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Introduction[edit | edit source]

This section includes journal paper review for a project aimed at design and implementation of floating solar PV system (Flotovoltaics) for potential areas such as California Aqueduct, adding towards a sustainable practice of saving water and aquatic life. The need for floatovoltaics arises in places with water deficit or deal with land use issues such as in populous places. Various subsections under this are explained with highlights and key points which may be useful in designing this work.

This literatture review supported the following publications:

  • Hayibo, K.S.; Mayville, P.; Kailey, R.K.; Pearce, J.M. Water Conservation Potential of Self-Funded Foam-Based Flexible Surface-Mounted Floatovoltaics. Energies 2020, 13, 6285. [ open access]

H2O cooling function of Solar PV (Floatovoltaic)[edit | edit source]

An active cooling system for photovoltaic modules(2010)[1][edit | edit source]

  • Electrical Efficiency of the PV cell is greatly affected by operating temprature of the PV cell
  • Designed parallel air ducts for inflow and outflow for uniform airflow distribution
  • Compared the active cooling of PV cell with and without an active cooling system
  • Developed a simulation model for comparing the actual on site results with the simulation results

Enhancing the performance of photovoltaic panels by water cooling(2013)[2][edit | edit source]

  • P-V Characteristics are dependent on the temperature and output voltage of solar panel and are inversely proportional to each other
  • When temperature starts increasing the efficiency to produce electricity for the same irradiance level decreases
  • Performed many experiments using water and air as a coolant for cooling the solar panels and analyzed that water is the best and cheap coolant
  • Developed heating rate and cooling rate mathematical model to find the exact moment when cooling needs to start for the cooling process

Assessment of the Operating Temprature of Crystalline PV Modules Baesd on Real Use Conditions(2013)[3][edit | edit source]

  • Found the optimal operating mode for converting electrical energy from solar panels
  • Created standard operating procedure using P-V characterstics
  • Given the results that electricity production depends on ratio of voltage/ volatge at maximum power point

Improved Power Output of PV System by Low Cost Evaporative Cooling Technology(2013)[4][edit | edit source]

  • In this paper the performance of the PV Module is enhanced by evaporative cooling technology. In this the air from the blower is passed thorigh a cool wet pad and which in turn coos down the rear part of the PV module.
  • Various factors affecting the evaporation like relative humidity, air temperature, sir movement and exposed surface area were considered during cooling down process of the PV module.
  • Different equations for calculating Voc, Isc, IL and Is were introduced and how this equations are dependent on temperature was shown.
  • Different graphs depending on Temperature and Vic , Isc and Efficiency has been studied and how with the change in temperature the Voc and Isc varies which ultimately varies the efficiency.

Improving of the photovoltaic / thermal system performance using water cooling technique (2014)[5][edit | edit source]

  • The cooling of PV panels is done by water circulating at PV module rear surface.
  • A mathematical modeling has been carried out to compare with the experimental set up.
  • The cooling of PV module is done by using a heat exchanger and cooling fan.
  • Different cases has been studied by changing the mas flow rate of fluid and Maximum ambient temperature MAT.

Experimental evaluation of the performance of a photovoltaic panel with water cooling(2014)[6][edit | edit source]

  • Rear cooling of PV Module has been performed to decrease the cell temperature and increase the efficiency.
  • Graph for power output vs irradiance for both normal and hybrid model has been plotted.
  • Reduction in temperature with change in the mass flow rate has been studied.

Increasing solar panel efficiency in a sustainable manner(2014)[7][edit | edit source]

  • This paper discussed about the cooling and cleaning of PV modules by water for better efficiency.
  • The kinetic energy of the water rolling down the panel and falling into the tank has been used along with a Hydraulic RAM pump tp pump the water to the top tank. By this process the minimum energy is required to pump the water for cooling and cleaning purpose.
  • Comparison has been made on the efficiency of the panel covered by dust and dry panel with panel cleaned and cooled by water. The overall efficiency of the panel was increased by 14%.

Study on performance enhancement of PV cells by water spray cooling for the climatic conditions of Coimbatore, Tamilnadu(2015)[8][edit | edit source]

  • Solar irradiance for the particular site has been calculated for the year.
  • Based on irradiance the PV module back and rear temperature has been calculated through a mathematical modeling.
  • Mathematical calculation for the time taken(t) for the cooling of panels at different flow rate has be derived.
  • Along with cooling of PV modules how the thin layer of water reduces the reflection losses and cleans PV panels for better efficiency.

Experimental Assessment of PV Module Cooling Strategies(2015)[9][edit | edit source]

  • Factors that contributes to the efficiency of the PV module has been studied
  • A pilot study was conducted to investigate at which tilt angle PV module produces maximum surface temperature and how it effects the output power
  • The study also revealed that the cell temperature and the back surface temperature are different and back surface temperature is a good approximation of the actual cell temperature.
  • Two different cooling set up were compared with a non cooling system to find the difference in temperature and power output.

Experimental Study on Efficiency Enhancement of PV Systems With Combined Effect of Cooling and Maximum Power Point Tracking(2016)[10][edit | edit source]

  • The efficiency of the PV module is studies by taking into consideration the PV module temperature and Maximim power point tracking.
  • A mathematical formula that defines the efficiency of the solar panel has been introduced.
  • A mathematical formula that can be used to calculate the temperature of the PV module has been introduced.
  • Here the cooling of the PV module has been done by passing water through the copper pipes fitted at the rear side of the PV module.
  • In the cooling process the flow/loop of water is maintained by the process of thermosiphon. The use of pump has been avoided in this process.
  • The complete set up has been tested under different conditions. Through the process the efficiency could be increased to 8.95% to 10.66%.

Efficiency improvement of solar PV panels using active cooling(2012)[11][edit | edit source]

  • This apaper intends to improve the efficiency of the PV Panel by active cooling to reduce the losses due to temperature and considering and decrease reflection losses to some extent.
  • This paper considers different aspects related to solar power plant and its efficiency improvement like photovoltaic losses, methods to reduce losses, active cooling system, soil temperature modelling & design of under ground tunnels.
  • The paper also explains hoe the flow of water on the PV module decreases the temperature and acts as a better refractive index material between glass and air.
  • A mathematical calculation for the thermal modelling of PV panel has been introduced.
  • A practical calculation has been made to calculate the amount of energy produced, the energy required in water circulation and the net energy produced. *An economic calculation has also been made to calculate the amount of money invested and how fast it can be retrieved by using the above technology.

Solar water heating system and photovoltaic floating cover to reduce evaporation: Experimental results and modelling(2017)[12][edit | edit source]

  • In this paper, floating PV is used for covering the pond and heating the water for industrial purposes. Detailed formulation is provided.
  • The pond with floating covers water evaporation reduction was greater than 90% with respect to an uncovered pond.
  • In copper mining there is a significant potential for using solar energy to heat solutions in electro-winning and for washing copper cathodes. In order to improve the leaching efficiency of sulfide minerals, a high temperature is required to improve the mineral process like leaching because the extraction increases with the temperature.
  • Proposed a simulation model for energy efficiency assessment.

Technical-economic study of cooled crystalline solar modules(2016)[13][edit | edit source]

  • The aim of the paper is to study the techno-commercial aspects of a solar dydtem with evaporative cooling technology.
  • The set up considers various technical aspects of the location and pv module like voltage and cuurent, moisture content of air, global irradiation, wind aspect etc.
  • It also emphasized on the water evaporation due to cooling process and also concluded that in case of poly-crystalline solar module cooling system was switched on less frequently.
  • Economic aspect was studied for the set up on different countries considering the amount involved , inflation, feasibility and delivery price of the electric energy.

