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| By Michigan Tech's Open Sustainability Technology Lab.
Wanted: Students to make a distributed future with solar-powered open-source 3-D printing.
|This page is part of an international project to use RepRap 3-D printing to make OSAT for sustainable development. Learn more.
Research: Open source 3-D printing of OSAT • RecycleBot • LCA of home recycling • Green Distributed Recycling • Ethical Filament • LCA of distributed manufacturing • RepRap LCA Energy and CO2 • Solar-powered RepRaps • solar powered recyclebot • Feasibility hub • Mechanical testing • RepRap printing protocol: MOST• Lessons learned • MOST RepRap Build • MOST Prusa Build • MOST HS RepRap build • RepRap Print Server
Materials used in RepRap 3-D printing with reference. Most common:
- Nylon (e.g. Taulman 618 Nylon)
- PVA - PolyVinyl Alcohol -- is a cold water soluble 3D printer filament.
- HDPE -- M.A. Kreiger, M.L. Mulder, A.G. Glover, J. M. Pearce, Life Cycle Analysis of Distributed Recycling of Post-consumer High Density Polyethylene for 3-D Printing Filament, Journal of Cleaner Production, 70, pp. 90–96 (2014). DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.02.009. open access
- Laywood - wood-fiber composites - usually nylon and wood fiber 
- Laybrick - 
- low friction, Iglide Tribo-Filament that can be used for custom parts and bearings 
- elastomer - see Ninjaflex 
- High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) filament - 
- Steel - Open-source metal 3-D printer - Gerald C. Anzalone, Chenlong Zhang, Bas Wijnen, Paul G. Sanders and Joshua M. Pearce, “Low-Cost Open-Source 3-D Metal Printing” IEEE Access, 1, pp.803-810, (2013). doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2013.2293018 open access preprint
- Carbon fiber reinforced filament- 
- Carbon nanotube reinforced filament 
- PEEK 
- Polyphenylsulfone (PPSF or PPSU) - 
- Polyetherimide (PEI) is an amorphous, amber-to-transparent thermoplastic with characteristics similar to the related plastic PEEK.- 
- cleaning filament
- POM - Polyoxymethylene -lots of good data
Experimental filament companies
- Proto Pasta http://www.proto-pasta.com/] - carbon fiber reinforced PLA, high temp PLA ( 190C-210C ), PC-ABS alloy
- Matter Hackers- Taulman 618 Nylon, soft PLA, TPE is a flexible 3D printing material that feels and acts much like flexible rubber, HIPS, PC and all whole range of Kai Parthy’s LAY-WOOD3 and Lay brick -- on the way from Kai - Lay ceramic  - LAY-FELT, LAY-TEKKKS, LAY-FOMM, GEL-LAY . LAY-FELT and LAY-TEKKKS are similarly felt-like materials though LAY-TEKKKS is thinner and more fibrous. LAY-FOMM and GEL-LAY are foamy and gel-like respectively.
- AveroLabs - PEEK, carbon fiber and carbon nanotube reinforced, PPSU, PEI. In order to use such materials it’s necessary to have a printhead that can handle up to 400º C.
- 3DX Tech - MI startup has ABS-nylon , ABS+carbon nanotubes, 3DXMax HIPS support material. This can be used for multi-headed 3D printers to create support structures dissolvable in d-Limonene, for easy clean up
- Esun - conductive (129 ohm/cm), luminous, wood, flexible, cleaning and alloys including PLA/PC, PLA/ABS, PLA/POM and PLA/HIPS
- ECO Reprap - Conductive PLA, Flame Retardant PLA,PC/ABS,TPEE,PEEK and PP