Open-Source Lab, 1st Edition: How to Build Your Own Hardware and Reduce Research Costs[edit | edit source]
- written by Appropedia user J.M. Pearce
- J.M. Pearce, Open-Source Lab: How to Build Your Own Hardware and Reduce Research Costs, Elsevier, 2013.
- ISBN: 9780124104624
- 2016 Open source lab equipment interview on Radio New Zealand - Ogg,MP3
- Elsevier has made this chapter freely available for one year, until November 20, 2020: Open-Source Lab: How to Build Your Own Hardware and Reduce Research Costs.
Free content[edit | edit source]
This guide details the development of the free and open-source hardware revolution and provides you with step-by-step instructions on building your own laboratory hardware.
In the first two chapters displayed here, the author defines the basic terms of open-source software and discusses the rise of the open-source hardware revolution and how it impacts science before exploring five pragmatic advantages to joining the open-source scientific community for both your research in general, and most importantly, your equipment and instrumentation.
Key Features[edit | edit source]
- Numerous examples of technologies and the open-source user and developer communities that support them
- Instructions on how to take advantage of digital design sharing
- Explanations of Arduinos and RepRaps for scientific use
- A detailed guide to open-source hardware licenses and basic principles of intellectual property
Description[edit | edit source]
Open-Source Lab: How to Build Your Own Hardware and Reduce Scientific Research Costs details the development of the free and open-source hardware revolution. The combination of open-source 3D printing and open-source microcontrollers running on free software enables scientists, engineers, and lab personnel in every discipline to develop powerful research tools at unprecedented low costs.
After reading Open-Source Lab, you will be able to:
- Lower equipment costs by making your own hardware
- Build open-source hardware for scientific research
- Actively participate in a community in which scientific results are more easily replicated and cited
Examples[edit | edit source]
See also graphical abstract gallery of HardwareX
Open source scientific hardware is open source hardware used by scientists to do research or for education. This gallery and associated sub-pages are an extension of the book the Open Source Lab, which is about how to make scientific equipment following open source principles. Click on the hyperlinks under the images in this index to go to pages with hundreds of examples.
- Open-source scientific hardware collections and resources
NIH 3D Print Exchange - 3D-printable Custom Labware
3D printable science equipment - 3D print your lab
3D printable science equipment page 2 - more 3D prints for your lab
3D printable science equipment page 3 - and even more
Open Source Optics Library - and your optics lab
Michigan Tech's Open Sustainability Technology Lab's efforts in open source hardware
Open-source syringe pump - Parametric library of web-controlled open-source syringe pumps
GaudiLabs- Swiss Fab Lab making low cost lab instruments
OpenTrons - Open source fluid handling
Plasmatron - OpenTrons derivative for semi-automated culture of malaria parasites
IOrodeo - company making open source science instruments
Cambridge JIC - 3D printable programmable digital microscope
Open Source Imaging, NMR, MRI, EMF
Open Behavior FOSH for animal behavior and cognition
Openly Published Environmental Sensing Lab at OSU- rain catchment, wind vane, soil moisture, etc.
Arduino - a class of open source microcontrollers useful for automating equipment
Red Pitaya - open source measurement and control tool
OpenLabTools - University of Cambridge initiative in open source hardware for science
Tekla Lab - Berkley's initiative for a library of open source DIY quality scientific lab equipment
Sensorica - an Open Value Network providing sensing and automation solutions.
Hackteria - webplatform and collection of Open Source Biological Art Projects
Open Solar Outdoors Test Field - Solar photovoltaic testing
Open Source Physiology Lab- 3D printing physiology equipment
open ephys works on open-source electrophysiology
Backyard Brains - neuroscience experiment kits for DIY electrophysiology
- DSTat - OS potentiostat
Table of Contents[edit | edit source]
- Introduction to Open-Source Hardware for Science
- The Benefits of Sharing - Nice Guys and Girls Do Finish First
- Open Licensing - Advanced Sharing
- Open-Source Microcontrollers for Science: How to Use, Design Automated Equipment with, and Troubleshoot
- RepRap for Science: How to Use, Design, and Troubleshoot the Self-Replicating 3-D Printer
- Digital Designs and Scientific Hardware
- OpenSCAD, RepRap, and Arduino Microcontrollers
- Physics: Open-Source Optics
- Engineering: Open-Source Laser Welder, Radiation Detection, and Oscilloscopes
- Environmental Science: Open-Source Colorimeter and pH Meter
- Biology: OpenPCR, Open-Source Centrifuges and More
- Chemistry: Open-Source Spectrometers and Other Chemical Research Tools
- The Future of Open-Source Hardware and Science
See also[edit | edit source]
- Quantifying the Value of Open Source Hardware Development
- Return on Investment for Open Source Hardware Development
- Building research equipment with free, open-source hardware
- Open-source colorimeter
- Open-source 3D-printable optics equipment
- Open source science
- Open source 3-D printing of OSAT
- Category:Open source optics
- Free and open-source automated 3-D microscope
- Open-source hardware
- Belt-Driven Open Source Circuit Mill Using Low-Cost 3-D Printer Components
- Open-source hardware for science in Ecuador
External Links with Open Hardware for Science[edit | edit source]
- Open Source Toolkit Channel on PLOS One
- Tekla Labs - Tekla Labs is creating a library of open source DIY (do-it-yourself) documents that guide in the construction of quality lab equipment.
