- Spain announces free rail journeys from September until the end of the year, The Guardian (Jul 15, 2022)
- From Kerala via Argentina to Bologna, platform cooperatives are thriving (and providing solid pathways to the good life), The Daily Alternative (Jun 01, 2022)
Spain (Spanish: España, [esˈpaɲa] ), or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a country located in Southwestern Europe, with parts of its territory in the Atlantic Ocean, in the Mediterranean Sea and in Africa. It is the largest country in Southern Europe and the fourth-most populous European Union member state. Spanning across the majority of the Iberian Peninsula, its territory also includes the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea, and the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla in Africa. Peninsular Spain is bordered to the north by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; to the east and south by the Mediterranean Sea and Gibraltar; and to the west by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid; other major urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Zaragoza, Seville, Málaga, Murcia, Palma de Mallorca, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, and Bilbao.
In early antiquity, the Iberian Peninsula was inhabited by a mixture of Iberian and Celtic tribes, along with other local pre-Roman peoples. With the Roman conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, the province of Hispania was established. Following the Romanization and Christianization of Hispania, the fall of the Western Roman Empire ushered in the inward migration of tribes from Central Europe, including the Visigoths, who formed the Visigothic Kingdom centred on Toledo. In the early eighth century, most of the peninsula was conquered by the Umayyad Caliphate, and during early Islamic rule, Al-Andalus became a dominant peninsular power centred in Córdoba. Several Christian kingdoms emerged in Northern Iberia, chief among them Asturias, León, Castile, Aragon, Navarre and Portugal; made an intermittent southward military expansion, known as the Reconquista, repelling Islamic rule in Iberia, which culminated with the Christian seizure of the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada in 1492. The dynastic union of the Crown of Castile and the Crown of Aragon in 1479, often considered the formation of Spain as a country, was followed by the conquest of Navarre and the Iberian Union with Portugal. The Crown of Spain, through the Spanish Inquisition, forced the Jewish and Muslim minorities to choose between conversion to Catholicism or expulsion, before most of the converts were also expelled through various royal decrees.
The leading country of the Age of Discovery in conjunction with Portugal, Spain conquered territories across the world and formed one of the largest empires in history; Spanish expeditions of this period include the beginning of colonization in the Americas in 1492 and the first circumnavigation of the globe in 1522. The empire's need for financing and the transatlantic trade underpinned the rise of a global trading system fueled primarily by precious metals, and the reforms of the Bourbon in the 18th century centralized mainland Spain. In the 19th century, despite the victory in the Peninsular War, the following political divisions between liberals and absolutists eventually led to the independence of most of its American colonies. Political instability reached its peak in the 20th century with the Spanish Civil War, giving rise to the Francoist dictatorship that lasted until 1975. With the restoration of democracy under the Constitution of Spain and its entry into the European Union, the country experienced an economic boom that profoundly transformed it socially and politically. Since the Siglo de Oro, Spanish art, architecture, music, poetry, painting, literature, and cuisine have been influential worldwide, particularly in Western Europe and the Americas. As a reflection of its large cultural wealth, Spain has one of the world's largest numbers of World Heritage Sites. It is the world's second-most visited country and the most popular destination for Erasmus students. Its cultural influence extends to over 600 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language and the world's most widely spoken Romance language.
Biodiversity[edit | edit source]
In 2010 and 2011, an unrelated initiative in the village of San Cebrián de Mudá (190 inhabitants) in Palencia, northern Spain released 18 European bison (a species extirpated from Spain since the Middle Ages) in a natural area already inhabited by roe deer, wild boar, red fox and grey wolf, as part of the creation of a 240-hectare "Quaternary Park". Three Przewalski's horses from a breeding center in Le Villaret, France were added to the park in October 2012. Onagers and "aurochs" were planned to follow.
In 2016 and 2018, the True Nature Foundation reintroduced in total 7 European bison of the Lowland-Caucasian breeding line in Anciles Wildlife Reserve in the Parque Regional de Picos de Europa in the Cantabrian mountains in northern Spain. W
Environment quality[edit | edit source]
Ibiza Limpia keeping Ibiza clean and tidy
Trees, woodland and forest[edit | edit source]
Reforestación: Fundación Apadrina un Árbol, Proyecto de reforestación de área quemada en Guadalajara, España - malagareforesta.org Plan municipal de reforestación que incluye proyectos como éste de apadrinamiento de árboles.