A Combination of Concentrator Photovoltaics and Water Cooling System to Improve Solar Energy Utilization(2013)[14][edit | edit source]

  • Water cooling system in concentrator PV is shown with schematic diagrams
  • Optimal time of start/stop operation of cooling system is presented
  • Neural network algorithm used to determined the PV output during short time

Photovoltaic panels: A review of the cooling techniques (2016)[15][edit | edit source]

  • This paper studied the different cooling techniques of PV module and discusses its effectiveness compering the process and overall net efficiency.
  • The author has taken into consideration different cooling techniques like passive cooling, active cooling, thermal electric cooling, heat pipe cooling and Nano fluid cooling.
  • A comparison among the different techniques was made taking the maximum power gain into account and dividing it with effective surface of PV cell. The comparison was plotted in a graph between cooling technique and maximum peak power gain per square unit.
  • Taking into account different criteria's active cooling technique have higher efficiency.

Increased electrical yield via water flow over the front of photovoltaic panels(2004)[16][edit | edit source]

  • The paper discusses about cutting optical losses by use of water(refractive index 1.3), keeping the surface clean and decreasing the cell temperature.
  • How the solar radiation hitting at a certain angle increases the reflection losses which can account for 8-15% loss in a day for conventional PV system under STC. It also explains how a material like water can compensate the reflection loss providing a better refractive index of 1.3.
  • It also discusses about the thermal losses associated with PV module and how by controlling the temperature of the PV module the efficiency can be increased . Flow of water on the module front absorbs the heat and brings down the temperature of the module.
  • The set up was tested for two modules, one with cooling technique and other without that. The graph has been plotted which gives a clear picture how the module with cooling technique maintained a temperature much below the temperature of the module without cooling, thus giving better efficiency.

Water Cooling Method to Improve the Performance of Field-Mounted, Insulated, and Concentrating Photovoltaic Modules(2014)[17][edit | edit source]

  • This paper discusses about how the efficiency of the PV Module is effected due to temperature, soiling. Due to soiling the amount of solar irradiance that reaches the PV module material is blocked. Higher temperature also accelerates the material and Mechanical degradation of the panel over the lifetime.
  • How the flow of water acts as a cooling agent,cleaning agent reducing the panel soiling and reduces the reflectance of the incoming light.
  • The set up was created for two sets of panels to be tested on different parameters and techniques like cooling on open rack module, cooling test on insulated pv panels, cooling through ice water etc. Different net results in terms of efficiency was calculated and studied.
  • Depending upon the energy implications, economic benefits and climatic factors different conditions and their feasibility were studied. How a control system could timeline the usage of cooling system as per the temperature reached was also suggested. which would limit the power consumptions and water evaporation and eventually give a better net efficiency.

Passive cooling technology for photovoltaic panels for domestic houses(2014)[18][edit | edit source]

  • A rainwater-cooling system is employed to improve the efficiency of solar panels
  • A schematic diagram of proposed system is presented and heat transfer on panel surface is described
  • Rainwater estimation and and improvement in efficiency of the system are shown in tabular and graphical forms
  • Payback period of 14 years as per paper

Photovoltaic panels: A review of the cooling techniques(2016)[19][edit | edit source]

  • A review of major cooling techniques
  • Passive cooling, active cooling, heat pipe cooling, nano fluid cooling and thermoelectric cooling techniques are described
  • Active cooling has higher efficiency than passive ones

An active cooling system for photovoltaic modules(2012)[20][edit | edit source]

  • Active cooling system explained
  • Heat transfer modeling performed
  • Mathematical formulations with panel engineering sketches are shown

Effect of Water Cooling on the Energy Conversion Efficiency of PV Cell(2016)[21][edit | edit source]

  • The focus of this paper is to study the effects of water cooling of the panel on its efficiency and to compare that with efficiency of panel without cooling.
  • The mathematical equations for efficiency relating different parameters with cooling and non-cooling technique has been defined.
  • A graph has been plotted between peak efficiency and mass flow rate of water(liter/hr.) and it has been observed that flow rate above 2 liter/hr. drags down the peak efficiency of the panel.
  • Different graphs has been plotted for Times in hour Vs Solar panel temperature Vs Power output Vs Output efficiency and it is clear that the panel with cooling technology yields a better performance.

Indoor Test Performance of PV Panel through Water Cooling Method(2015)[22][edit | edit source]

  • The aim of this paper is to study how to increase the electrical efficiency of PV Pnael. It depends on environmental factors like solar radiation and operating temperature.
  • The arrangement with halogen bulb for solar radiation, dc water pump for spraying water and 50M mono crystalline PV panel is described along with different measuring devices for measurement of solar radiation and performance of PV panels.
  • Graph has been plotted to show the difference between the temperature by the PV panel at different solar radiation with water cooling and without water cooling.
  • Graph has been plotted to show the difference in maximum voltage output, maximum current output and maximum power output with respect to different solar radiation with and without water cooling technique and their results has been compared.

Water spray cooling technique applied on a photovoltaic panel: The performance response(2016)[23][edit | edit source]

  • THe purpose of this paper is to study a water spraying technique, implemented on both sides of PV panel to gain an optimal cooling technique and compare it with other cooling circumtances.
  • A mathematical equations for calculating the heat loss is introduced taking into consideration the panel front and back temperature.
  • Different graphs have been plotted with different cooling process a)Front cooling b) Back cooling c)Both sides simultaneously. various graphs of voltage, current and power output has been plotted and studied varying the different process above.

Simulation of PV System[edit | edit source]

Comparison of PV system performance model with measured PV system performance(2008)[24][edit | edit source]

  • Performance-model in SAM is compared with performance of physical measurement of PV system
  • LCOE (Levelized Cost of Energy) is key performance indicator according to Department of Solar Energy Technology Program
  • LCOE lifecycle cost, installed cost, performance, operating costs, maintenance costs with reliability included
  • Test case at Sandia with grid-tied PV system with 3 systems with tilt along the latitude such that no shading is observed
  • Modeling performed for Raiations, module performance and invertor
  • Performance submodels—radiation, performance of module and invertor—under Solar Advisor Model gave reasonable agreement. Error noted for various model lies within ±1 to ±3%
  • Non-crystalline technologies showed variations between models studied
  • Use of derate factors—such as shading and wiring losses—are important factors during simulation and comparison studies

Modeling Photovoltaic and Concentrating Solar Power Trough Performance, Cost, and Financing with the Solar Advisor Model(2008)[25][edit | edit source]

  • Built System Advisor Model(SAM) by the staff of NREL and Sandia National Laboratory to support the professionals of solar industry doing reserch in solar
  • SAM is used to compare different solar technology on the same platform from the point of view of performance, cost and economic aspects
  • Having user friendly GUI interface so anybody can use it effectively
  • SAM has some readily available models for different pv modulesand for inverters to compare the performance


Abstract: Before installing a solar power plant the financial risk associated with has to be analyzed. There are different methodology used for this purpose and in this paper two metodology used by NREL is described.