- Open Source Physiology Lab - this site is devoted to the collaboration and development of 3D printing physiology equipment
- Open Lab Tools - U. of Cambridge - created open source microscope prototype that cost around US$800, whereas conventional microscopes cost between US$15,000 and US$80,000 
- Open Neuroscience
- Backyard Brains micromanipulator
- MyMiniFactory 3D printable Lab Equipment
- Hackteria and more specific on Generic Laboratory Infrastructure
- Gnome X Scanning Microscopy
- Open Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy (SPIM)
- 3D printed scientific equipment in Africa- “TReND in Africa” (Teaching and Research in Neuroscience for Development) is a higher education charity dedicated to improving university level science education and research in sub-Saharan Africa.
- 50 Cent origami microscope
- open-ephys - open-source electrophysiology
- smart phone to microscope with inexpensive lens
- Nature Methods editorial on OSH
- Labrigger - Labrigger is a source for open solutions for research. Their goal is to accelerate and enable research by reducing the duplication of effort by multiple labs, and offering alternatives to expensive lab equipment.
- Klavins lab open-source mixture controlled turbidostat - University of Washington synthetic biology
- From Jim Haseloff lab:
|Open-source Optical Microscope|
|Open Lab Tools Initiative at the University of Cambridge, UK|
- NIH's 3d printable category for custom scientific labware
- Smoky Mountain Scientific - develops and sells modular, Low cost, open-source instrumentation for electrochemistry, fluidics, and datalogging
- From Gongkai to Open Source - Bunnie studios blog on Chinese views of IP
- Experimenting with open science: Open source in the field and in the lab - Free E-book at Opensource.com
- Open Neuroscience
- openMicroanalysis is a community-driven open source project quantitative electron microanalysis. See: discussion forum. Its goals are to:
- centralize physical quantity databases and algorithms used for quantification
- encourage collaborative work
- provide the necessary building blocks for new projects in microanalysis
- https://open.nasa.gov/ (only software now)
- OS Rodent Operant Bucket
- PLOS Blog - with good list of OS toolkits
- Open and Collaborative Science in Development
- The Cave Pearl Project -uses easy to build Arduino data loggers for hydrology research
- Warwick Open Source Microscope: http://wosmic.org/
- Baden and Chagas' collection at PLOS: http://collections.plos.org/open-source-toolkit-hardware
- OpenFlexure Microscope documented at http://docubricks.com/
- Institute for Development of Advanced Applied Systems and https://github.com/IRNAS/OpenSourceLabEquipment
- Metafluidics - Metafluidics was built to provide a home for digital design files and all of the other information necessary to reproduce or remix a microfluidic device.
- UBORA - The Biomedical engineering open design platform
- Lab on the Cheap
- Australian Centre of Excellence - clip on smartphone 3DP microscope 
- Our Sci
Supporting publications and examples in the peer-reviewed literature[edit | edit source]
Now there are even journals fully dedicated to open hardware:
- HardwareX - Elsevier (started 2016). See HardwareX Gallery on Appropedia
- Journal of Open Hardware- Ubiquity Press starting 2017
MOST Group[edit | edit source]
- Pearce, Joshua M. 2012. Building Research Equipment with Free, Open-Source Hardware. Science 337 (6100): 1303–1304. DOI: 10.1126/science.1228183
- Pearce, J.M. (2015) Quantifying the Value of Open Source Hardware Development. Modern Economy, 6, 1-11. doi: 10.4236/me.2015.61001.Free open access to the full text
- Joshua M. Pearce. (2015) Return on Investment for Open Source Hardware Development. Science and Public Policy. DOI :10.1093/scipol/scv034 open access
- Pearce, Joshua M. 2013. Free Innovation Accelerator, Analytical Scientist, Issue #1113, Article #303, December 17th, 2013.
- Pearce, J.M., 2014. Laboratory equipment: Cut costs with open-source hardware. Nature 505, 618. doi:10.1038/505618d
- Joshua M. Pearce "Bone replacements and heart monitors spur health revolution in open source 3D printing" The Conversation, Feb 28, 2014. Reprinted: Live Science
- Joshua Pearce Benjamin Franklin would be proud: hundreds of open-source hardware designs for scientific equipment proliferate - SciTech Connect, June 9, 2014.
- J.M. Pearce, “Commentary: Open-source hardware for research and education”, Physics Today 66(11), 8 (2013); doi: 10.1063/PT.3.2160
- J.M. Pearce, 3D-printing your lab equipment—it’s cheaper than you think - Elsevier Connect, 2013.
- Zhang C, Anzalone NC, Faria RP, Pearce JM (2013) Open-Source 3D-Printable Optics Equipment. PLoS ONE 8(3): e59840. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059840 open access
- Anzalone GC, Glover AG, Pearce JM. Open-Source Colorimeter. Sensors. 2013; 13(4):5338-5346. doi:10.3390/s130405338 open access
- Joshua M. Pearce, Share, and We All Grow Richer, The Analytical Scientist, Issue #0213, Article #301 (2013).
- Bas Wijnen, Emily J. Hunt, Gerald C. Anzalone, Joshua M. Pearce, 2014. Open-source Syringe Pump Library, PLoS ONE 9(9): e107216. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0107216 open access
- Joshua Pearce, Guest Blog: Circumventing Science Lab Budget Cuts with Open-Source Hardware. Sparkfun Education Blog. January 23, 2015. Joshua Pearce on Open Hardware for Education --Oomlout
- Joshua M. Pearce. Buckle up for fast-tracked science thanks to open-source hardware. Engineering for Change. June 8, 2015.