Community involvement[edit | edit source]
The anti-austerity movement in Spain, also referred to as the 15-M Movement (Spanish: Movimiento 15-M), and the Indignados Movement, was a series of protests, demonstrations, and occupations against austerity policies in Spain that began around the local and regional elections of 2011 and 2012. Beginning on 15 May 2011, many of the subsequent demonstrations spread through various social networks such as Real Democracy NOW (Spanish: Democracia Real YA) and Youth Without a Future (Spanish: Juventud Sin Futuro).
Spanish media related the movement to the 2008–14 Spanish financial crisis, the Arab Spring, as well as demonstrations in North Africa, Iran, Greece, Portugal, and Iceland. The movement was also compared to Stéphane Hessel's political manifesto Time for Outrage!, which was seen to empower Spanish youth who were not in education, employment, or training (NEET). Protestors rallied against high unemployment rates, welfare cuts, politicians, and the two-party system in Spain, as well as the political system, capitalism, banks, and public corruption. Many called for basic rights, of home, work, culture, health, and education. The movement transferred to Europe the model of the protest camp which had been formed in the Arab Spring, adapting it to a more countercultural framework. This would later expand until influencing the creation of Occupy Wall Street.
According to RTVE, the Spanish public broadcasting company, between 6.5 and 8 million Spaniards participated in these events.
Community energy[edit | edit source]
Som Energia, Catalunya renewable energy cooperative
Energías renovables: Existen numerosas subvenciones y ayudas para la instalación de tecnologías para energías renovables. Estas dependen del país y la región donde vivas. Puedes informarte en detalle usando webs especializadas en estos temas como Ayudas y Subvenciones & Soliclima o Subvenciones Energía
Wikipedia: El Hierro, Energy: According to the Ministry for Industry, Tourism and Commerce, El Hierro will become the first island in the world to be energy self-sufficient. This will be achieved through a €54 million project combining a greater than 11 megawatt wind farm and two hydroelectric projects. El Hierro is the smallest and farthest south and west of the Canary Islands (an Autonomous Community of Spain), in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa, with a population of 10,162 (2003).
Cycling activism[edit | edit source]
- Conbici.org confederación de asociaciones ciclistas de España y Portugal. Su página contiene noticias e información sobre iniciativas como la creación de una Red Básica ciclista. Entre otras actividades, conbici es miembro del Consejo Superior de Tráfico y Seguridad de la Circulación Vial, en representación del colectivo de ciclistas en la vía pública. link checked 17:37, 23 October 2022 (UTC)
- Red de Ciudades por la Bicicleta
- Sevilla: Sevilla - Sevici
Education for sustainability[edit | edit source]
Reduce, reuse, repair and recycle[edit | edit source]
Reciclaje: Tragamóvil tiene puntos de recogida de móviles por todo España. Visita su web para encontrar los puntos más cercanos a tu domicilio.
Rural sustainability[edit | edit source]
Sharing[edit | edit source]
Andecha (from Latin indictia 'announcement) is voluntary, unpaid and punctual aid to help a neighbor carry out agricultural tasks (cutting hay, harvesting potatoes, building a barn, collecting apples to make cider, etc.). The work is rewarded with a snack or a small party and the tacit commitment that the person assisted will come with their family to the call of another andecha when another neighbor requests it. It is very similar to the Irish meitheal.
It should not be confused with another Asturian collective work institution, the sestaferia. In this, the provision of the service is mandatory (under penalty of fine) and is not called a to help of an individual but the provision of common services (repair of bridges, cleaning of roads, etc.)
Sustainable livelihood[edit | edit source]
Sustainable transport activism[edit | edit source]
Towards sustainable economies[edit | edit source]
Wikipedia: Mondragon Corporation: corporation and federation of worker cooperatives based in the Basque region of Spain. It was founded in the town of Mondragón in 1956 by graduates of a local technical college. Its first product was paraffin heaters. It is the seventh-largest Spanish company in terms of asset turnover and the leading business group in the Basque Country. At the end of 2012, it employed 80,321 people in 289 companies and organizations in four areas of activity: finance, industry, retail and knowledge. Mondragon cooperatives operate in accordance with Statement on the Co-operative Identity maintained by the International Co-operative Alliance.
Campaigns[edit | edit source]
Alianza Mar Blava, Ibiza y Formentera zona libre de prospecciones - Ni en Baleares ni en Canarias, Firma para detener las prospecciones de petróleo, Greenpeace España - savecanarias.org, no to oil drilling in the Canary Islands
Near you[edit | edit source]
See also[edit | edit source]
local information can be found, or shared, via our many location pages
[edit | edit source]
- Wikipedia: Spain
- Ecowiki: Portada (no recent edits found as of 00:21, 1 May 2014 (PDT))
- Agenda 21 - Jávea \ Xàbia
References[edit | edit source]