Bangladesh (, Bengali: বাংলাদেশ, pronounced [ˈbaŋlaˌdeʃ] (listen)), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is the eighth-most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 163 million people, in an area of 147,570 square kilometres (56,980 sq mi), making it one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Bangladesh shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, Myanmar to the southeast, and the Bay of Bengal to the south. It is narrowly separated from Nepal and Bhutan by the Siliguri Corridor, and from China by Sikkim, in the north, respectively. Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's economic, political, and cultural hub. Chittagong, the largest seaport, is the second-largest city.
Bangladesh forms the larger and eastern part of the Bengal region. According to the ancient Indian texts, Rāmāyana and Mahābhārata, the Vanga Kingdom, one of the namesakes of the Bengal region, was a strong naval power. In the ancient and classical periods of the Indian subcontinent, the territory was home to many principalities, including the Pundra, Gangaridai, Gauda, Samatata, and Harikela. It was also a Mauryan province under the reign of Ashoka. The principalities were notable for their overseas trade, contacts with the Roman world, the export of fine muslin and silk to the Middle East, and spreading of philosophy and art to Southeast Asia. The Gupta Empire, Pala Empire, the Chandra dynasty, and the Sena dynasty were the last pre-Islamic Bengali middle kingdoms. Islam was introduced during the Pala Empire, through trade with the Abbāsid Caliphate, but following the Ghurid conquests led by Bakhtiyar Khalji, the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate and preaching of Shah Jalāl in the north-east, it spread across the entire region. In 1576, the wealthy Bengal Sultanate was absorbed into the Mughal Empire, but its rule was briefly interrupted by the Suri Empire. Mughal Bengal, worth 12% of world GDP (late 17th century), waved the Proto-industrialization, showed signs of a possible Industrial revolution, established relations with the Dutch and English East India Company, and became also the basis of the Anglo-Mughal War. Following the death of Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir and Governor Shaista Khan in the early 1700s, the region became a semi-independent state under the Nawabs of Bengal. Siraj Ud-Daulah, the last of the Nawabs of Bengal, was defeated by the British East India Company at the Battle of Plassey in 1757 and the whole region fell under Company rule by 1793.
After the decline of the British Bengal Presidency, the borders of modern Bangladesh were established with the partition of Bengal in August 1947 at the time of partition of India, when the region became East Pakistan as a part of the newly formed Dominion of Pakistan. Later the rise of a pro-democracy movement thrived on Bengali nationalism and self-determination, leading to the Liberation War and eventually resulted in the emergence of Bangladesh as a sovereign and independent nation in 1971.
The Bengalis make up 98% of the total population of Bangladesh. The large Muslim population of Bangladesh makes it the third-largest Muslim-majority country. The constitution declares Bangladesh a secular state, while establishing Islam as a state religion. As a middle power in world politics, Bangladesh is a unitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional republic following the Westminster system of governance. The country is divided into eight administrative divisions and sixty-four districts. Although the country continues to face the challenges of the Rohingya refugee crisis, corruption, and the adverse effects of climate change, Bangladesh is one of the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, and is also one of the Next Eleven countries, having Asia's fastest real GDP growth rate. The Bangladeshi economy is the 39th-largest in the world by nominal GDP, and the 29th-largest by PPP.
Bangladesh community action[edit | edit source]
Biodiversity[edit | edit source]
Climate action[edit | edit source]
Communities online[edit | edit source]
Community energy[edit | edit source]
Environment quality[edit | edit source]
Food activism[edit | edit source]
Social inclusion[edit | edit source]
Towards sustainable economies[edit | edit source]
Resources[edit | edit source]
Maps[edit | edit source]
Research[edit | edit source]
News and comment[edit | edit source]
New Global Coalition launched to address impacts of Climate Change, Jan 25  Developed by the UK in partnership with Egypt, Bangladesh, Malawi, the Netherlands, Saint Lucia and the United Nations, this new Coalition will work to turn international political commitments made through the United Nations Call for Action on Adaptation and Resilience into on-the-ground support for vulnerable communities.
Solar-Powered Trike Ambulance In Bangladesh, Feb 18 
'Swarm Electrification' in Bangladesh Lets Neighbours Swap Solar Electricity, Nov 29 
In Rural Bangladesh, Solar Power Dents Poverty, Oct 4 
Saving Bangladesh’s last rainforest, Sep 21 
Rajshahi: the city that took on air pollution – and won, Jun 17 
How Bangladeshi inventors are making eco-friendly air conditioners from plastic bottles, Jun 2 
Bangladesh fires up large-scale solar to boost power generation, November 20 
Solar-Powered Pumps Reduce Irrigation Costs in Bangladesh, September 8 
The Solar Energy Revolution Everyone’s Ignoring… Is In Bangladesh, October 25 
Bangladesh going solar in a big way, May 12 
Climate disasters threaten Bangladesh’s social gains, January 22 
Bangladesh sets new world record – five million high quality Compact fluorescent lamp Ws distributed to Bangladeshi homes,  July 26
Island's disappearance attributed to global warming,  March 25
"It is predicted that 18 percent of our coastal area will be submerged and 20 million people will be displaced. Are our political parties aware of these issues?"  March 25
Bangladesh, India: The Relationship Between Water Crisis And Migration,  by Rezwan, February 19. Sowmya Suryanarayanan at Strategic Foresight opines that the lack of freshwater resources in Bangladesh “is a massive threat and will remain a primary reason for cross border migration in the future.”
An ordinary citizen highlights the crusade of some local media to save the rivers of Dhaka from pollution,  September 21
2009 SEED Award Winners,  May 12
"Solar conversion of traditional kerosene hurricane lamps". A national NGO in partnership with a local NGO and a cooperative have developed an innovative device called "SuryaHurricane", a low-cost solar lantern made from recycled parts of the conventional and much used kerosene lantern.
"Generating local economy through regenerating local resources". A cooperation between a national NGO, a research institution and a small-sized business aims to avoid bio-diversity losses and degradation of the agricultural lands, by recycling waste from rice-growing for the production of cement that will be used in the production of low cost housing materials.
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References[edit | edit source]
- The Guardian
- Thomson Reuters
- The Atlantic
- wikinews:Disputed island disappears beneath sea on India-Bangladesh border
- Had I been in Voyager 1!!!
- Global Voices Online
- An Ordinary citizen
- United Nations Environment Programme