Orang-Utan In Bukit Lawang, Nord Sumatra. January 2006. Attribution: Tbachner
  • WWF Living Planet Report: Devastating 69% drop in wildlife populations since 1970, wwf.eu (Oct 13, 2022)

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Biodiversity or biological diversity is the variety and variability of life on Earth. Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the genetic (genetic variability), species (species diversity), and ecosystem (ecosystem diversity) level. Biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth; it is usually greater in the tropics as a result of the warm climate and high primary productivity in the region near the equator. Tropical forest ecosystems cover less than 10% of earth's surface and contain about 90% of the world's species. Marine biodiversity is usually higher along coasts in the Western Pacific, where sea surface temperature is highest, and in the mid-latitudinal band in all oceans. There are latitudinal gradients in species diversity. Biodiversity generally tends to cluster in hotspots, and has been increasing through time, but will be likely to slow in the future as a primary result of deforestation. It encompasses the evolutionary, ecological, and cultural processes that sustain life.

Community action projects[edit | edit source]

How are nature-based solutions co-created?
Authors: NetworkNature, Oct 19, 2022

Events[edit | edit source]

2021-2030, UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration

Ecosystem restoration[edit | edit source]

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  • Indigenous Peoples defend a precious natural resource- empowering them protects us all, ashden.org (Feb 14, 2023)

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Ecosystem restoration is the process of halting and overturning degradation, resulting in cleaner air and water, extreme weather mitigation, better human health, and recovered biodiversity, including improved pollination of plants. Restoration encompasses a wide continuum of practices, from reforestation to re-wetting peatlands and coral rehabilitation.[1]

Rewilding[edit | edit source]

Rewilding, or re-wilding, activities are conservation efforts aimed at restoring and protecting natural processes and wilderness areas. Rewilding is a form of ecological restoration with an emphasis on recreating an area's natural, uncultivated state. This may require active human intervention to achieve. Approaches can include removing human artefacts such as dams or bridges, connecting wilderness areas, and protecting or reintroducing apex predators and keystone species.

The general goal is to move toward a wilder natural ecosystem that will involve less active forms of natural resource management. Rewilding efforts can aim to create ecosystems requiring passive management. Successful long term rewilding projects can need little ongoing human attention, as successful reintroduction of keystone species creates a self-regulatory and self-sustaining stable ecosystem, possibly with near pre-human levels of biodiversity.

While rewilding initiatives can be controversial, the United Nations have listed rewilding as one of several methods needed to achieve massive scale restoration of natural ecosystems, which they say must be accomplished by 2030 as part of the 30x30 campaign.

Wildlife garden[edit | edit source]

A wildlife garden (or wild garden) is an environment created by a gardener that serves as a sustainable haven for surrounding wildlife. Wildlife gardens contain a variety of habitats that cater to native and local plants, birds, amphibians, reptiles, insects, mammals and so on. Establishing a garden that emulates the environment before the residence was built and/or renders the garden similar to intact wild areas nearby (rewilding) will allow natural systems to interact and establish an equilibrium, ultimately minimizing the need for gardener maintenance and intervention. Wildlife gardens can also play an essential role in biological pest control, and also promote biodiversity, native plantings, and generally benefit the wider environment.

In the history of gardening the term "wild garden" is more likely to refer to the sort of unstructured garden promoted by the influential Irish gardener and writer William Robinson, whose book The Wild Garden (1870) was very influential; the woodland garden is one legacy. Wildlife was only a peripheral concern of Robinson.

Wildlife corridor[edit | edit source]

A wildlife corridor, habitat corridor, or green corridor is an area of habitat connecting wildlife populations separated by human activities or structures (such as roads, development, or logging). This allows an exchange of individuals between populations, which may help prevent the negative effects of inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity (via genetic drift) that often occur within isolated populations. Corridors may also help facilitate the re-establishment of populations that have been reduced or eliminated due to random events (such as fires or disease). This may potentially moderate some of the worst effects of habitat fragmentation, wherein urbanization can split up habitat areas, causing animals to lose both their natural habitat and the ability to move between regions to use all of the resources they need to survive. Habitat fragmentation due to human development is an ever-increasing threat to biodiversity, and habitat corridors are a possible mitigation.

