Orang-Utan In Bukit Lawang, Nord Sumatra. January 2006. Attribution: Tbachner
  • News Community seed banks offer hope for the Amazon across Brazil’s soy belt, news.mongabay.com (Feb 15, 2024)
  • News Low-carbon milk to AI irrigation: tech startups powering Latin America’s green revolution, theguardian.com (Jan 30, 2024)
  • News Reverse in endangered fish’s slide to extinction helped by Indigenous effort in Bangladesh, news.mongabay.com (Jan 19, 2024)

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Biodiversity or biological diversity is the variety and variability of life on Earth. Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the genetic (genetic variability), species (species diversity), and ecosystem (ecosystem diversity) level. Biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth; it is usually greater in the tropics as a result of the warm climate and high primary productivity in the region near the equator. Tropical forest ecosystems cover less than 10% of earth's surface and contain about 90% of the world's species. Marine biodiversity is usually higher along coasts in the Western Pacific, where sea surface temperature is highest, and in the mid-latitudinal band in all oceans. There are latitudinal gradients in species diversity. Biodiversity generally tends to cluster in hotspots, and has been increasing through time, but will be likely to slow in the future as a primary result of deforestation. It encompasses the evolutionary, ecological, and cultural processes that sustain life.

Community action projects[edit | edit source]

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How are nature-based solutions co-created?
Authors: NetworkNature, Oct 19, 2022

Events[edit | edit source]

2021-2030, UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration

Ecosystem restoration[edit | edit source]

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  • News Opportunities from a community-led strategy to save Brazil’s dry forests from desertification, news.mongabay.com (Dec 11, 2023)

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Ecosystem restoration is the process of halting and overturning degradation, resulting in cleaner air and water, extreme weather mitigation, better human health, and recovered biodiversity, including improved pollination of plants. Restoration encompasses a wide continuum of practices, from reforestation to re-wetting peatlands and coral rehabilitation.[1]

Rewilding[edit | edit source]

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Rewilding is a form of ecological restoration aimed at increasing biodiversity and restoring natural processes. It differs from other forms of ecological restoration in that rewilding aspires to reduce human influence on ecosystems. It is also distinct from other forms of restoration in that, while it places emphasis on recovering geographically specific sets of ecological interactions and functions that would have maintained ecosystems prior to human influence, rewilding is open to novel or emerging ecosystems which encompass new species and new interactions.

A key feature of rewilding is its focus on replacing human interventions with natural processes. The aim is to create resilient, self-regulating and self-sustaining ecosystems.

While rewilding initiatives can be controversial, the United Nations has listed rewilding as one of several methods needed to achieve massive scale restoration of natural ecosystems, which they say must be accomplished by 2030 as part of the 30x30 campaign.

Wildlife garden[edit | edit source]

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A wildlife garden (or habitat garden or backyard restoration) is an environment created with the purpose to serve as a sustainable haven for surrounding wildlife. Wildlife gardens contain a variety of habitats that cater to native and local plants, birds, amphibians, reptiles, insects, mammals and so on, and are meant to sustain locally native flora and fauna. Other names this type of gardening goes by can vary, prominent ones being habitat, ecology, and conservation gardening.

Both public and private gardens can be specifically transformed to attract the native wildlife, and in doing so, provide a natural array of support through available shelter and sustenance. This method of gardening can be a form of restoration in private gardens as much as those in public, as they contribute to connectivity due to the variability of their scattered locations, as well as an increased habitat availability.

Establishing a garden that emulates the environment before the residence was built and/or renders the garden similar to intact wild areas nearby (rewilding) will allow natural systems to interact and establish an equilibrium, ultimately minimizing the need for gardener maintenance and intervention. Wildlife gardens can also play an essential role in biological pest control, and also promote biodiversity, native plantings, and generally benefit the wider environment. Some environmental benefits include the reduction in pest populations through the natural mechanism of biological pest control, by helping reduce the need for pesticides. Habitat gardens also provide the environment an ecosystem service by recharging aquifers by intercepting rainfall.

Wildlife corridor[edit | edit source]

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A wildlife corridor, habitat corridor, or green corridor is an area of habitat connecting wildlife populations separated by human activities or structures (such as roads, development, or logging). This allows an exchange of individuals between populations, which may help prevent the negative effects of inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity (via genetic drift) that often occur within isolated populations. Corridors may also help facilitate the re-establishment of populations that have been reduced or eliminated due to random events (such as fires or disease). This may moderate some of the worst effects of habitat fragmentation, whereas urbanization can split up habitat areas, causing animals to lose both their natural habitat and the ability to move between regions to access resources. Habitat fragmentation due to human development is an ever-increasing threat to biodiversity, and habitat corridors serve to manage its effects.