  • Data without describing the major event for the particular location can be found from Typical Meteorological Year data sets, which are used for preliminary research
  • More detailed analysis for solar radiation and weather data are available at National Solar Radiation Database(NSRDB) and National Climatic Data Center(NCDC)
  • In 50 method the possibilities of power output greater than 50% of the preset value is 50% and silmilar in P90 method it is greater than 90%

PV system model reduction for reliability assessment studies(2013)[27][edit | edit source]

  • Analyzed the reliability of solar photovoltaic energy in modern power systems
  • Performed simulations for the modeled pv systems for eight different locations
  • Proposed model reduces the data required for PV system comparison , yet gives the accurate results

Design Parameters of 10kW Floating Solar Power Plant(2015)[28][edit | edit source]

  • The paper describes the importance and advantages of floating solar power plant
  • Reduction of evaporation (70%) and algal bloom, viable in parts of India where land acquisition is problem
  • Parts of the system: solar PV module, string inverter, module mounting structure, cable and connectors, FRP floating platform, mooring arrangement, access gangway and electrical installations
  • Few challenges such as to withstand wind speed, water current speed, snow load and corrosion due to water moisture
  • Drawback : such investment is 1.2 times conventional land solar installations

Water canal use for the implementation and efficiency optimization of photovoltaic facilities: Tajo-Segura transfer scenario(2016)[29][edit | edit source]

  • The pilot project at Narmada Canal, Gujarat for 1 MW is described
  • A canal top approaches in PV system is explained
  • The advantages of canal top installation for Tajo-Segura canal in Spain is demostrrated
  • The savings and pay back is also obtained
  • A sectionalized study of canal is performed
  • Shading effects are also studied and the cooling techniques is also shown with improvements in temperature of the solar panels contributing towards better efficiency

A survey on floating solar power(2016)[30][edit | edit source]

  • Explains need of floating solar system and feasibility of solar power in India with almost 300 days of sunshine
  • HDPE (High Density Poly Ethylene) with cheaper cost and reliability is proposed choice for installation
  • HDPE structure is shown with schematic diagram in the paper
  • Describes installation at Far Niente Winery in Napa California (SPG)
  • Describes installation at Kolkata commissioned by VikramSolar and Arka College

Canal Top Solar Energy Harvesting using Reflector(2016)[31][edit | edit source]

  • Water savings estimation is shown with a simple equation
  • Canal top PV with reflectors is presented with shadow effects and tilt angles
  • Expression for reflector orientation is presented

Incorporation of NREL Solar Advisor Model Photovoltaic Capabilities with GridLAB-D(2012)[32][edit | edit source]

  • Various algorithms namely: SOLPAS, Perez Tilt Model, Flat Plate Efficiency Model are presented
  • Comparative analysis for GridLAB-D model and SAM model shows similar results
  • Proposed in studies: GridLAB-D can model a distributed generation system more accurately

Comparison of PV System for land and water body[edit | edit source]

Study on electrical power output of floating photovoltaic and conventional photovoltaic(2013)[33][edit | edit source]

  • Best PV module's performance is claimed to be observed at ambient temperature of 25 degree celsius with irradiation of 1000W/sq.m.
  • Study is conducted in Malaysia where the temperature is observed 30 degree celsius during the day time.
  • Efficiency of PV cells decrease when subjected to highly intensive solar radiation.
  • Heat sink should be chosen based on thermal conductivity value, material density and cost.
  • Higher electrical power output is observed with floating photovoltaic module than the conventional module.

Study on performance of 80 watt floating photovoltaic panel(2014)[34][edit | edit source]

  • The efficiency reduces by 0.485% per 1 degree C increase in temperature
  • Use of PVC pipe and Al as floating structure due to their light weight and thermal conductivity respectively
  • Tilt angle needs to be between 0 to 7 degrees for Peninsular Malaysia
  • Proposed for places with one season throughout the year
  • Temperature difference for foalting and overland installation is compared
  • Energy gain difference between both types is compared showing superior performance of floating PV
  • Power gain increased by 15.5% for floating PV under this study

A Study on Power Generation Analysis of Floating PV System Considering Environmental Impact(2014)[35][edit | edit source]

  • Performance Analysis of Hapcheon 100 and 500kW floating solar PV is presented over the months of the year
  • On the basis of average generation, floating plant is expensive than overland plant
  • Juam 2.4kW floating Vs overland PV system superior performance of floating installation
  • Effect of wind speed with change in orientation and location (due to movement) is studied for Juam floating solar PV.
  • Generating efficiency for floating installation is 11% higher than overland installations by ignoring the effects of wind.

A study of floating PV Module Efficiency(2014)[36][edit | edit source]

  • Experiments are conducted in a place (Maltese islands) with higher irradiation and the ratio of water to land area is 10:1.
  • Different setups are compared such as solar panels on land, panels on floating water and panels on sea water with salt accumulated on it.
  • Water cooled setup performed better than the non-water cooled system by a factor of 9.6% in summer and by 3% in winter.
  • Sea salt accumulated system produced 3.8% greater energy output than the ground reflected system.
  • As it is more costlier to deploy solar panels on water than on the land, the power produced per square meter of the material used is of greater importance ad it is high for crystalline cells.
  • On the whole energy efficiency is always high for a floating panel than the terrestrial one.

Design and installation of floating type photovoltaic energy generation system using FRP members(2014)[37][edit | edit source]

  • This design is installed and tested at the sea site in Korea.
  • Tracking type floating PV model.
  • Temperature of the PV panels in the floating type PV energy generation system is lower than the land type due to relatively low temperature of the sea site.
  • Light weight materials such as pultruded FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) are used in the floating structure.
  • FRP is highly resistant to corrosion.
  • The link system installed between the unit modules is made of PFRP, recycled used tire, and olyethylene synthetic fiber rope.
  • Finite element analysis of the PV system is conducted based on the mechanical properties of the PFRP (Fiber reinforced Polymeric Plastic).
  • Floating model reduces the disadvantages such as environmental disruption and high cost of land use that are incurred by the PV land system.

The thin film flexible floating PV (T3F-PV) array: The concept and development of the prototype (2014) [38][edit | edit source]

  • World’s first deployment of a floating thin film PV – small prototype in Subdury,Canada.
  • Accumulation of dirt on the panels result in the reduction of output efficiency by 1%.
  • Proposed to develop a larger scale prototype.
  • Component cost of the floating PV array prototype is tabulated.
  • Since this is the first project PV installation costs are high and the design needs modifications.
  • Design changes are recommended that are suitable for operation in harsher environments(wave forces)

Variability of Power from Large Scale Solar Photostatic Scenarios in the State of Gujarat(2014)[39][edit | edit source]

  • Data of Global Horizontal Iradiance and Direct Normal Irradiance had dereived from the satelite images of the Meteoset satelite for 10 km*10 km area
  • Applied sub-hour irradiance algorithm(SIA) for down scaling hourly data to one minute time interval
  • Gujarat has solar power output of around 5.5-6 kwh/square meter/day and the results of this paper will help to find the optimal location in the state
  • Five potential locations selected for the for the future expansion scenario
  • This studies helps to integrate solar power with the conventional energy sources to meet the load demand and other challenges.

Empirical Research on the efficiency of Floating PV systems compared with Overland PV Systems(2013)[40][edit | edit source]

  • 100kW and 500kW floating PV systems are installed on water body in Korea. Utility of both installations compared with overland PV (1MW) systems.
  • Capacity Factor is calculated to determine the generation quantity.
  • Daily average generation quantity of overland PV system is compared with the Daily average generation capacity of floating PV system.
  • Coefficient of utilization – 13.5% higher for floating PV compared to land PV.
  • Generating efficiency – floating PV is superior by 11%

H2O saving simulation[edit | edit source]

Evaporation Reduction by Suspended and Floating Covers: Overview, Modelling and Efficiency(2010)[41][edit | edit source]

  • Design for Australia's South East Queensland which has heavy pressure of water demand
  • Use of suspended covers and floating covers, types of covers are discussed
  • Highest efficiency for SuperSpan covers together with greater life
  • Evaporation rate expression used for modeling the evaporation
  • Cost comparison shows cost per KL water for SuperSpan ranks second (after AquaCap)
  • 2D model is presented and 3D model is proposed for future research work

Design and analysis of a canal section for minimum water loss(2011)[42][edit | edit source]

  • Seepage and evaporation water losses are discussed for water canals
  • Objective function is water loss and its minimization is the task presented in this paper
  • Both evaporation and seepage functions are defined
  • The Lagrange multipliers are used to find out the optimal size of the canal such that evaporation losses are minimum

Evaluating Potential for floating solar installations on Arizona Water Management(2016)[43][edit | edit source]

  • Study highlights the need of foatovolatics and terms it as “drought adaptation technology”
  • Water loss through Central Arizona Project is around 4.4% equating to 58,921,434 gallons per day
  • Reduction of carcinogenic content in water due to lowering exposure to sunlight for bromate formation from chlorine and bromine
  • NREL estimation ignores transmission infrastructure and other costs and reliability
  • Various deigns of floating installations are discussed
  • Savings in water are evaluated using an empirical formula
  • A pilot location is proposed at lake Pleasant Reservoir
  • Cost per watt is $1.36 including the advantage of government subsidy

A new photovoltaic floating cover system for water reservoirs(2013)[44][edit | edit source]

  • Design in this paper is suitable to agricultural reservoirs where there are no heavy wave forces and is implemented in Spain.
  • Water losses by evaporation in farms amounted to 17 percent in Spain.
  • Floating cover systems require site specific planning and design to be successful.
  • Floating modules joined by means of pins cover the water surface in this design.
  • Elastic joints are used to easily adapt to varying reservoir water levels.
  • Evaporation reduction achieved through cooling/floating photovoltaic system is around 80%.