- Joshua M. Pearce. Science for All: How to Make Free, Open Source Laboratory Hardware, Scientific American Blog. Dec. 4, 2015.
- Karankumar C. Dhankani, Joshua M. Pearce. Open Source Laboratory Sample Rotator Mixer and Shaker. HardwareX 1, pp.1-12 (2017). doi:j.ohx.2016.07.001 open access
- Oberloier, S. and Pearce, J.M. General Design Procedure for Free and Open-Source Hardware for Scientific Equipment. Designs 2018, 2(1), 2; doi:10.3390/designs2010002 open access
External Publications[edit | edit source]
- Moritz, M., Redlich, T., Günyar, S., Winter, L. and Wulfsberg, J.P., 2019. On the Economic Value of Open Source Hardware – Case Study of an Open Source Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scanner. Journal of Open Hardware, 3(1), p.2. DOI: http://doi.org/10.5334/joh.14 Valuation of FOSH
- Berg, D.R. and Niemeyer, K.E., 2018. The case for openness in engineering research. F1000Research, 7. -- list of reason OS in engineering research is GOODhttps://f1000research.com/articles/7-501
- Baden, T., Chagas, A. M., Gage, G., Marzullo, T., Prieto-Godino, L. L., & Euler, T. (2015). Open Labware: 3-D Printing Your Own Lab Equipment. PLOS Biology, 13(3). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002086 http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1002086
- Booeshaghi, A.S., da Veiga Beltrame, E., Bannon, D., Gehring, J. and Pachter, L., 2019. Principles of open source bioinstrumentation applied to the poseidon syringe pump system. Scientific Reports, 9(1), pp.1-8. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-48815-9
- Guver, A., Fifita, N., Milas, P., Straker, M., Guy, M., Green, K., Yildirim, T., Unlu, I., Yigit, V. and Ozturk, B., 2019. A low-cost and high-precision scanning electrochemical microscope built with open source tools. BioRxiv, p.645283.
- Drack, M., Hartmann, F., Bauer, S. and Kaltenbrunner, M., 2018. The importance of open and frugal labware. Nature Electronics, 1(9), p.484.
- Siano, G.G., Montemurro, M., Alcaráz, M.R. and Goicoechea, H.C., 2017. Open-Source Assisted Laboratory Automation through Graphical User Interfaces and 3D Printers: Application to Equipment Hyphenation for Higher-Order Data Generation. Analytical Chemistry, 89(20), pp.10667-10672. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.analchem.7b02758
- Niezen, G., Eslambolchilar, P. and Thimbleby, H., 2016. Open-source hardware for medical devices. BMJ Innovations, pp.bmjinnov-2015. 
- Fichou, D. and Morlock, G.E., 2017. Open-source-based 3D printing of thin silica gel layers in planar chromatography. Analytical Chemistry.
- Salazar-Serrano, L.J., Valencia, A. and Torres, J.P., 2016. A 3D Printed Toolbox for Opto-Mechanical Components. arXiv preprint arXiv:1606.09563. 
- Mista, C., Zalazar, M., Peñalva, A., Martina, M. and Reta, J.M., 2016, April. Open Source Quartz Crystal Microbalance with dissipation monitoring. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 705, No. 1, p. 012008). IOP Publishing.
- Coakley, M. and Hurt, D.E., 2016. 3D Printing in the Laboratory Maximize Time and Funds with Customized and Open-Source Labware. Journal of laboratory automation, p.2211068216649578.
- Sharkey et al., A one-piece 3D printed microscope and flexure translation stage. arXiv:1509.05394 [physics] (2015) http://arxiv.org/abs/1509.05394
- Stadler, P., Farnleitner, A.H. and Zessner, M., 2017. Development and evaluation of a self-cleaning custom-built auto sampler controlled by a low-cost RaspberryPi microcomputer for online enzymatic activity measurements. Talanta, 162, pp.390-397.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2016.10.031
- Barber et al., The Gray Institute “open” high-content, fluorescence lifetime microscopes. Journal of Microscopy. 251, 154–167 (2013). http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jmi.12057 group webpage with more info: http://users.ox.ac.uk/~atdgroup/optical_microscopy.shtml
- Damase TR, Stephens D, Spencer A, Allen PB. Open source and DIY hardware for DNA nanotechnology labs. J Biol Methods 2015;2(3):e24. doi: 10.14440/jbm.2015.72
- L. K. Wolf, 3D printers move into research labs. Chemical & Engineering News, 91, 44-45, 2013.
- Hang Qu, Tiberius Brastaviceanu, Francois Bergeron, Jonathan Olesik, Ivan Pavlov, Takaaki Ishigure, and Maksim Skorobogatiy, Photonic bandgap Bragg fiber sensors for bending-displacement detection, 6344 APPLIED OPTICS, Vol. 52, No. 25, 1 September 2013
- Carvalho, M. C., & Eyre, B. D. (2013). A low cost, easy to build, portable, and universal autosampler for liquids. Methods in Oceanography, 8, 23-32.
- Lücking, T. H., Sambale, F., Beutel, S., & Scheper, T. (2014). 3D‐printed individual labware in biosciences by rapid prototyping: A proof of principle. Engineering in Life Sciences.
- Gross, B. C., Erkal, J. L., Lockwood, S. Y., Chen, C., & Spence, D. M. (2014). Evaluation of 3d printing and its potential impact on biotechnology and the chemical sciences. Analytical chemistry, 86(7), 3240-3253.
- Harnett, C. (2011). Open source hardware for instrumentation and measurement. Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine, IEEE, 14(3), 34-38.
