Get our free book (in Spanish or English) on rainwater now - To Catch the Rain.

Teknolojia sahihi za wazi

From Appropedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Teknolojia sahihi za wazi (OSAT) ni teknolojia zilizobuniwa katika staili huru [1] na mfumo laini-wazi. Teknolojia hizi lazima ziwe "teknolojia sahihi" (TS) – ikimaanisha teknolojia ilibuniwa kwa kuzingatia mazingira, maadili, utamaduni, jamii, siasa, na uchumi wa jamii inayokusudiwa.


Faida[edit]

Vyanzo wazi ni njia ya maendeleo ya teknolojia sahihi ambayo inavuna toka kwenye nguvu ya mtawanyiko wa marejeo na uwazi wa mikakati. Appropedia ni mfano wa chanzo wazi cha teknolojia sahihi. Hapa mtu yeyote anaweza kujifunza juu ya na kutumia TS zisizo na hatimiliki. Na muda huo huo mtu yeyote anaweza kuongeza maarifa katika vyanzo wazi kwa kuchangia mawazo, shuhuda, takwimu za majaribio, deployment logs, n.k.

Imesemekana kwamba umuhimu wa vyanzo wazi vya teknolojia sahihi katika kuendesha applied sustainability ni mkubwa.[2] marejeo ya pamoja yaliyojengwa na yanayoendelea yanaweza kutoa ubora zaidi, kutegemeka zaidi, na mabadiliko rahisi kuzidi ubunifu wa kawaida/kuwekea hatimiliki teknolojia. Hali ya maarifa kuwa bure pia inapelekea gharama ndogo, na hasa katika teknolojia ambazo hazifaidiki katika kiwango kikubwa na skeli ya uzalishaji. Mwisho, OSAT pia inawezesha kuwa na mwisho wa haki miliki nyang’anyi. Na hii ni muhimu hasa katika teknolojia zinazolenga kupunguza shida na kuokoa maisha katika nchi zinazoendelea.

"Vyanzo wazi" vinaweza kufanya kazi kama muendeshaji wa maendeleo endelevu. Kuna (angalau) sababu tatu nzuri[3]:

  1. inawezesha uzalishaji na hutumiaji;
  2. inawezesha uzalishaji unaolenga jamii husika hasa pale ambapo hakuna mali za kutosha kujaribu waendelezaji wa kibiashara ili watengeneze aina ya bidhaa zinazolenga jamii za ndani;
  3. inaweza kuwa "bure" na vilevile huru kama "nafuu" – kitu muhimu kwa jamii zinazoendelea.

Kujali maadili[edit]

Ijapokuwa matatizo ya nchi zinazoendelea yamewekewa misaada midogo ya utatuzi, watafiti wengi, makampuni, na wasomi wanafanyia kazi bidhaa zinazolenga kusaidia maendeleo endelevu. Vinay Gupta amashauri waendelezaji hao wakubali kanuni tatu [4]:

  1. Sitaruhusu binadamu yeyote akoseshwe teknolojia inayoleta maisha kwa ajili ya nia ya faida.
  2. Kazi zozote nitakazowekea hatimiliki nitafanya ziwe bure kwa watu wanaojihusisha na kazi za kibinadamu, isipokuwa kama hili litavunja matakwa mengine ya kimikataba.
  3. Sitatumia sheria ya hatimiliki kupunguza kasi ya ubunifu au hutoaji huduma kwa wanaohitaji katika hali yeyote ile.

Usaidizi katika Fasihi[edit]

  • Imechunguzwa ni kwa vipi uchungiaji wa ubunifu, maelekezo, na maelezo ya kiufundi yanaweza kuongeza nguvu katika ufanisi, utumiaji katika eneo kubwa, na ubunifu katika teknolojia sahihi.[2]
  • OSAT imesemwa kusaidia katika kuendeleza teknolojia ya madawa na hasa kwenye nchi zinazoendelea [5][6].
  • Imesemwa kwamba kuchangia mikakati ya ubunifu, dhana sahihi, na maelezo ya kiufundi inawezesha ufanisi zaidi na maendeleo ya haraka ya teknolojia sahihi kwa ajili sehemu zenye viwanda na zisizo na viwanda.[7] Kwa nyongeza inasemwa kwamba uchangiaji huu utahitaji jamii ya teknolojia sahihi kuasili leseni/kanuni wazi, kuandikia maarifa, na kuendelezea toka kazi za nyuma. [7]
  • Katika ngazi ya chuo, utumiaji wa miradi ya madarasa katika teknolojia sahihi wazi imeonekana kufanikiwa katika kuunda uhusiano baina ya fizikia na faida za kijamii:[8] open access Mkabala huu una faida ya kutumia wanafunzi wa chuo kufikia mali na kujaribu vifaa kuendeleza teknolojia sahihi. Katika hali hiyo hiyo OSAT imetumika kama dhana kuendeleza service learning.[9][10]

Angalia pia: Open Source Appropriate Technology Literature Review

Vifupisho vizima[edit]

Ubunifu waziOpen Design-Mipango ya kukuza Maendeleo ya Teknolojia Sahihi[edit]