Determination of evaporation and seepage losses, Upper Lake Mary near Flagstaff, Arizona(1998)[45][edit | edit source]

  • Types of losses due to seepage and evaporation are discussed
  • Evaporation estimation using mass-transfer with several modified expressions
  • Estimates of mean annual and mean monthly evaporation were obtained
  • Equation 5 in the paper gives most accuracy in results

Water losses in canal networking (Narmada canal section near Gandhinagar-Ahmedabad)(2016)[46][edit | edit source]

  • Seepage and evaporation losses for Narmada canal section is shown
  • Briefly explains sections/phases in Narmada Canal
  • Inflow-outflow method to calculate seepage losses is presented
  • Drawbacks of Narmada canal is discussed: Algal formation and public pollution

Floating solar photovoltaic systems: An overview and their feasibility at Kota in Rajasthan[47][edit | edit source]

  • Floating PV technology is discussed in this paper.
  • Advantages and components of FPV has been dsiscussed.
  • FPV Installations in India have been discussed.

Potential of floating photovoltaic system for energy generation and reduction of water evaporation at four different lakes in Rajasthan[48]====

  • Detailed description on FPV, its advantages are discussed.
  • For study of FPV, four lakes of Rajasthan, India are considered.

Methods for the quantification of evaporation from lakes (prepared for the World Meteorological Organization’s Commission for Hydrology)(2008)[49][edit | edit source]

  • A brief summary of methods described:
Method Advantages Limitation
Mass-balance method doesn't require surface temperature for calculation difficult/expensive to measure all elements
Bulk-transfer method makes use of data easily available sensitivity to vapor pressure and difficulty in wind function definition
Energy balance method gives most accurate results with thermal stratification taken into account -
Equilibrium temperature method relatively new, uses heat storage of water and metro logical data into account doesn't include thermal stratification

Estimating evaporation based on standard meteorological data – progress since 2007(2014)[50][edit | edit source]

  • Most recent methods of estimating evaporation is summarized (since 2007 to 2014)
  • Review of remote sensing enhancing the application of standard procedures of estimating evaporation

Lake Evaporation in a Hyper-Arid Environment, Northwest of China—Measurement and Estimation(2016)[51][edit | edit source]

  • Study performed for East Juyan Lake, China
  • An evaporation model is derived and its validation can be done with known data or from pan evaporation tests
  • Floating pan evaporation techniques and its sensitivity analysis is presented

Floating photovoltaic plants: Performance analysis and design solutions [52][edit | edit source]

  • Limitations of further development of PV installations are described.
  • Advantages of PV floating solutions.
  • Supporting structures of FPV are described.
  • Cooling and cleaning in FPV is described.

Economics of PV on water body and sensitivity analysis[edit | edit source]

Assumptions and the Levelized Cost of Energy for Photovoltaics(2011)[53][edit | edit source]

  • LCOE is defined and explained in detail about its use in cost analysis of solar PV installations
  • SunPower simplified LCOE expression is cited
  • SAM presents LCOE as real and nominal (expressions are shown with required revenues over life of the project)
  • Single value of LCOE doesn't include effects of economic and financial aspects of project
  • Monte Carlo simulation provides much clear projection of LCOE with single inputs, with its few advantages: probabilistic results, sensitivity analysis and co-relation of inputs
  • Three locations Sacramento, Chicago and Boston with 20MW installation are compared for LCOE estimations
  • Major assumptions for two main parts of LCOE namely: cost and energy production are presented
  • Sensitivity analysis for three places with input parameters is presented showing real discount rate has greater impact

Floatovoltaics: Quantifying the Benefits of a Hydro-Solar Power Fusion(2013)[54][edit | edit source]

  • Pairing of water and solar could increase production efficiency by 8-10% through panel cooling and save millions of litres of water from evaporation.
  • A Floatovoltaic system is feasible only when the benefits of the project such as water saved from cooling and reduced evaporation plus the increase in power output outweigh the floating costs.
  • Shading water with the solar arrays can reduce the evaporation losses by 70%.
  • Maximum power is linearly related to both temperature and irradiance.
  • In areas with lots of irradiance and low land prices like deserts, electricity has to be transported long distances to reach users.
  • 6% of United States electrical energy is lost during transmission and distribution.
  • Connecting a solar array to the existing power grid would save on transmission infrastructure costs.

Floating photovoltaic power plant: A review(2015)[55][edit | edit source]

  • A nice paper which explains from all basics. Explains about different types of solar PV used in current world
  • Given names of companies who have installed floating PV's worldwide and their capacity. Reviews on different types of floating installations.
  • Explains only on still water bodies. In India arge water bodies are available in eastern, Sothern and South-eastern part of the country in states such as West Bengal, Assam, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
  • In agriculture based country like India, it saves valuable land and reduces water evaporation by installing Floatovoltaics

Some Remarks about the Deployment of Floating PV Systems in Brazil(2017)[56][edit | edit source]

  • sensitivity analysis of Solar Floatovoltaics implemented in Brazil.
  • Floating PV's are 11% effective than conventional one due to lower temperatures on water than on ground
  • The increase in the efficiency of the floating PV plant due to evaporative cooling may be significant in the Northeast region of the country (Sobradinho reservoir), but not significant in the North region (Balbina reservoir)
  • The installation of the system is also more difficult and costly. Apparently, this extra cost is offset by the fact that the system does not use and, which results in a cost reduction
  • Large scale floating PV plants can have a significant environmental impact by reducing algae growth and water oxygenation, and to minimize the first effect, glass-glass photovoltaic modules shall be used in Brazil

Theoretical and experimental analysis of a floating photovoltaic cover for water irrigation reservoirs (2014)[57][edit | edit source]

  • A prototype of 20kWp was implemented for water irrigation reservoirs (Spain).
  • Focuses on the theoretical and experimental analysis of a floating photovoltaic cover system for water irrigation reservoirs.
  • Shielding of water with floating materials obstruct photosynthesis, reduce algae growth and thus improves water quality.
  • Lower tilt angles provide better electrical performance.
  • Significant saving of Co2 is observed.
  • PV electricity generation costs for a kWh are expressed in profitability ratio.
  • Analysis states that the plant has a nominal capacity of 300kWp, gives annual production of 425000 kWh/year of renewable energy.
  • Savings in water is observed to be 5000 cubic meter or 25% of the reservoir’s storage capacity.

A Review on new era of solar power systems: Floatovoltaic systems or Floating solar power plants (2015)[58][edit | edit source]

  • Due to the cooling effects of water, its floating PV systems generate about 10 percent more electricity than rooftop or ground-mounted systems of the same size.
  • HDPE is commonly used because of its high density polyethylene structure. Can be installed in drinking water tanks. It is resistant to UV. Can withstand winds up to 118 mph. Costs less per module compared to LUPOLEN 5261Z, and Zinc coated stainless steel structures.
  • In this paper, they have considered different types of PV cells. Concluded that efficiency depends on area and cost of installation depends on the area considering transporation and manufacturing.
  • It takes as less as a week to install 200kW power plant with 800 floating panels in any given space.