- Maldonado-Torres, M., López-Hernández, J. F., Jiménez-Sandoval, P., & Winkler, R. (2014). ‘Plug and Play’assembly of a low-temperature plasma ionization mass spectrometry imaging (LTP-MSI) system. Journal of proteomics, 102, 60-65.
- Urban, Pawel L. "Open-Source Electronics As a Technological Aid in Chemical Education." Journal of Chemical Education (2014).
- Kelley, C. D., Krolick, A., Brunner, L., Burklund, A., Kahn, D., Ball, W. P., & Weber-Shirk, M. (2014). An Affordable Open-Source Turbidimeter. Sensors, 14(4), 7142-7155.
- Kitson, P. J., Symes, M. D., Dragone, V., & Cronin, L. (2013). Combining 3D printing and liquid handling to produce user-friendly reactionware for chemical synthesis and purification. Chemical Science, 4(8), 3099-3103.
- Ting, H., Hu, J. B., Hsieh, K. T., & Urban, P. L. (2014). A pinch-valve interface for automated sampling and monitoring of dynamic processes by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Analytical Methods.
- Herrmann, K. H., Gärtner, C., Güllmar, D., Krämer, M., & Reichenbach, J. R. (2014). 3D printing of MRI compatible components: Why every MRI research group should have a low-budget 3D printer. Medical engineering & physics. Volume 36, Issue 10, October 2014, Pages 1373–1380.
- Koenka, I. J., Sáiz, J., & Hauser, P. C. (2014). Instrumentino: An open-source modular Python framework for controlling Arduino based experimental instruments. Computer Physics Communications. Volume 185, Issue 10, October 2014, Pages 2724–2729. Instrumentino project page
- Gopalakrishnan, M., & Gühr, M. (2013). A low-cost mirror mount control system for optics setups. arXiv preprint arXiv:1312.6557.
- Su, C. K., Hsia, S. C., & Sun, Y. C. (2014). Three-Dimensional printed sample load/inject valves enabling online monitoring of extracellular calcium and zinc ions in living rat brains. Analytica chimica acta.
- Wittbrodt, J. N., Liebel, U., & Gehrig, J. (2014). Generation of orientation tools for automated zebrafish screening assays using desktop 3D printing. BMC biotechnology, 14(1), 36.
- Leigh, S. J., Purssell, C. P., Billson, D. R., & Hutchins, D. A. (2014). Using a magnetite/thermoplastic composite in 3D printing of direct replacements for commercially available flow sensors. Smart Materials and Structures, 23(9), 095039.
- Open Science at RQEMP - by Tiberius Brastaviceanu
- Chiu, S. H., & Urban, P. L. (2014). Robotics-Assisted mass spectrometry assay platform Enabled by Open-Source Electronics. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Volume 64, 15 February 2015, Pages 260–268.
- Chemin, Y., Sanjaya, N., & Liyanage, P. K. N. C. (2014, September). An Open Source Hardware & Software Online Raingauge for Real-Time Monitoring of Rainwater Harvesting in Sri Lanka. In Symposium on Mainstreaming Rainwater Harvesting as a Water Supply Option (p. 13).
- Ham, J. M. (2013, December). Using Arduinos and 3D-printers to build research-grade weather stations and environmental sensors. In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts (Vol. 1, p. 1573).
- Xabier E. Barandiaran, Daniel Araya. Stream 1: Human Capabilities Policy Doc ID: 1.2 ScienceFree/Libre, Open, Commons and Collaborative Science Buen Conocer - FLOK Society v. 0.9.302/08/2014
- Resnick, M., Berg, R., & Eisenberg, M. (2000). Beyond black boxes: Bringing transparency and aesthetics back to scientific investigation. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 9(1), 7-30. (nice account of the art behind making equipment - then tied to STEM education)
- Koenka, I. J., Sáiz, J., & Hauser, P. C. (2015). Instrumentino: An Open-Source Software for Scientific Instruments. CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry, 69(4), 172-175.
