Tctscover.png Create-Joshua-Pearce.png Pearce Publications
Energy Conservation Energy Policy Industrial SymbiosisLife Cycle Analysis Materials Science Open SourceMedical Photovoltaic Systems Solar CellsSustainable Development Sustainability Education

OSL.jpg Feedingeveryone.jpg

Page data
Authors Joshua M. Pearce
Published 2015
License CC-BY-SA-4.0
Impact Number of views to this page. Views by admins and bots are not counted. Multiple views during the same session are counted as one. 276


  • Selvaraj, M., Venkatachalapathy, V., Mayandi, J., Karazhanov, S. and Pearce, J. M., Preparation of meta-stable phases of barium titanate by sol-hydrothermal method. AIP Advances, 5, 117119 (2015), DOI: open access



Two low-cost chemical methods of sol–gel and the hydrothermal process have been strategically combined to fabricate barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanopowders. This method was tested for various synthesis temperatures (100 °C to 250 °C) employing barium dichloride (BaCl2) and titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) as precursors and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as mineralizer for synthesis of BaTiO3 nanopowders. The as-prepared BaTiO3 powders were investigated for structural characteristics using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The overall analysis indicates that the hydrothermal conditions create a gentle environment to promote the formation of crystalline phase directly from amorphous phase at the very low processing temperatures investigated. XRD analysis showed phase transitions from cubic - tetragonal - orthorhombic - rhombohedral with increasing synthesis temperature and calculated grain sizes were 34 – 38 nm (using the Scherrer formula). SEM and TEM analysis verified that the BaTiO3 nanopowders synthesized by this method were spherical in shape and about 114 - 170 nm in size. The particle distribution in both SEM and TEM shows that as the reaction temperature increases from 100 °C to 250 °C, the particles agglomerate. Selective area electron diffraction (SAED) shows that the particles are crystalline in nature. The study shows that choosing suitable precursor and optimizing pressure and temperature; different meta-stable (ferroelectric) phases of undoped BaTiO3 nanopowders can be stabilized by the sol-hydrothermal method.

See also[edit | edit source]