A study on major design elements of tracking - type floating photovoltaic systems (2014)[59][edit | edit source]

  • Tracking-type floating PV system is explained and compared with fixed-type. Fixed-type has the angle of PV module is fixed at a certain angle and tracking-type where the azimuth and altitude of the sun is tracked to receive the sunlight perpendicular to the module surface.
  • On ground dual-axis tracking-type is 30% greater than a fixed-type. These are useful in countries like Korea to utilize the limited resources to the maximum.
  • Design is little bit different from normal floatovoltaic. Design is explained in this paper.
  • A tracking algorithm is provided for efficient use of PV. An error can be occurred due to external disturbing factors. A error correction method can be followed using GPS receiver and terrestrial magnetism sensor.
  • Various rotation mechanisms like rope and forward/reverse rotation method, worm and worm gear method, chain and roller guide method, fixed buoyancy roller guide method and chain or rope, and gear and rotation ring methods can be used to maintain internal rotating structure.

Uninterrupted Green Power using Floating Solar PV with Pumped Hydro Energy Storage & Hydroelectric in India (2016)[60][edit | edit source]

  • This paper aims at combining FSPV(Floating Solar PV) with PHES(Pumped Hydro Energy Storage) & Hydroelectric to try & create a model for a source of Uninterrupted Green Power. It attempts to estimate the potential of this model in large reservoirs in India.
  • The basic technology for both FSPV & PHES is well established & functioning successfully in many countries. But a combination of the same with hydroelectric to meet the requirement of Uninterrupted Green Power for the Indian consumer is the need of the hour.
  • This way renewable energy can be produced efficiently. This combination will result (in one of the configurations considered) at an initial cost of USD$1715.83 per kW installed and a cost of energy of USD$ 0.059/kWh.
  • saves the utilization of precious land resource of minimum 4 acres per MWp needed for ground mounted solar PV. output of Solar PV modules improves due to better cooling on reservoir water surface environment.
  • The existing infrastructure for power evacuation in hydroelectric power plants can be augmented & used.

Sustainability[edit | edit source]

Analysis of the Potential for Use of Floating Photovoltaic Systems on Mine Pit Lakes: Case Study at the Ssangyong Open-Pit Limestone Mine in Korea(2016)[61][edit | edit source]

  • Abandoned mine sites can be utilized for implementation of solar PV
  • Limiting factors includes availability of smaller area with shading effects
  • SAM modeling performed using weather information and proposed generation along with studies on economy showing return in 12.3 years in Koeran Mine Pit Lakes
  • Annual reduction in emissions found to be 471.21tCO2/year
  • Location, temperature, wind speed, irradiance level
  • Using ArcGIS the feasible site was determined along with design of PV system (tilt angles, required area, PV module, inverter)
  • Net present value (NPV) and Greenhouse gas reduction expressions are presented.
  • Variations in output w.r.t. tilt angles
  • Although, PV system installation needs 1.7 times higher expenditure than forestation of same area, but GHG emissions are reduced by half.

Lake Mead Evaporation studies[edit | edit source]

Evaporation from Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona, March 2010 through February 2012(2013)[62][edit | edit source]

  • Abstract

Evaporation from Lake Mead was measured using the eddy-covariance method for the 2-year period starting March 2010 and ending February 2012. When corrected for energy imbalances, annual eddy-covariance evaporation was 2,074 and 1,881 millimeters (81.65 and 74.07 inches), within the range of previous estimates. There was a 9-percent decrease in the evaporation rate and a 10-percent increase in the lake surface area during the second year of the study compared to the first. These offsetting factors resulted in a nearly identical 720 million cubic meters (584,000 acre feet) evaporation volume for both years. Monthly evaporation rates were best correlated with wind speed, vapor pressure difference, and atmospheric stability. Differences between individual monthly evaporation and mean monthly evaporation were as much as 20 percent. Net radiation provided most of the energy available for evaporative processes; however, advected heat from the Colorado River was an important energy source during the second year of the study. Peak evaporation lagged peak net radiation by 2 months because a larger proportion of the net radiation that reaches the lake goes to heating up the water column during the spring and summer months. As most of this stored energy is released, higher evaporation rates are sustained during fall months even though net radiation declines. The release of stored heat also fueled nighttime evaporation, which accounted for 37 percent of total evaporation. The annual energy-balance ratio was 0.90 on average and varied only 0.01 between the 2 years, thus implying that 90 percent of estimated available energy was accounted for by turbulent energy measured using the eddy-covariance method. More than 90 percent of the turbulent-flux source area represented the open-water surface, and 94 percent of 30-minute turbulent-flux measurements originated from wind directions where the fetch ranged from 2,000 to 16,000 meters. Evaporation uncertainties were estimated to be 5 to 7 percent.

A secondary evaporation method, the Bowen ratio energy budget method, also was employed to measure evaporation from Lake Mead primarily as a validation of eddy-covariance evaporation measurements at annual timescales. There was good agreement between annual corrected eddy-covariance and Bowen ratio energy budget evaporation estimates, providing strong validation of these two largely independent methods. Annual Bowen ratio energy budget evaporation was 6 and 8 percent greater than eddy-covariance evaporation for the 2 study years, and both methods indicated there was a similar decrease in evaporation from the first to the second year. Both methods produced negative sensible heat fluxes during the same months, and there was a strong correlation between monthly Bowen ratios (R2 = 0.94). The correlation between monthly evaporation (R2 = 0.65), however, was not as strong. Monthly differences in evaporation were attributed primarily to heat storage estimate uncertainty.

  • Key Takeaways
Use of Eddy-Covariance and the method, and the Bowen ration energy budget method for evaporation of Lake Mead (2years time span)
Lake mead geographical and hydrology properties are described
Description of previous evaporation studies of the lake
Data from Las Vegas Airport could be used for evaporation calculation
Evaporation rate are given in the result section
EC is more accurate nut need more directed measured data

Evaporation data from Lake Mead and Lake Mohave, Nevada and Arizona, March 2010 through April 2015(2015)[63][edit | edit source]

  • Abstract

Evaporation rates were measured at Lake Mead from March 2010 through February 2012 for phase 1 of an evaporation study (Moreo, M.T., and Swancar, A., 2013, Evaporation from Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona, March 2010 through February 2012: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2013–5229, 40 p., Phase 2 of the study (March 2012 through September 2017) continues evaporation measurements at Lake Mead and begins evaporation measurements at another lower Colorado River Basin reservoir, Lake Mohave. Eddy covariance is the primary measurement method. Data currently (10/6/2015) are being collected for the phase 2 study. This USGS data release represents tabular data in support of the evaporation study. The data release was produced in compliance with the new 'open data' requirements as way to make the scientific products associated with USGS research efforts and publications available to the public. The data release consists of 2 separate items:

1. Lake Mead evaporation data from March 2010 through April 2015 (Microsoft Excel workbook)

2. Lake Mohave evaporation data from May 2013 through April 2015 (Microsoft Excel workbook)

When will Lake Mead go dry?(2008)[64][edit | edit source]

  • Abstract

A water budget analysis shows that under current conditions there is a 10% chancethat live storage in Lakes Mead and Powell will be gone by about 2013 and a 50% chancethat it will be gone by 2021 if no changes in water allocation from the Colorado Riversystem are made. This startling result is driven by climate change associated withglobal warming, the effects of natural climate variability, and the current operating statusof the reservoir system. Minimum power pool levels in both Lake Mead and Lake Powellwill be reached under current conditions by 2017 with 50% probability. While these datesare subject to some uncertainty, they all point to a major and immediate water supplyproblem on the Colorado system. The solutions to this water shortage problem must betime-dependent to match the time-varying, human-induced decreases in future river flow.

