but may require a larger yard space.[70] The package systems require electricity but are self-contained and can be installed indoors.[70]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

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External links[edit | edit source]

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