Resources[edit | edit source]

Citizens data initiative[edit | edit source]

Summary data from Our World in Data[edit | edit source]

  • Life on earth is dominated by plants – they make up 82% of global biomass.
  • The animal kingdom makes up just 0.4% of global biomass.
  • Humans account for just 0.01% of biomass. However, our livestock outweighs wild mammals and birds ten-fold.
  • 86% of life is in terrestrial environments; 13% in the deep subsurface; and just 1% in marine environments.
  • The tropics are home to the most diverse and unique ecosystems. They tend to have the most endemic species.[2]

Other data[edit | edit source]

  • More than 1,200 species of bats comprise nearly a quarter of all mammals, and their ecological services are essential to human economies and the health of whole ecosystems worldwide. Source: unep.org, 21 January 2011
  • In Asia, more than 70 percent of primates are classified on the IUCN Red List as Vulnerable, Endangered or Critically Endangered – meaning they could disappear forever in the near future. Source: IUCN, August 2008
  • The great apes are the closest living relatives to man, bonobos sharing 98.4 per cent of our DNA, gorillas 97.7 per cent and orang-utans 96.4 per cent. Source: Defra

Inspiration[edit | edit source]

Maps[edit | edit source]

Quotes[edit | edit source]

"We are not defending nature, we are nature defending itself" Resistencia Indigena[3]

"I believe in God, only I spell it Nature." Frank Lloyd Wright

"If you hurt nature you are hurting yourself" ~ J Krishnamurti

Video[edit | edit source]

Nature needs half[edit | edit source]

What Is Nature Needs Half ?
Authors: First Light Films, Apr 17, 2017

At the 9th World Wilderness Congress in Mérida, Mexico, WILD, with the collaboration of a spectrum of international organizations, governments and individuals, introduced Nature Needs Half, which aspires that humans give up use of half of land and water on Earth, in order to support wilderness. Nature Needs Half is an idea put forth by the WILD Foundation. Marine biologist Sylvia Earle and Jane Goodall have endorsed Nature Needs Half, with Earle's only criticism being that she "hoped that half would be enough". Since its inception, WILD has begun collecting and conducting case studies of places around the world that have, or are on track to achieve, at least half protection.

Biodiversity in agriculture[edit | edit source]

Biodiversity in agriculture is the measure of biodiversity found on agricultural land. Biodiversity is the total diversity of species present in an area at all levels of biological organization. It is characterized by heterogeneous habitats that support the diverse ecological structure. In agricultural areas, biodiversity decreases as varying landscapes are lost and native plants are replaced with cultivated crops. Increasing biodiversity in agriculture can increase the sustainability of farms through the restoration of ecosystem services that aid in regulating agricultural lands. Biodiversity in agriculture can be increased through the process of agroecological restoration, as farm biodiversity is an aspect of agroecology.

Biodiversity is the measure of biotic and abiotic diversity in an ecosystem, described by heterogeneity. The loss of biodiversity in agriculture has been an increasing issue since the global increase of food demands and success of popular crops. This loss of heterogeneity declines species biodiversity on agricultural lands. Biodiversity in agriculture is essential in providing ecosystem services, which conserves biodiversity while providing agricultural services.

Cities and biodiversity[edit | edit source]

Cities and Biodiversity Outlook

Campaigns[edit | edit source]

  • Nature Positive, Global Goal for Nature: Nature Positive by 2030. "We need to halt and reverse nature loss measured from a baseline of 2020, through increasing the health, abundance, diversity and resilience of species, populations and ecosystems so that by 2030 nature is visibly and measurably on the path of recovery."
  • No to Biodiversity Offsetting!

See also[edit | edit source]

External links[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Press release, unep.org
  2. ourworldindata.org, Retrieved ~~~~~
  3. Wild Open
  4. International Animal Rescue W
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