  • Key Takeaways
Importance of Colorado river for life and economy of the southwest of then U.S.
Method used
water balance model
Studied the impacts of different elements on the river flow
Global warming, evaporation, infiltration, runoff variability
Water level in Lake Colorado is declining
50% chance that the lake will go dry by 2021 in deterministic approach in nothing is done
Reduction in the lake level will damper the capacity of the hoover dam to produce electricity

Comment on “When will Lake Mead go dry?”(2009)[65][edit | edit source]

  • Abstract
  • Key Takeaways
Criticize the finding of Barnett and Pierce
Still concludes that if lake might go dry if nothing is done
Found 50% chance of depleting storage occurs between 2035 and 2047
Agrees with Barnett and Pierce that mitigation action be taken

Water supply risk on the Colorado River: Can management mitigate?(2009)[66][edit | edit source]

  • Abstract

Population growth and a changing climate will tax the future reliability of the Colorado River water supply. Using a heuristic model, we assess the annual risk to the Colorado River water supply for 2008–2057. Projected demand growth superimposed upon historical climate variability results in only a small probability of annual reservoir depletion through2057. In contrast, a scenario of 20% reduction in the annual Colorado River flow due to climate change by 2057 results in a near tenfold increase in the probability of annual reservoir depletion by 2057. However, our analysis suggests that flexibility in current management practices could mitigate some of the increased risk due to climate change–induced reductions in flows.

  • Key Takeaways
River supports population and economy growth in southwest
Argue that the relatively small risk of drying in the next 2 decades should not lull policy makers into inaction.
Policy action may be limited if climate change consequences in 2026 are confirmed
States there is still time to take action


  • Abstract

This research shows the results of a study about evaporation in five ponds in the Midwest of France. To realize this study we used climate data from the meteorological station of the Limoges-Bellegarde airport and the data of a weather station installed by us near one of the ponds. We used eight different methods to calculate the evaporation rate and we modified the Penman-Monteith method by replacing the air temperature by water temperature. To understand the role of ponds in water loss through evaporation, we proposed a hypothesis that says: if the pond did not exist, what results would we get? Based on this hypothesis we calculated the potential evapotranspiration rate taking into account the percentage of interception by vegetation. In conclusion, this study indicates that the ponds in the French Midwest present a gain of water.

  • Key Takeaways
List of different water evaporation calculation methods
Use of water temperature in place of air temperature in Penmam-Monteith model

Estimation of open water evaporation: a review of methods(2005) [68][edit | edit source]

  • Abstract
  • Key Takeaways
Description of several methods for calculating the evaporation of a lake
Use of water surface temperature instead of air temperature
Methods studied
Equilibrium temperature
Penman empirical factor
FAO-56 empirical factors
Adjustment of method parameters with altitude

Researchers learning true scale of Lake Mead, Powell evaporation rates(2019) [69][edit | edit source]

  • Abstract

Precious water is vanishing into thin air at the Colorado River’s two largest reservoirs, and scientists are only now learning the true scale of the problem.

  • Key Takeaways
Evaporation in Colorado River might be worse than expected
Looking for new methods (Eddy current) to have a better evaluation
Estimates of lake evaporation in the recent years.

Evaporation from a small water reservoir: Direct measurements and estimates(2008)[70][edit | edit source]

  • Abstract

Knowing the rate of evaporation from surface water resources such as channels and reservoirs is essential for precise management of the water balance. However, evaporation is difficult to measure experimentally over water surfaces and several techniques and models have been suggested and used in the past for its determination. In this research, evaporation from a small water reservoir in northern Israel was measured and estimated using several experimental techniques and models during the rainless summer. Evaporation was measured with an eddy covariance (EC) system consisting of a three-dimensional sonic anemometer and a Krypton hygrometer. Measurements of net radiation, air temperature and humidity, and water temperature enabled estimation of other energy balance components. Several models and energy balance closure were evaluated. In addition, evaporation from a class-A pan was measured at the site. EC evaporation measurements for 21 days averaged 5.48 mm day−1. Best model predictions were obtained with two combined flux-gradient and energy balance models (Penman–Monteith–Unsworth and Penman–Brutsaert), which with the water heat flux term, gave similar daily average evaporation rates, that were up to 3% smaller than the corresponding EC values. The ratio between daily pan and EC evaporation varied from 0.96 to 1.94. The bulk mass transfer coefficient was estimated using a model based on measurements of water surface temperature, evaporation rate and absolute humidity at 0.9 and 2.9 m above the water surface, and using two theoretical approaches. The bulk transfer coefficient was found to be strongly dependent on wind speed. For wind speeds below 5 m s−1 the estimated coefficient for unstable conditions was much larger than the one predicted for neutral conditions.

  • Key Takeaways
Description of the Penman-Monteith-Unsworth (PMU) model
Difficulties in using Eddy Covariance method

Penman-Monteith Estimates of Reservoir Evaporation(2005)[71][edit | edit source]

  • Abstract

Weather and Lake Berryessa(LB) temperature profile data were collected from May 2003 through September 2004 to enable estimating lake evaporation using the Penman-Monteith equation. Current evaporation estimates from LB by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) are based on Class A pan evaporation and the original pan coefficients developed in the 1960s. Since then, the location of the pan has been moved several times and measured pan evaporation measured at the current or old site is much lower than that measured at a new site that is fully exposed to solar radiation. USBR calculated inflow to LB is based on measured lake elevation, estimated evaporation, and measured releases from the reservoir. The estimated lake evaporation based on the pan data and original pan coefficients are too low. Because of the method of calculating lake inflow, calculated daily negative lake inflows commonly occur from mid-July until fall-winter rains begin. Estimates of evaporation from the lake were made using the Penman-Monteith (P-M) equation, estimates of daily change in heat in the water, and advection of heat energy into or out of the lake. Estimates of P-M evaporation were reduced by a factor of 0.95 because a small part of the lake surface area is shaded part of the day, and weather data were measured at a location near the lake instead of over the lake. The P-M evaporation estimates and estimates using pan evaporation at the new site with Lake Elsinore monthly pan coefficients indicated that USBR evaporation estimates are about 20% too low mainly because of pan site conditions. A computer model was developed to process, store, and calculate estimated daily or monthly evaporation from the lake.

  • Key Takeaways
Details on Penman-Monteith equation
Use of water surface temperature

Walke Lake Conservation Effort[edit | edit source]

WALKER RV NR MOUTH AT WALKER LAKE, NV (USGS-10302025) site data in the Water Quality Portal(2021)[72][edit | edit source]

  • Abstract
  • Key Takeaways
    • Data Source for Walker Lake

History of Walker Lake(2020)[73][edit | edit source]

  • Abstract
  • Key Takeaways
    • Agriculture diversion of water and dams leads to lake level drops
    • Increased dissolved solid => marine life in danger
    • water acquire from sellers to maintain lake
    • Funds created to sustain lake conservation

USGS Current Conditions for USGS 10302025 WALKER RV NR MOUTH AT WALKER LAKE, NV(2021)[74][edit | edit source]

  • Abstract
  • Key Takeaways
    • Temperature data source for Walker Lake

Disappearing Walker Lake(2018)[75][edit | edit source]

  • Abstract

Like this lake in northwestern Nevada, many of the world's prominent salt lakes are drying up.

  • Key Takeaways
    • Example of shrinking lakes in the world
    • Lake is used for irrigation
    • 90% water lost a century ago
    • Decreased water inflow => increased dissolved solid => lake half as salty as seawater (17g/l) => impact on marine and wild life (83% loss of fish species)
    • increase of inflow by 24% would decrease salinity level
    • map showing lake decrease b/w 1988 - 2017
    • Possible causes:
      • Climate change (warmer temperatures, increased evaporation, and altered precipitation)
      • Water development (agriculture, mining, and cities)

Ripple effect: Walker Lake evaporation leaves cultural strains - Las Vegas Sun Newspaper(2003)[76][edit | edit source]

  • Abstract

HAWTHORNE -- Controversy is a constant at Walker Lake.