Msukumo wa teknolojia sahihi unaendeshwa na wabunifu na wagunduzi ambao wanavutiwa na kubuni teknolojia sahihi kiutamaduni, kimazingira na kiuchumi, na zinazoweza kuundwa na kutumika na watu popote duniani. Waraka huu unachunguza ni kwa jinsi gain uchangiaji wa ubunifu, maelekezo, na maelezo ya kiufundi yanaweza kukuza ufanisi, matumizi katika eneo kubwa, na ubunifu wa teknolojia sahihi. Uchangiaji huu wa commons-vyanzo wazi umekuwa wa mafanikio sana katika uendelezaji wa mfumolaini (yaani, vyanzo wazi), na imeanza kutumika pia katika nyanja nyingine kupitia bia za kipekee na dhana mpya za uchangiaji wa maelezo katika mtandao. Waraka huu unachambua mifano muhimu ya mafanikio ya vyanzo wazi yanayoweza kutumika katika kuendeleza teknolojia sahihi. Pia unaainisha vikwazo dhahiri katika upatikanaji bure wa miundo ya TS, unapambanua miundo ya kibiashara ya ubunifu katika TS, na kuonesha tatuzi na mifano inayotendeka sasa.

Overcoming Technical Constraints for Obtaining Sustainable Development with Open Source Appropriate Technology[edit]

Open source appropriate technology (OSAT) refers to technologies that provide for sustainable development while being designed in the same fashion as free and open source software. Facilitated by advances in information technology software and hardware, new ways to disseminate information such as wikis and Internet-enabled mobile phones, the global development of OSAT has emerged as a reality. This paper shows the sharing of design processes, appropriate tools, and technical information is enables more effective and rapid development of appropriate technologies for both industrialized and non-industrialized regions. This sharing will require the appropriate technology community to adopt open standards/licenses, document knowledge, and build on previous work. This paper offers solutions in the form of both business models and tools to overcome technical constraints of OSAT development in the forms of the platforms necessary on which to share and build knowledge about appropriate technologies. These solutions are open, easily accessible for those in need, have a low barrier to entry for both users and information creators, and must be vetted in order to utilized as a trustworthy source on critical information needs. Current progress towards implementing these solutions will be reviewed and recommendations will be made to further increase the rate of OSAT development.

Madhaifu[edit]

This type of idea is clearly not mainstream and suffers from the same criticisms as open source software. In addition, it has been claimed that the decline of the appropriate technology movement is said to be part of the ‘remasculinization’ of US after the Vietnam War through the Reagan regime. [11] According to Pursell it was said have failed because of the inability to counter advocates of agribusiness, large private utilities, and multinational construction companies. These groups maintained the elitist, narrow and traditional definition of the word ‘technology’ to forward their interests, and not those of the developing world.[11]

Angalia pia[edit]

Vipelekezi vya nje[edit]

  • For an ongoing discussion of OSAT see Agroblogger
  • Another excellent site is the P2P Foundation The Peer to Peer (P2P) Network function as a clearinghouse for open/free, participatory/p2p and commons-oriented initiatives.
  • Project Sunshine
  • Sustainablog
  • At the university level, the use of appropriate technology classroom projects has been shown to be successful in forging the connection between physics and social benefit: Joshua M. Pearce, "Physics Using Appropriate Technology Projects", The Physics Teacher, 45, pp. 164-167, 2007. pdf. This approach has the potential to use university students’ access to resources and testing equipment in furthering the development of appropriate technology. See service learning
  • National Geographic's list of good ideas [3]

Faharasa[edit]

  1. Free kama vile bure na huru kama nafuu - Bure = Mara nyingine inasemwa, "bure kama bia ya bure", na tofauti na Nafuu= "bure kama mada ya bure".
  2. 2.0 2.1 A. J. Buitenhuis, I. Zelenika and J. M. Pearce, “Open Design-Based Strategies to Enhance Appropriate Technology Development”, Proceedings of the 14th Annual National Collegiate Inventors and Innovators Alliance Conference : Open, March 25-27th 2010, pp. 1-12.
  3. Open Source, Development and Design Jamais Cascio, Available
  4. Starting an anti-patent-abuse appropriate technology political bloc? by Vinay Gupta, available: [1]
  5. Amy Kapczynski et al., “Addressing Global Health Inequities: An Open Licensing Approach for University Innovations,” Berkley Technology Law Journal 20 (2005): 1031-1114.
  6. Stephen M. Maurer, Arti Rai, and Andrej Sali, "Finding Cures for Tropical Diseases: Is Open Source an Answer?", PLoS Medicine 1, no. 3 (December 2004): 183-186.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Joshua M. Pearce and Usman Mushtaq, “Overcoming Technical Constraints for Obtaining Sustainable Development with Open Source Appropriate Technology”, Science and Technology for Humanity (TIC-STH), 2009 IEEE Toronto International Conference, pp. 814-820, 26-27 Sept. 2009.
  8. J. M. Pearce, "Physics Using Appropriate Technology Projects", The Physics Teacher, 45, pp. 164-167, 2007.
  9. Joshua M. Pearce, “Appropedia as a Tool for Service Learning in Sustainable Development”, Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 3(1), pp.45-53, 2009. Q-Space pre-print
  10. S. Murphy and N. Saleh, "Information literacy in CEAB’s accreditation criteria: the hidden attribute", In Proceedings of the The Sixth International Conference on Innovation and Practices in Engineering Design and Engineering Education, 2009. Hamilton, ON July 27–29, 2009.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Pursell, Carroll. "The Rise and Fall of the Appropriate Technology Movement in the United States, 1965 - 1985" Technology and Culture, Vol 34, No. 3: 629-637 (July 1993).