Resources[edit | edit source]

Visions[edit | edit source]

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A Bridge to a Better 2030 for Our Climate and Planet
Authors: The Nature Conservancy, Oct 19, 2023
  • Our Goals for 2030, nature.org, (The Nature Conservancy)

Organisations working with communities[edit | edit source]

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The Nature Conservancy (TNC) is a global environmental organization headquartered in Arlington, Virginia. As of 2021, it works via affiliates or branches in 79 countries and territories, as well as across every state in the US.

Founded in 1951, The Nature Conservancy has over one million members globally as of 2021 and has protected more than 119,000,000 acres (48,000,000 ha) of land in its history. As of 2014, it is the largest environmental non-profit organization by assets and revenue in the Americas.

Citizens data initiative[edit | edit source]

Summary data from Our World in Data[edit | edit source]

  • Life on earth is dominated by plants – they make up 82% of global biomass.
  • The animal kingdom makes up just 0.4% of global biomass.
  • Humans account for just 0.01% of biomass. However, our livestock outweighs wild mammals and birds ten-fold.
  • 86% of life is in terrestrial environments; 13% in the deep subsurface; and just 1% in marine environments.
  • The tropics are home to the most diverse and unique ecosystems. They tend to have the most endemic species.[2]

Other data[edit | edit source]

  • More than 1,200 species of bats comprise nearly a quarter of all mammals, and their ecological services are essential to human economies and the health of whole ecosystems worldwide. Source: unep.org, 21 January 2011
  • In Asia, more than 70 percent of primates are classified on the IUCN Red List as Vulnerable, Endangered or Critically Endangered – meaning they could disappear forever in the near future. Source: IUCN, August 2008
  • The great apes are the closest living relatives to man, bonobos sharing 98.4 per cent of our DNA, gorillas 97.7 per cent and orang-utans 96.4 per cent. Source: Defra

Inspiration[edit | edit source]

Maps[edit | edit source]

Quotes[edit | edit source]

"We are not defending nature, we are nature defending itself" Resistencia Indigena[3]

"I believe in God, only I spell it Nature." Frank Lloyd Wright

"If you hurt nature you are hurting yourself" ~ J Krishnamurti

Video[edit | edit source]

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Nature needs half[edit | edit source]

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What Is Nature Needs Half ?
Authors: First Light Films, Apr 17, 2017
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At the 9th World Wilderness Congress in Mérida, Mexico, WILD, with the collaboration of a spectrum of international organizations, governments and individuals, introduced Nature Needs Half, which aspires that humans give up use of half of land and water on Earth, in order to support wilderness. Marine biologist Sylvia Earle and Jane Goodall have endorsed Nature Needs Half, with Earle's only criticism being that she "hoped that half would be enough". Since its inception, WILD has begun collecting and conducting case studies of places around the world that have, or are on track to achieve, at least half protection.

Biodiversity in agriculture[edit | edit source]

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Biodiversity in agriculture is the measure of biodiversity found on agricultural land. Biodiversity is the total diversity of species present in an area at all levels of biological organization. It is characterized by heterogeneous habitats that support the diverse ecological structure. In agricultural areas, biodiversity decreases as varying landscapes are lost and native plants are replaced with cultivated crops. Increasing biodiversity in agriculture can increase the sustainability of farms through the restoration of ecosystem services that aid in regulating agricultural lands. Biodiversity in agriculture can be increased through the process of agroecological restoration, as farm biodiversity is an aspect of agroecology.

Biodiversity is the measure of biotic and abiotic diversity in an ecosystem, described by heterogeneity. The loss of biodiversity in agriculture has been an increasing issue since the global increase of food demands and success of popular crops. This loss of heterogeneity declines species biodiversity on agricultural lands. Biodiversity in agriculture is essential in providing ecosystem services, which conserves biodiversity while providing agricultural services.

Cities and biodiversity[edit | edit source]

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Cities and Biodiversity Outlook

Campaigns[edit | edit source]

  • Nature Positive, Global Goal for Nature: Nature Positive by 2030. "We need to halt and reverse nature loss measured from a baseline of 2020, through increasing the health, abundance, diversity and resilience of species, populations and ecosystems so that by 2030 nature is visibly and measurably on the path of recovery."
  • No to Biodiversity Offsetting!

See also[edit | edit source]

External links[edit | edit source]

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References[edit | edit source]

  1. Press release, unep.org
  2. ourworldindata.org, Retrieved ~~~~~
  3. Wild Open
  4. International Animal Rescue W
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Keywords pinned topic
Authors Phil Green
License CC-BY-SA-3.0
Language English (en)
Related 0 subpages, 24 pages link here
Impact 879 page views
Created October 14, 2011 by Daniel Lawhon
Modified January 26, 2024 by Phil Green
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