  • Key Takeaways
    • 140 ft drop in 120 years
    • Cause: ongoing drought + irrigation
    • Increase saltiness, struggling fish + migratory birds, Endangered tourism => economic impact
    • Conflict b/w preserving the lake level and irrigation (water from the irrigation contributes 1/5 agricultural yield of state)
    • tourism provide 40% of mineral county economy
    • Lake has historical value to indigenous pop.
    • Walker Lake Working Group looking for solutions to save lake
    • Evaporation rate: 4ft/year
    • evaporates leaves dissolved solids => increase in saltiness
    • saltiness rises naturally but is increased by evaporation.
    • 224 ft in 1882 to 90 ft in 2003

Walker Lake Recreation Area(2021)[77][edit | edit source]

  • Abstract
  • Key Takeaways
    • Increase salinity of the lake => less fish (Lahontan Cutthroat disappeared)

Water Budgets of the Walker River Basin and Walker Lake, California and Nevada(2009)[78][edit | edit source]

  • Abstract

The Walker River is the main source of inflow to Walker Lake, a closed-basin lake in west-central Nevada. The only outflow from Walker Lake is evaporation from the lake surface. Between 1882 and 2008, upstream agricultural diversions resulted in a lake-level decline of more than 150 feet and storage loss of 7,400,000 acre-feet. Evaporative concentration increased dissolved solids from 2,500 to 17,000 milligrams per liter. The increase in salinity threatens the survival of the Lahontan cutthroat trout, a native species listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. This report describes streamflow in the Walker River basin and an updated water budget of Walker Lake with emphasis on the lower Walker River basin downstream from Wabuska, Nevada. Water budgets are based on average annual flows for a 30-year period (1971-2000). Total surface-water inflow to the upper Walker River basin upstream from Wabuska was estimated to be 387,000 acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr). About 223,000 acre-ft/yr (58 percent) is from the West Fork of the Walker River; 145,000 acre-ft/yr (37 percent) is from the East Fork of the Walker River; 17,000 acre-ft/yr (4 percent) is from the Sweetwater Range; and 2,000 acre-ft/yr (less than 1 percent) is from the Bodie Mountains, Pine Grove Hills, and western Wassuk Range. Outflow from the upper Walker River basin is 138,000 acre-ft/yr at Wabuska. About 249,000 acre-ft/yr (64 percent) of inflow is diverted for irrigation, transpired by riparian vegetation, evaporates from lakes and reservoirs, and recharges alluvial aquifers. Stream losses in Antelope, Smith, and Bridgeport Valleys are due to evaporation from reservoirs and agricultural diversions with negligible stream infiltration or riparian evapotranspiration. Diversion rates in Antelope and Smith Valleys were estimated to be 3.0 feet per year (ft/yr) in each valley. Irrigated fields receive an additional 0.8 ft of precipitation, groundwater pumpage, or both for a total applied-water rate of 3.8 ft/yr. The average corrected total evapotranspiration rate for alfalfa is 3.2 ft/yr so about 0.6 ft/yr (15 percent) flushes salts from the soil. The diversion rate in Bridgeport Valley was estimated to be 1.1 ft/yr and precipitation is 1.3 ft/yr. The total applied-water rate of 2.4 ft/yr is used to irrigate pasture grass. The total applied water rate in the East Fork of the Walker River and Mason Valley was estimated to be 4.8 ft/yr in each valley. The higher rate likely is due to appreciable infiltration, riparian evapotranspiration, or both. Assuming a diversion rate of 3.0 ft/yr, stream loss due to infiltration and riparian evapotranspiration is about 3,000 acre-ft/yr along the East Fork of the Walker River and 14,000 acre-ft/yr in Mason Valley. In the lower Walker River basin, overall and groundwater budgets were calculated for Wabuska to Schurz, Nev., and Schurz to Walker Lake. An overall water budget was calculated for the combined reaches. Imbalances in the water budgets range from 1 to 7 percent, which are insignificant statistically, so the water budgets balance. Total inflow to the Wabuska-Walker Lake reach from the river and others sources is 140,000 acre-ft/yr. Stream and subsurface discharge into the northern end of Walker Lake totals 110,000 acre-ft/yr. About 30,000 acre-ft/yr is lost on the Walker River Indian Reservation from agricultural evapotranspiration, evapotranspiration by native and invasive vegetation, domestic pumpage, and subsurface outflow from the basin through Double Spring and the Wabuska lineament. Alfalfa fields in the upper Walker River basin are lush and have an average corrected total evapotranspiration rate of 3.2 ft/yr. Alfalfa fields on the Walker River Indian Reservation are not as lush and have a total corrected evapotranspiration rate of 1.6-2.1 ft/yr, which partly could be due to alkaline soils that were submerged by Pleistocene Lake Lahontan. The total applied-water rate is 7.0 ft/yr, almost twice the

  • Key Takeaways
    • at least 863 milions of m3 to maintain solid concentration at 12g/l
    • Only outflow at the lake is evaporation
    • Lake diverted for irrigation => lake decline, increase salinity, endangerment of species
    • $200 million provided in 2002 by secretary of interior to rehabilitate lakes like Pyramid, Summit and Walker Lake in Nevada
    • 4.3 ft/year.

Water Budget and Salinity of Walker Lake, western Nevada(1995)[79][edit | edit source]

  • Abstract

Walker Lake is one of the rare perennial, terminal lakes in the Great Basin of the western United States. The lake is the terminus for all surface- water and ground-water flow in the Walker River Basin Hydrographic Region that is not consumed by evaporation, sublimation, or transpiration. The concentration of dissolved solids (salts) in the lake-surface altitude depend primarily on the amounts of water entering and evaporation from the lake. Because Walker Lake is a terminal sink--it has no documented surface- or ground-water outflow--dissolved solids that enter it accumulate as the lake water evaporates. Declining lake levels, owing to natural and anthropogenic processes, have resulted in most Great Basin terminal lakes being too saline to support fish. In Nevada, the only terminal lakes that contain fish are Pyramid Lake, Ruby Lake, and Walker Lake. Dissolved-solids concentration in Walker Lake increased from about 2,500 milligrams per liter in 1882 to 13,300 milli- grams per liter in July 1994 (U.S. Geological Survey analysis), as the lake-surface altitude declined from about 4,080 to 3,944 feet above sea level. This dramatic increase in dissolved-solids concentration threatens the Walker Lake ecosystem and the fish that depend on this ecosystem.

  • Key Takeaways
    • 4.1 ft/year

Decline of the world's saline lakes(2017)[80][edit | edit source]

  • Abstract

Many of the world's saline lakes have been shrinking due to consumptive water use. The Great Salt Lake, USA, provides an example for how the health of and ecosystem services provided by saline lakes can be sustained.

  • Key Takeaways
    • World's saline lakes are shrinking at alarming rates => reduced waterbird habitat, reduced economic benefit, threat to human health
    • Saline Lakes => 44% of all lakes volume
    • Cause: increased water use by humans
    • example of other shrinking lakes
    • Economic, social and ecological benefit of saline lakes not easily monetized
    • Dessicated saline lakes dust harms human health and agriculture => increase respiratory disease => increase in money spent for mitigation
    • Increase temperature will increase evaporation in lakes

Global lake evaporation accelerated by changes in surface energy allocation in a warmer climate(2018)[81][edit | edit source]

  • Abstract

Lake evaporation is a sensitive indicator of the hydrological response to climate change. Variability in annual lake evaporation has been assumed to be controlled primarily by the incoming surface solar radiation. Here we report simulations with a numerical model of lake surface fluxes, with input data based on a high-emissions climate change scenario (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5). In our simulations, the global annual lake evaporation increases by 16% by the end of the century, despite little change in incoming solar radiation at the surface. We attribute about half of this projected increase to two effects: periods of ice cover are shorter in a warmer climate and the ratio of sensible to latent heat flux decreases, thus channelling more energy into evaporation. At low latitudes, annual lake evaporation is further enhanced because the lake surface warms more slowly than the air, leading to more long-wave radiation energy available for evaporation. We suggest that an analogous change in the ratio of sensible to latent heat fluxes in the open ocean can help to explain some of the spread among climate models in terms of their sensitivity of precipitation to warming. We conclude that an accurate prediction of the energy balance at the Earth’s surface is crucial for evaluating the hydrological response to climate change.

