Reine Lofoten 2009.JPG

Norway (Bokmål: Norge, Nynorsk: Noreg), formally the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe, the mainland territory of which comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The remote Arctic island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard also form part of Norway. Bouvet Island, located in the Subantarctic, is a dependency; Norway also claims the Antarctic territories of Peter I Island and Queen Maud Land. The capital and largest city in Norway is Oslo.

Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres (148,729 sq mi) and had a population of 5,488,984 in January 2023. The country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. It is bordered by Finland and Russia to the northeast and the Skagerrak strait to the south. Norway has an extensive coastline facing the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King. Jonas Gahr Støre has been Prime Minister since 2021. As a unitary state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet, and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution. The unified kingdom of Norway was established in 872 as a merger of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1150–1151 years. From 1537 to 1814, Norway was part of Denmark–Norway, and, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War, and in the Second World War until April 1940 when it was invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany until the end of the war.

Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities. The Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with the European Union and the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, and the Nordic Council; a member of the European Economic Area, the WTO, and the OECD; and a part of the Schengen Area. The Norwegian dialects share mutual intelligibility with Danish and Swedish.

Climate action[edit | edit source]

Public perception and activism[edit | edit source]

There seems to be two stories, one about Norway wanting to be a world leader in global climate change and environmental issues whilst the other tends to favour Norway's oil and gas reserves, claiming that its necessary to extract more oil and gas because of high demand and in order to help the poor who in some parts of the world have no access to energy. This duality therefore sends a very polarised message to the Norwegian public and may be part of the reason why there is a lack of engagement or enthusiasm currently observed around the issue of climate change.

Climate change in Norway[edit | edit source]

All regions and seasons of Norway are expected to become warmer and wetter due to climate change.

On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer, and exporter, of oil and natural gas outside the Middle East. In 2016, 56 new licenses for oil exploration near the Lofoten Islands were issued. However, 98% of Norway's electricity demand is supplied by renewable sources, mostly from hydroelectric power, generated using Norway's extensive freshwater reserves. Emissions are also generated through transportation, although Norway is a world leader in electric vehicles.

Warmer temperatures in Norway are causing permafrost and glaciers to retreat, and leading to shifts in precipitation patterns. Climate change is particularly impacting Norway's Arctic region. Biodiversity and forested areas are experiencing shifts due to the phenomenon, with significant implications for the agriculture and economy of the country. Indigenous Sámi people's practices are being impacted by climate change.

Norway's government have introduced several social and economic policies towards climate change mitigation, including through carbon capture and storage. Norway wants to achieve carbon neutrality by 2030, partly by investing in projects with emissions reduction abroad. It wants to achieve zero emission in the country by 2050. In 2020, Norway pledged to achieve a 50% - 55% reduction in domestic emissions from the level of 1990 by 2030.

Food activism[edit | edit source]

Fairtrade settlements in Norway - Farmers Market Norway

Sharing[edit | edit source]

Dugnad is a Norwegian term for voluntary work done together with other people. It is a core phenomenon for Norwegians, and the word was voted as the Norwegian word of the year 2004 in the TV programme Typisk norsk ('Typically Norwegian'). Participation in a dugnad is often followed by a common meal, served by the host, or consisting of various dishes brought by the participants, thus the meal is also a dugnad.

In urban areas, the dugnad is most commonly identified with outdoor spring cleaning and gardening in housing co-operatives. Dugnader (plural) are also a phenomenon in kindergartens and elementary schools to make the area nice, clean and safe and to do decorating etc. such as painting and other types of maintenance. Dugnader occur more widely in remote and rural areas. Neighbours sometimes participate during house or garage building, and organizations (such as kindergartens or non-profit organisations) may arrange annual dugnader.

The Norwegian word dugnadsånd is translatable to the spirit of will to work together for a better community. Many Norwegians will describe this as a typical Norwegian thing to have.

The word dugnad was used to unite the people of Norway to cooperate and shut down public activities to fight the pandemic of 2020.

Resources[edit | edit source]

Video[edit | edit source]


News and comment[edit | edit source]


  • How to capture satellite images in your backyard – and contribute to a snapshot of the climate crisis, The Conversation (Feb 23, 2022)


Norway Is The First Country In The World To Ban Deforestation, More Countries Need To Follow Suit, Apr 5[1]

Oslo Is (Almost) Car-Free -- And Likes It That Way, Mar 5[2]

Oslo starts its year as European Green Capital 2019, Jan 4[3]



Norway builds world's tallest timber tower, and it's both environmentally friendly and fire resistant, Sep 5[4]


Oslo Offers Citizens $1,200 to Buy an E-Bike, Jan 31[5]


There Are Now More Than 100,000 Electric Cars On Norway's Roads, Dec 19[6]

Oslo is creating the model for how cities can solve climate change, Oct 14[7]

Norway: the electric car paradise, Jul 15[8]

Oslo votes to slash emissions 95% by 2030, Jun 23[9]

Norway pledges to become climate neutral by 2030, Jun 15[10]

Norway to 'completely ban petrol powered cars by 2025', Jun 6[11]

Norway becomes first country in the world to commit to zero deforestation, Jun 4[12]

Norway Will Spend Almost $1 Billion on New Bike Highways, Mar 3[13]

Reforestation in Norway: showing what's possible in Scotland and beyond, January 20[14]


Oslo moves to ban cars from city centre within four years, October 19[15]

First 100% electric car ferry operating in Norway, August 4[16]

Norway Will Divest From Coal in Push Against Climate Change, June 5[17]

Oslo divests from coal companies, March 2[18]

Norway: Welfare for Innovation, February 15[19]


A lot of cities could use a Trampe Cyclocable, March 18[20]

Oslo introduces buses powered by a by-product of food waste, March 5[21]

Norwegian government reviews fossil fuel divestment plan, March 3[22]

External links[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

Discussion[View | Edit]

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