Preparation of meta-stable phases of barium titanate by sol-hydrothermal method
|Michigan Tech's Open Sustainability Technology Lab.
Wanted: Students to make a distributed future with solar-powered open-source 3-D printing and recycling.
Pearce Publications: Energy Conservation • Energy Policy • Industrial Symbiosis • Life Cycle Analysis • Materials Science • Open Source • Photovoltaic Systems • Solar Cells • Sustainable Development • Sustainability Education
Source[edit | edit source]
- Selvaraj, M., Venkatachalapathy, V., Mayandi, J., Karazhanov, S. and Pearce, J. M., Preparation of meta-stable phases of barium titanate by sol-hydrothermal method. AIP Advances, 5, 117119 (2015), DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4935645 open access
Abstract[edit | edit source]
Two low-cost chemical methods of sol–gel and the hydrothermal process have been strategically combined to fabricate barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanopowders. This method was tested for various synthesis temperatures (100 °C to 250 °C) employing barium dichloride (BaCl2) and titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) as precursors and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as mineralizer for synthesis of BaTiO3 nanopowders. The as-prepared BaTiO3 powders were investigated for structural characteristics using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The overall analysis indicates that the hydrothermal conditions create a gentle environment to promote the formation of crystalline phase directly from amorphous phase at the very low processing temperatures investigated. XRD analysis showed phase transitions from cubic - tetragonal - orthorhombic - rhombohedral with increasing synthesis temperature and calculated grain sizes were 34 – 38 nm (using the Scherrer formula). SEM and TEM analysis verified that the BaTiO3 nanopowders synthesized by this method were spherical in shape and about 114 - 170 nm in size. The particle distribution in both SEM and TEM shows that as the reaction temperature increases from 100 °C to 250 °C, the particles agglomerate. Selective area electron diffraction (SAED) shows that the particles are crystalline in nature. The study shows that choosing suitable precursor and optimizing pressure and temperature; different meta-stable (ferroelectric) phases of undoped BaTiO3 nanopowders can be stabilized by the sol-hydrothermal method.
See also[edit | edit source]
- BaTiO3 has promise as an ultracapacitor for use in electrical storage applications for solar photovoltaic technology
- Photovoltaic charging of ultracapacitors literature review - complete lit review
- Photovoltaic charging of ultracapacitors - project page
- Ultracapacitors: MOST - methods page, include spec sheets, safety, etc. for using ours.