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Texas (, also locally ) is a state in the South Central region of the United States. It is the second largest U.S. state by both area (after Alaska) and population (after California). Texas shares borders with the states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the south and southwest, and has a coastline with the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast.

Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U.S., while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U.S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U.S., and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed the "Lone Star State" for its former status as an independent republic, and as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico. The "Lone Star" can be found on the Texas state flag and on the Texas state seal. The origin of Texas's name is from the Caddo word táyshaʼ meaning 'friends'.

Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U.S. Southern and the Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U.S. southwestern deserts, less than ten percent of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands, forests, and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, and finally the desert and mountains of the Big Bend.

The term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations that have ruled over the territory. Spain was the first European country to claim and control the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming the Republic of Texas. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state. The state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846. A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U.S. in early 1861, and officially joined the Confederate States of America on March 2 of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation.

Historically, four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton, timber, and oil. Before and after the U.S. Civil War, the cattle industry—which Texas came to dominate—was a major economic driver for the state, and created the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the later 19th century, cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative. It was ultimately, though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits (Spindletop in particular) that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry during the mid-20th century. As of 2015, it is second in the United States of most Fortune 500 company headquarters with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including tourism, agriculture, petrochemicals, energy, computers and electronics, aerospace, and biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U.S. in state export revenue since 2002, and has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would have the 10th-largest economy in the world.

Texas community action[edit | edit source]

Sustainability initiatives[edit | edit source]

Climate action[edit | edit source]

Wikipedia: Action to address climate change in Texas

Community energy[edit | edit source]

Wikipedia: Solar power in Texas - Wind power in Texas: Texas produces the most wind power of any U.S. state.

Cycling activism[edit | edit source]

Houston Bikes - Wikipedia: San Antonio, Bicycle paths: San Antonio has approximately 136 miles (219 km) of bike lanes, routes or off-road paths. Off-road trails travel along the San Antonio River, linear greenways, or city parks. Although largely disconnected, the progress to create a bicycle-friendly environment was recognized when San Antonio was designated a Bronze-Level Bicycle Friendly Community by the League of American Bicyclists - San Antonio, Bicycle sharing: A bike sharing service was approved by the city council on June 17, 2010

Education for sustainability[edit | edit source]

Wikipedia: List of nature centers in Texas

Environment quality[edit | edit source]

Texas Commission on Environmental Quality

Food activism[edit | edit source]

Black Star Co-op, pub and brewery

Bonton Farms, Dallas

in.gredients, Austin’s zero waste micro-grocer

Social inclusion[edit | edit source]

Sustainable transport activism[edit | edit source]

Dallas Slow Streets dallascityhall.com, added 18:33, 8 June 2020 (UTC)

Wikipedia: Hiking trails in Texas (category)

Resources[edit | edit source]

Apps for sustainability[edit | edit source]

Power of Ten, Map Your Ideas to Re-Imagine the Heart of San Antonio

Citizens data initiative[edit | edit source]

Energy Profile for Texas- Economic, environmental, and energy data

News and comment[edit | edit source]


The Hope for Lasting Change from a South Dallas Mobile Food Park, Apr 7 [1]


Talking Bike Share in Dallas, Mar 6 [2]

Dallas non-profit creates bike share docks for neighborhoods, Feb 19 [3]


World’s first solar panel mural unveiled in San Antonio, Nov 17 [4]

This is what America's eco city of the future looks like, Oct 16 [5]

Harvey Is What Climate Change Looks Like, Aug 28 [6]

Austin's Ride-Hailing Saga Shows Need for More Local Empowerment, Jun 29 [7]

Austin Council Votes to Boost Worker Cooperatives, Apr 18 [8]

Overcoming Stigma: One Event at a Time, Mar 31 [9]

Oak Cliff Inspiration, Mar 27 [10]

Bayou Greenways, Jan 5 [11]


New record set for most wind-power used in Texas, Nov 30 [12]

In Collaboration with Underserved Community an Outsider Helps Establish First Urban Farm in Dallas, Nov 28 [13]

New Ridesharing Alternatives Thrive After Uber Leaves Austin, Jul 6 [14]

Houston: Clinic’s garden promotes community connection, healthy lifestyle, March 11 [15]


Lewisville: Texas distiller uses solar energy to produce spirits [16]

Dallas: Food forest fans propose a garden of eating in Collin County park, August 9 [17]

Campaigns[edit | edit source]

Texas Campaign for the Environment


External links[edit | edit source]

Wikipedia: Texas

References[edit | edit source]