- Bullmann, T., Arendt, T., Frey, U., & Hanashima, C. (2015). A transportable, inexpensive electroporator for in utero electroporation. Development, growth & differentiation.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/dgd.12216/full
- Kuat Telegenov, Yedige Tlegenov and Almas Shintemirov. A Low-Cost Open-Source 3D-Printed Three-Finger Gripper Platform for Research and Educational Purposes. IEEE Access. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=7109102
- Schausberger, S., Kaltseis, R., Drack, M., Cakmak, U., Major, Z., & Bauer, S. Cost-Efficient Open Source Desktop Size Radial Stretching System With Force Sensor. http://imechanica.org/files/RSS_LQ.pdf
- Desai, A., Krynitsky, J., Pohida, T.J., Zhao, H. and Schuck, P., 2016. 3D-Printing for Analytical Ultracentrifugation. arXiv preprint arXiv:1602.07181.http://arxiv.org/pdf/1602.07181
- Sharing blueprints for better research. Nature Methods 10, 591 (2013) doi:10.1038/nmeth.2554 http://www.nature.com/nmeth/journal/v10/n7/full/nmeth.2554.html
- Promoting shared hardware design. http://blogs.nature.com/methagora/2013/06/promoting-shared-hardware-design.html
- Moser, R., Kettlgruber, G., Siket, C.M., Drack, M., Graz, I.M., Cakmak, U., Major, Z., Kaltenbrunner, M. and Bauer, S., 2016. From Playroom to Lab: Tough Stretchable Electronics Analyzed with a Tabletop Tensile Tester Made from Toy‐Bricks. Advanced Science. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/advs.201500396/abstract
- Schausberger, S.E., Kaltseis, R., Drack, M., Cakmak, U.D., Major, Z. and Bauer, S., 2015. Cost-efficient open source desktop size radial stretching system with force sensor. IEEE Access, 3, pp.556-561.http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp
- A. Zwicker, J. Bloom, R. Albertson, and S. Gershman, ‘‘The suitability of 3D printed plastic parts for laboratory use,’’Bull. Amer.Phys. Soc., vol. 59, no. 15, p. 281, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.4900746
- Maia, M.R., Marques, S., Cabrita, A.R., Wallace, R.J., Thompson, G., Fonseca, A.J. and Oliveira, H.M., 2016. Simple and Versatile Turbidimetric Monitoring of Bacterial Growth in Liquid Cultures Using a Customized 3D Printed Culture Tube Holder and a Miniaturized Spectrophotometer: Application to Facultative and Strictly Anaerobic Bacteria. Frontiers in Microbiology, 7, p.1381. http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01381/full
- Philipp Frank, Sebastian Haefner, Martin Elstner and Andreas Richter. Fully-Programmable, Low-Cost, “Do-It-Yourself” Pressure Source for General Purpose Use in the Microfluidic Laboratory. Inventions 2016, 1, doi: 10.3390/inventions1020013
- Zhao, C., Wu, Q., Clancy, T. and Liu, X., 2016, November. A 3D-printed portable microindenter for mechanical characterization of soft materials. In Automation Science and Engineering (CASE), 2016 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 201-206). IEEE.
- Cappa, F., Del Sette, F., Hayes, D. and Rosso, F., 2016. How to Deliver Open Sustainable Innovation: An Integrated Approach for a Sustainable Marketable Product. Sustainability, 8(12), p.1341.http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/8/12/1341/htm (CellIntel- Forensic phone data)
- Gali, H., 2017. An Open-Source Automated Peptide Synthesizer Based on Arduino and Python. SLAS TECHNOLOGY: Translating Life Sciences Innovation, p.2472630316685844.
- Fichou, D. and Morlock, G.E., 2017. Open-source-based 3D printing of thin silica gel layers in planar chromatography. Analytical Chemistry.http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.analchem.6b04813
- Rosa, T.R., Betim, F.S. and de Queiroz Ferreira, R., 2017. Development and application of a labmade apparatus using open-source “arduino” hardware for the electrochemical pretreatment of boron-doped diamond electrodes. Electrochimica Acta. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2017.01.180
- Tothill, A.M., Partridge, M., James, S.W. and Tatam, R.P., 2017. Fabrication and optimisation of a fused filament 3D-printed microfluidic platform. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 27(3). 
- Stewart, C. and Giannini, J., Inexpensive, open source colorimeters that are easy to make and use. 
- Stewart, C. and Giannini, J., Insexpensive, open source spectrophotometers that use part of a CD or DVD as a diffraction grating. 
- Brennan, M., Bokhari, F. and Eddington, D., 2017. Open Design 3D-Printable Adjustable Micropipette that meets ISO Standard for Accuracy. bioRxiv, p.109231.
- Shukla, M.R., Singh, A.S., Piunno, K., Saxena, P.K. and Jones, A.M.P., 2017. Application of 3D printing to prototype and develop novel plant tissue culture systems. Plant Methods, 13(1), p.6. 
- Tebrean, B., Crisan, S., Muresan, C. and Crisan, T.E., 2017. Low Cost Command and Control System for Automated Infusion Devices. In International Conference on Advancements of Medicine and Health Care through Technology; 12th-15th October 2016, Cluj-Napoca, Romania (pp. 81-84). Springer, Cham. (based off of OS syringe pump)
- Lake JR, Heyde KC, Ruder WC (2017) Low-cost feedback-controlled syringe pressure pumps for microfluidics applications. PLoS ONE 12(4): e0175089. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0175089
- Dryden, M.D., Fobel, R., Fobel, C. and Wheeler, A.R., 2017. Upon the Shoulders of Giants: Open-Source Hardware and Software in Analytical Chemistry. Analytical Chemistry. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.analchem.7b00485
- Salamone, F., Danza, L., Meroni, I. and Pollastro, M.C., 2017. A Low-Cost Environmental Monitoring System: How to Prevent Systematic Errors in the Design Phase through the Combined Use of Additive Manufacturing and Thermographic Techniques. Sensors, 17(4), p.828. http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/17/4/828/htm
- Kim, H., Gerber, L.C., Chiu, D., Lee, S.A., Cira, N.J., Xia, S.Y. and Riedel-Kruse, I.H., 2016. LudusScope: Accessible Interactive Smartphone Microscopy for Life-Science Education. PloS one, 11(10), p.e0162602. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0162602
- Sato, K., Basher, S., Ota, T., Tase, T., Takamatsu, K., Saito, A., Khosla, A., Kawakami, M. and Furuawa, H., 2017, April. Development of low-cost open source 3D gel printer RepRap SWIM-ER. In SPIE Smart Structures and Materials+ Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring (pp. 101670B-101670B). International Society for Optics and Photonics.http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=2621675
- Maraba, D. and Bulur, E., 2017. Design and construction of an automated OSL reader with open source software and hardware. Radiation Measurements.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S135044871730286X
- Low-cost 3D printed 1 nm resolution smartphone sensor-based spectrometer: instrument design and application in ultraviolet spectroscopy. https://www.osapublishing.org/DirectPDFAccess/D0808F44-E342-59D9-4D149372ED5E83E3_375351/ol-42-21-4323.pdf?da=1&id=375351&seq=0&mobile=no
- Jose M. Nadal-Serrano, Adolfo Nadal-Serrano , Marisa Lopez-Vallejo. Democratizing science with the aid of parametric design and additive manufacturing: Design and fabrication of a versatile and low-cost optical instrument for scattering measurement http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0187219
- Nuñez I, Matute T, Herrera R, Keymer J, Marzullo T, et al. (2017) Low cost and open source multi-fluorescence imaging system for teaching and research in biology and bioengineering. PLOS ONE 12(11): e0187163. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0187163
- Dipova, N., 2017. DESIGN OF LOW COST AND INNOVATIVE DATA ACQUSITION IN SOIL MECHANICS TESTING USING OPEN SOURCE HARDWARE. The Eurasia Proceedings of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics, 1, pp.104-110. http://dergipark.gov.tr/epstem/issue/31865/364351
- Damase, T.R., Miura, T.A., Parent, C.E. and Allen, P.B., 2018. Application of the Open qPCR instrument for the in vitro selection of DNA aptamers against Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Drosophila C virus. ACS Combinatorial Science. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acscombsci.7b00138
- Martín-Garín, A., Millán-García, J.A., Baïri, A., Millán-Medel, J. and Sala-Lizarraga, J.M., 2018. Environmental monitoring system based on an Open Source Platform and the Internet of Things for a building energy retrofit. Automation in Construction, 87, pp.201-214.
