With the aggressive cost reductions for 3-D printing made available by the open-source self-replicating rapid prototypers (RepRaps) the economic advantage of custom distributed manufacturing has become substantial. In addition, the number of free designs is growing exponentially and the development and commercialization of the recyclebot (plastic extruders that fabricate 3-D printing filament from recycled or virgin materials) have greatly improved the material selection available for prosumer 3-D printer operators. These trends indicate that more individuals will manufacturer their own polymer products, however, there is a risk that an even larger fraction of polymer waste will not be recycled because it has not been coded. The current limited resin identification code available in the U.S. similarly restricts closing the loop on less popular polymers, which could hamper the environmental impact benefits of distributed manufacturing. This paper provides a solution for this challenge by (1) developing a recycling code model based off of the resin identification codes developed in China that is capable of expansion as more complex 3-D printing materials are introduced, (2) creating OpenSCAD scripts based on (1) to be used to print resin identification codes into products, (3) demonstrating the use of this functionality in a selection of products and polymer materials, and (4) outlining the software and policy tools necessary to make this application possible for widespread adoption. Overall the results showed that a far larger resin code identification system can be adopted in the U.S. to expand distributed recycling of polymers and manufacturing of plastic-based 3-D printed products.
Highlighting[edit | edit source]
- Cost reductions for 3-D printing give economic advantage to distributed manufacturing.
- Number of free designs is growing exponentially.
- Development and commercialization of the recyclebot improved the material selection.
- This study developed recycling code model capable of expansion.
- Created OpenSCAD scripts to print resin identification codes into products.
OpenSCAD Code[edit | edit source]
You need the following files to implement the code:
See also[edit | edit source]
- Evaluation of Potential Fair Trade Standards for an Ethical 3-D Printing Filament
- Life cycle analysis of distributed recycling of post-consumer high density polyethylene for 3-D printing filament
- Life cycle analysis of distributed polymer recycling
- Solar powered distributed customized manufacturing
- Distributed recycling of post-consumer plastic waste in rural areas
- Ethical Filament Foundation
- Plastic bank
- Expanding the Consumer Bill of Rights for material ingredients
External Links[edit | edit source]
- LDPE recycling on a bike with a RepRap from Taipei-based company Fabraft
- UBC recycling of old prints with blender and liquid nitrogen http://web.archive.org/web/20140408053842/http://ubc-rapid.com/blog/?p=183
- Filament By Filacycle Is 100% Recycled! - 3D Printing Industry 12-16-2014
- Dr. Recare- nice concept to have automated plastic beach cleaner/3D printer make recyclebins
- Haruna Hamod. 2015.Suitability of recycled HDPE for 3D printing filament. Arcada University of Applied Science. Thesis covering recycling HDPE to filament
- Tisserat, Brent, Zengshe Liu, Victoria Finkenstadt, Branden Lewandowski, Steven Ott, and Louis Reifschneider. "3D printing biocomposites." 3D printing biocomposites
- Closing the Sustainability Cycle with InnoCirlce Recycled 3D Printing Filaments - 3D Printing and Industry
- Filament for bearings http://www.igus.com/wpck/11723/N14_4_1_iglidur_TriboFilament?C=US&L=en
- Zhao, X. G., Lee, D., Hwang, K. J., Kim, T., & Kim, N. (2018). Enhanced mechanical properties of self-polymerized polydopamine-coated recycled PLA filament used in 3D printing. Applied Surface Science. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2018.01.257
In the News[edit | edit source]
- A Call to Change Recycling Standards as 3-D Printing Expands - Michigan Tech News, Pans and Pots, Eureka Alert, Newswise, R&D Magazine, Phys.org,Environment Guru, Nanowerk, e-science news, Space Daily, Product Design and Development, 3D Printing Progress, Michigan ag Connection, Modern Plastics & Polymers, Innovation Toronto
- Call to change recycling standards as 3-D printing expands - Science Daily
- New & Improved Recycling Standards for the 3D Printing Era - 3D Printing Industry
- Michigan researchers call for a change in recycling codes to benefit 3D printing - 3ders, 3DP Expo
- Michigan Tech's new recycling codes cut costs of 3D printing - Waste Dive
- New coding response to 3-D printing challenge - Recycling International
- Recycling Makes 3-D Printing Even Cheaper - Laboratory Equipment
- Adding Recycling Codes To 3D Prints - Hack-A-Day
- Researchers Seek New Policy for 3D Printing Recycling - Liberty Beat
- New Plastic Recycling Codes Could Turn 3D Printers Into Home Recycling Stations - Sustainablog
- Technologies That Can Reduce Plastic Waste - Plastic Technologies
- Recycling Standards May Need Revision as 3D Printing Expands - IHS Engineering 360
- Recycling For 3-D Printing - Asia Pacific Equipment News