  • Key Takeaways
    • Lake evaporation is linked to climate change => current level will increase by 16% by the end of century

Climate change will affect global water availability through compounding changes in seasonal precipitation and evaporation(2020)[82][edit | edit source]

  • Abstract

Both seasonal and annual mean precipitation and evaporation influence patterns of water availability impacting society and ecosystems. Existing global climate studies rarely consider such patterns from non-parametric statistical standpoint. Here, we employ a non-parametric analysis framework to analyze seasonal hydroclimatic regimes by classifying global land regions into nine regimes using late 20th century precipitation means and seasonality. These regimes are used to assess implications for water availability due to concomitant changes in mean and seasonal precipitation and evaporation changes using CMIP5 model future climate projections. Out of 9 regimes, 4 show increased precipitation variation, while 5 show decreased evaporation variation coupled with increasing mean precipitation and evaporation. Increases in projected seasonal precipitation variation in already highly variable precipitation regimes gives rise to a pattern of “seasonally variable regimes becoming more variable”. Regimes with low seasonality in precipitation, instead, experience increased wet season precipitation.

  • Key Takeaways

Defining salinity limits on the survival and growth of benthic insects for the conservation management of saline Walker Lake, Nevada, USA(2013)[83][edit | edit source]

  • Abstract

Walker Lake, Nevada, a saline desert lake, has been undergoing loss of stream inflows, lowering of lake level, and concentration of dissolved salts for over a century due to agricultural diversions of water. This lake is or has been inhabited by native fish and visited by many species of waterbirds that depend on productive invertebrate life for food resources. The extent to which salinity limits the present and future viability of resident invertebrate fauna was evaluated using salt-tolerance bioassays and studies of salinity effects on growth and behavior in larval stages of the midges Cricotopus ornatus and Tanypus grodhausi, and nymphs of the damselfly Enallagmaclausum. We found that salinities into and above a range of 20–25 g/L present either lethal limits or sublethal inhibitions to survival and growth that will eliminate or substantially reduce the current community of common benthic invertebrates. All species survived best at salinities below the current ambient level, suggesting these populations are already under stress. The 72-h LC-50 for Cricotopus was 25 g/L, and while mature damselfly nymphs were somewhat more tolerant, early instars survived for only short times in increased salinity. Damselflies also grew more slowly and fed less when salinity increased from 20 to 30 g/L. A conservation level for the lake that incorporates survival of native fish and recovers diversity and viability of invertebrate life should be within the range of 10–15 g/L salinity of Walker Lake water.

  • Key Takeaways
    • Main reason for lake decline = agricultural diversion of water
    • Lethal salinity levels: 20-25g/l
    • Species already under stress
    • Viability salinity of the lake = 10-15g/l
    • maintenance of saline important on ecosystems maintenance
    • Characteristics of the lake in 2012

Walker Lake - Terminal Lake at the Brink(2014)[84][edit | edit source]

  • Abstract
  • Key Takeaways
    • Presents conservation solutions for the lake

The world’s vanishing lakes(2017)[85][edit | edit source]

  • Abstract

Some of the world’s largest lakes have shrunk dramatically in the last few decades, while many more face serious pollution problems. A new global database of lakes may help to protect the water bodies that offer irreplaceable wildlife habitats and valuable ecosystem services. Michael Gross reports.

  • Key Takeaways
    • Description of vanishing lakes worldwide
    • lake disappearance effect on fish, birds, and people, and economy
    • Another cause => building dam for hydroelectricity

Impacts of climate change on the evaporation and availability of water in small reservoirs in the Brazilian savannah(2020)[86][edit | edit source]

  • Abstract

The Cerrado (Brazilian savannah) is one of the few places in the world that has the potential to increase crop production to meet the projected food demand for 2050. However, for agriculture to be sustainable in this region, irrigation must be efficient. This depends on the water stored in small reservoirs, which play an important role in supporting the local economy. The increase in temperature and net radiation predicted by global climate models may increase the evaporation and reduce the availability of water in these small reservoirs. This work assesses the projected impact of climate change on small reservoir evaporation and water availability in the Brazilian savannah using data from the Eta-HadGEM2-ES and Eta-MIROC5 regional climate models under representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5. Evaporation increases of 7.3% (1.09 mm/year−1) and 18.4% (2.74 mm/year−1) are projected in RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, respectively, by the year 2100. The water stored in reservoirs is projected to decrease in the future, resulting in higher risks of failure in water supply, especially from the smaller reservoirs. Overall, evaporation increases are expected to reduce the availability of water in small reservoirs during the dry season by 5.5% in RCP 4.5 and 10.4% in RCP 8.5.

  • Key Takeaways
    • Highlights the impact climate change on evaporation in small reservoirs.
    • Small lake feel climate change effects more intensely than larger, deeper, and freezable lakes
    • need to understand climate change importance in water conservation strategies

Lake Management Perspectives in Arid, Semi-Arid, Sub-Tropical and Tropical Dry climate(2007)[87][edit | edit source]

  • Abstract

Water scarcity is natural- typical feature of arid and semi-arid regions.. In arid zones precipitation is <250 mm/y, whilst in semi-arid areas 250-500 mm/y. Due to atmospheric circulation (convection cells) arid and semi-arid zones are common within 23.50 north and south latitudes, ("Horse": CapricornCancer), where, warm and dry conditions are dominant. Total area of arid and semi-arid deserts >0.05x106 km2 (38) is 19.5x106 km2 : in Africa- 3, Asia-6, Australia-9, Europe-5, Middle East-6, North America and Mexico-4 and 5 in South America. Eco-hydrological changes in arid and semi arid aquatic ecosystems are due to climate fluctuations and human intervention. Sufficient water availability (quantitative and qualitative) in arid and semi arid zones is the key factor for economical and cultural prosperities and might be a reason for geo-political conflicts. Water demands per capita is depends upon resource availability, and cultural and political heritage. Lakes in arid zones are mostly shallow and fed by underground sources and seasonal floods whilst those in semi-arid and sub-tropical regions are mostly fed by continuous surface flows, direct rain and sub-lacustrine influxes. Due to the high evaporation, salinity in desert lakes is high, sometime suitable for fish production and frequently-not. Fish production in semiarid and subtropical lakes, water supply and recreational tourism are common usage. Climatological changes (global warming) and ecological sensitivity of these ecosystems, deserve utilization precautious. Several lakes were partly (or higher) destructed, some became very polluted and some are well protected by thorough study and consequent implementation. Four case studies of arid, semi arid and subtropical lakes are presented: Lake Chad in the Sahara desert, two Egyptian lakes in the Sahara desert, Wadi El-Rayan and lake Quarun, Lake Kinneret in Israel and Lake Tai-Hu in China. Some of them represent deterioration of water quality and perturbation of further utilization, limnological changes, pollution and an urgent need of protection policy.

  • Key Takeaways
    • Fina status of a lake is the combination of all parameters: climate + human activity

[URL Title](Year)[88][edit | edit source]

  • Abstract
  • Key Takeaways

Contributors[edit | edit source]

Arpit, Pravin, Sreenija, Surya, Tanmoy, Pierce, Koami

References[edit | edit source]

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  88. Citation