- Philip J. Kitson, Guillaume Marie, Jean-Patrick Francoia, Sergey S. Zalesskiy, Ralph C. Sigerson, Jennifer S. Mathieson, Leroy Cronin. Digitization of multistep organic synthesis in reactionware for on-demand pharmaceuticals. Science 19 Jan 2018: Vol. 359, Issue 6373, pp. 314-319. DOI: 10.1126/science.aao3466
- Davis, E. J., Jones, M., Thiel, D. A., & Pauls, S. (2018). Using Open-Source, 3D Printable Optical Hardware To Enhance Student Learning in the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jchemed.7b00480
- Stephenson, W., Donlin, L. T., Butler, A., Rozo, C., Bracken, B., Rashidfarrokhi, A., ... & Darnell, R. B. (2018). Single-cell RNA-seq of rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue using low-cost microfluidic instrumentation. Nature Communications, 9(1), 791. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-017-02659-x
- Milanovic, J.Z., Milanovic, P., Kragic, R. and Kostic, M., 2018. " Do-It-Yourself" reliable pH-stat device by using open-source software, inexpensive hardware and available laboratory equipment. PloS one, 13(3), p.e0193744.http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0193744
- Molina-Cantero, A. J., Castro-García, J. A., Lebrato-Vázquez, C., Gómez-González, I. M., & Merino-Monge, M. (2018). Real-Time Processing Library for Open-Source Hardware Biomedical Sensors. Sensors, 18(4), 1033. http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/18/4/1033
- Lu, Q., Liu, G., Xiao, C., Hu, C., Zhang, S., Xu, R.X., Chu, K., Xu, Q. and Smith, Z.J., 2018. A modular, open-source, slide-scanning microscope for diagnostic applications in resource-constrained settings. PloS one, 13(3), p.e0194063. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194063
- Public Labs: Public Lab: Community-Based Approaches to Urban and Environmental Health and Justice 
- Urban, P.L., 2018. Prototyping Instruments for Chemical Laboratory Using Inexpensive Electronic Modules. Angewandte Chemie. https://doi.org/10.1002/ange.201803878
- Mercer, Conan, and Dónal Leech. "Cost-Effective Wireless Microcontroller for Internet Connectivity of Open-Source Chemical Devices." Journal of Chemical Education (2018). https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jchemed.8b00200
- Nandy, K., Collinson, D.W., Scheftic, C.M., Brinson, L.C., 2018. Open-source micro-tensile testers via additive manufacturing for the mechanical characterization of thin films and papers. PLOS ONE 13, e0197999. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0197999
- Godwin, L.W., Brown, D., Livingston, R., Webb, T., Karriem, L., Graugnard, E. and Estrada, D., 2018. Open-source automated chemical vapor deposition system for the production of two-dimensional nanomaterials. arXiv preprint arXiv:1807.03660. https://arxiv.org/abs/1807.03660 PLOS ONE https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210817
- Lopin, P. and Lopin, K.V., 2018. PSoC-Stat: A single chip open source potentiostat based on a Programmable System on a Chip. PloS one, 13(7), p.e0201353. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0201353
- Nguyen, T., Andreasen, S.Z., Wolff, A. and Bang, D.D., 2018. From Lab on a Chip to Point of Care Devices: The Role of Open Source Microcontrollers. Micromachines, 9.http://www.mdpi.com/2072-666X/9/8/403/pdf
- Sasidharan, K., Martinez-Vernon, A.S., Chen, J., Fu, T. and Soyer, O., 2018. A low-cost DIY device for high resolution, continuous measurement of microbial growth dynamics. bioRxiv, p.407742. https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2018/09/04/407742
- Kubáň, P., Foret, F. and Erny, G., Open source capillary electrophoresis. ELECTROPHORESIS. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/elps.201800304
- Damcı, E. and Şekerci, Ç., 2018. Development of a Low-Cost Single-Axis Shake Table Based on Arduino. Experimental Techniques, pp.1-20. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40799-018-0287-5
- Hussain, I. and Nath, P., 2018. Design of a 3D printed compact interferometric system and required phone application for small angular measurements. Review of Scientific Instruments, 89(10), p.103111. https://aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1063/1.5040189
- Bentancor, M. and Vidal, S., 2018. Programmable and low-cost ultraviolet room disinfection device. HardwareX, p.e00046. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ohx.2018.e00046
- Tonelli, Alessandro, Alessandro Candiani, Michele Sozzi, Andrea Zucchelli, Ruben Foresti, Chiara Dall’Asta, Stefano Selleri, and Annamaria Cucinotta. "The geek and the chemist: antioxidant capacity measurements by DPPH assay in beverages using open source tools, consumer electronics and 3D printing." Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical (2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2018.11.019
- Lawton, P.F., Lee, M.D., Saunter, C.D., Girkin, J.M., McCarron, J.G. and Wilson, C., 2019. VasoTracker, a low-cost and open source pressure myograph system for vascular physiology. Frontiers in physiology., 10, p.99.https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2019.00099/full
- Maurer, A., Bowden, G., Cotton, J., Parl, C., Krueger, M.A. and Pichler, B.J., 2018. Acetuino—A Handy Open-Source Radiochemistry Module for the Preparation of [1-11C] Acetate. SLAS TECHNOLOGY: Translating Life Sciences Innovation, p.2472630318812341.
- Booeshaghi, A.S., da Veiga Beltrame, E., Bannon, D., Gehring, J. and Pachter, L., 2019. Design principles for open source bioinstrumentation: the poseidon syringe pump system as an example. bioRxiv, p.521096.
- WICKERT, Andrew D., SANDELL, Chad T., SCHULZ, Bobby, et al. Open-source Arduino-compatible data loggers designed for field research. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 2019, vol. 23, no 4, p. 2065-2076. https://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/23/2065/2019/hess-23-2065-2019-assets.html
- Rawat, S., Komatsu, S., Markman, A., Anand, A., & Javidi, B. (2017). Compact and field-portable 3D printed shearing digital holographic microscope for automated cell identification. Applied optics, 56(9), D127-D133. https://www.osapublishing.org/ol/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-44-9-2326
- Mardonova, M. and Choi, Y., 2019. Toward Open-Source Hardware and Software for the Mining Industry: a Case Study of Low-Cost Environmental Monitoring System for Non-Metallic Underground Mines. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration, pp.1-18.
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- Bohm, A., 2019. AMi: a GUI-based, open-source system for imaging samples in multi-well plates. Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology Communications, 75(8), pp.531-536.
- Rosas-Román, I., Ovando-Vázquez, C., Moreno-Pedraza, A., Guillén-Alonso, H. and Winkler, R., 2019. Open LabBot and RmsiGUI: Community Development Kit for Sampling Automation and Ambient Imaging.
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Reviews[edit | edit source]
"This is a manual that every scientist should read and it holds a message so powerful and disruptive that the Anarchist Cookbook is a fairy tale in comparison." -- 3D Printing Industry
"Open-source and 3D printing pioneer Joshua Pearce has demonstrated in numerous ways how the technology can both save researchers money and increase accessibility to lab equipment through his studies with Michigan Technological University."- Engineering.com
Review on 3D Hacker! online, November 18, 2013[edit | edit source]
“3dhacker is truly impressed by the amount of work Dr. Pearce has put into Open-Source Lab. It’s immediately clear how a teacher or researcher in any institution around the world can reduce their laboratory equipment costs by 60-90%. Additionally Dr. Pearce illustrates the benefits of open source hardware and how it’s a must if the world wants to move at the fastest pace for scientific development!” -- 3dhacker Review: Open-Source Lab
Review on Nanowerk.com, November 18, 2013[edit | edit source]
“’Open-Source Lab’ is written for a wide audience, from novices to those who are “at one with the force of open source,” who can skip the introductory material and get right to work printing their own equipment.” --Nanowerk
Review Machine Design December 4, 2013[edit | edit source]
“Pearce intends his book to be a sort of guide to creating your own open-source lab gear. The topics he covers include software rights, best practices and etiquette for using open-source hardware, open-source microcontrollers, open-source centrifuges and spectrometers, colorimeters, and even open-source laser welding. There are also some helpful hints for those who are 3D-printing their equipment for the first time.” --Machine Design
Review on Midwest January, 2014[edit | edit source]
"Pearce's examples make it abundantly clear that the more people creating and sharing their hardware designs will only help research and technology accelerate and flourish. All things considered, the Open-Source Lab is a must read for every professional and amateur scientist. Even science educators would benefit from reading it and being able to improve their teaching laboratories for their students. And while he may not cover all the issues related to social and business aspects of open-source hardware, Pearce's writing throughout the Open-Source Lab is both inspiring and instructive as he covers all the information about the new and exciting possibilities with open-source hardware and 3-D printing." -- Midwest Book Review
Amazon Review[edit | edit source]
5 stars -- "Thorough guide to save a ton of money for your lab" - Amazon Reviews
Imprimalia 3D[edit | edit source]
Original Spanish text:
"Este adalid del uso del código abierto en la investigación continúa con su infatigable labor y ahora ha recopilado una serie de herramientas que pueden ayudar a biólogos, químicos, físicos, médicos, farmacéuticos e investigadores y científicos en general en la realización de sus experimentos de laboratorio." - Imprimalia 3D
"This champion of the use of open source in the investigation continues his tireless work and now has compiled a series of tools that can help biologists, chemists, physicists, doctors, pharmacists and researchers and scientists in general in conducting laboratory experiments."
In the Media[edit | edit source]
Using Open Source Lab as a Textbook[edit | edit source]
- Michigan Tech course to build your own 3D printer - OpenSource
- Unchained with Open Source: Michigan Tech 3D Printing Course Teaches Students to Build 3D Printers - 3D Print
- Michigan Tech’s Open Source Course – The Future of 3D Printing Education) - 3D Printing Industry
US News[edit | edit source]
- An Interview with 3D Printers for Peace’s Dr. Joshua Pearce - 3D Printing Industry
- Just Another Incredible Saturday Of MTU Research - CBS Detroit
- Pearce Pens a 3D Printing Guide for Scientists on a Budget - Michigan Tech News
- 3D-printing your lab equipment—it’s cheaper than you think - Elsevier Connect
- MTU Prof Writes 3D Printing Guide For Scientists On A Budget - CBS Detroit
- DIY and Save: A Scientist's Guide to Making Your Own Lab Equipment - Science Daily, Phys.org, Biomedicine, Technology.org, Hispanic Business
- Design-for-3D Printing as community organizing - Design Activism
- MTU Prof writes 3D printing guide to making your own low-cost lab equipment - 3Drs, B3D
- 3D printing can reduce science lab equipment costs by 90% - Nanowerk
- 3D Printers – Open Source Enablers Indeed - Encore
- 3D printing used to create a basement laboratory on the cheap - Geek.com
- How Scientists Can Cut Costs by Making Their Own Lab Equipment - Lab Manager Magazine
- Ready Roundup: Microsoft 3D Builder, Open Source Lab, DMG Mori, and Victoria’s Secret - Rapid Ready Tech
- Equip your lab for less - 3D print your equipment -Labonline
- DIY Guide for 3D Printed Lab Equipment - 3D Printing Insider
- Top 15 New Books About Sharing, Cities and Happiness - Shareable
- Opinion: Science Counterculture - On taking DIYbio to the next level - The Scientist (great op ed with biohack examples)
- Book of the Day - P2P Foundation blog
- Kurzweil, Labrigger
- How to build lab equipment with open-source hardware - Machine Design
- Book Covers DIY Open-Source Hardware for Science Projects - Power Electronics
- 3d printing low cost open source laboratory equipment by Dr. Joshua Pearce -DIY 3D Printing
- Open Source Laboratory Equipment - Usin'Life
- 3-D printing could offer savings on replica lab kit -- Sci Dev Net, Thomson Reuters Foundation, All Africa, The Guardian, Aid News
- Beyond Jeremy Rifkin: How Will the Phase Transition to a Commons Economy Actually Occur? - Huffington Post
- How to 3D Print Your Own Lab Equipment - SciTech Connect
- 3D Printing's Success Points to a Rosy Future for Open Hardware - Linux.com
- Open Science News - F1000 Research
- Printing a Better Community - Laboratory Equipment
- Building your Science Lab with Open Source - Open Electronics
- Open-source coops as a bottom-up global shift - International Young Professionals Foundation
- Design your own lab - Bikcha
- Predicting the Lab of the Future - Laboratory Equipment
- World of 3-D Printing Brings Medical Breakthroughs to Life - Washington Diplomat's Magazine pages 25-28.
- Can Open Source Really Work in Scientific Research? - 3D Printing Industry, Internet Medicine, Bioportfolio
- What ever you need, chances are a 3D printer can print it - The Examiner
- 3-D Printing Could Offer Savings On Replica Lab Kit- Open Health News
- Prof. Pearce’s “Open-Source Lab” Unleashes the Power of 3D Printed Lab Equipment - 3D Printing Industry
- The $900 Renegade: Ourobotics Releases Fully Open Source Bioprinter - 3D Printing and Industry
- ‘Open-hardware’ pioneers push for low-cost lab kit -Nature News, Open Electronics
- Will The Open-Source Movement Disrupt Your Industry? Middlesex Consulting
- DIY goes in vivo - Nature News
International Media[edit | edit source]
- Open Technical Infrastructures - Free/Libre Open Knowledge Society
- Grand Nancy - Recherche et innovation Le Pr Pearce à l’université de Lorraine - L’Est Republicain (circulation >123,000; 18604)
- Do it yourself and save - guide researchers to make their own laboratory equipment -Science for business and society: Mokslas verslui ir visuomenei
- Open-Source Lab: a guide for researchers to make their own laboratory equipment - Technologijos
- How to cook their own laboratory equipment - Balsas, Elektronkika
- Laboratory equipment with their own hands - CNews - the largest online publication in the field of high technologies in Russia, Russian Electronics, Just-Hiend
- The culture of open source: No copyrights, no patents - The Student (University of Edinburgh)
Later on open source hardware for citizen science: Do-it-yourself Science is taking off. The Economist
Quote[edit | edit source]
“What I have found with all kinds of devices that I have put out there is that people will make improvements on them for their own experiments, and when I go back to do another experiment, I can start where they left off. By sharing my work, it becomes better. It’s like having an international team of engineers constantly hammering on your project,” says Pearce. Nature News -
| Energy Conservation • Energy Policy • Industrial Symbiosis • Life Cycle Analysis • Materials Science • Open Source • Medical • Photovoltaic Systems • Solar Cells • Sustainable Development • Sustainability Education
References[edit | edit source]
Connected Papers: