Brazil (Portuguese: Brasil; Brazilian Portuguese: [bɾaˈziw]), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3,300,000 sq mi) and with over 217 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the seventh most populous. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populous city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states and the Federal District. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas; one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world; and the most populous Roman Catholic-majority country.
Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers (4,655 mi). It borders all other countries and territories in South America except Ecuador and Chile and covers roughly half of the continent's land area. Its Amazon basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, and extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats. This unique environmental heritage positions Brazil at number one of 17 megadiverse countries, and is the subject of significant global interest, as environmental degradation through processes like deforestation has direct impacts on global issues like climate change and biodiversity loss.
Climate action[edit | edit source]
Calculations in 2021 showed that, for giving the world a 50% chance of avoiding a temperature rise of 2 degrees or more Brazil should increase its climate commitments by 90%. For a 95% chance it should increase the commitments by 165%. For giving a 50% chance of staying below 1.5 degrees Brazil should increase its commitments by 170%. W
Ecosystem restoration[edit | edit source]
Biodiversity[edit | edit source]
The wildlife of Brazil comprises all naturally occurring animals, plants, and fungi in the South American country. Home to 60% of the Amazon Rainforest, which accounts for approximately one-tenth of all species in the world, Brazil is considered to have the greatest biodiversity of any country on the planet. It has the most known species of plants (55,000), freshwater fish (3,000), and mammals (over 689). It also ranks third on the list of countries with the most bird species (1,832) and second with the most reptile species (744). The number of fungal species is unknown but is large. Approximately two-thirds of all species worldwide are found in tropical areas, often coinciding with developing countries such as Brazil. Brazil is second only to Indonesia as the country with the most endemic species.
Even though progress has been made in conserving Brazil's landscapes, the country still faces serious threats due to its historical land use. Amazonian forests substantially influence regional and global climates and deforesting this region is both a regional and global driver of climate change due to the high amounts of deforestation and habitat fragmentation that have occurred this region.
Even though progress has been made in conserving Brazil’s landscapes, the country still faces serious threats due to its historical land use. Amazonian forests substantially influence regional and global climates and deforesting this region is both a regional and global driver of climate change due to the high amounts of deforestation and habitat fragmentation that have occurred this region.
Brazil has established an extensive network of protected areas which covers more than 2 million km2(25% of Brazil's national territory) and is divided almost equally between protected natural areas or conservation units and indigenous land ("Terras Indígenas"). Despite these measures, environmental protection is still a concern as indigenous tribes and Brazilian environmental activists contend with ranchers, illegal loggers, gold and oil prospectors and drug traffickers who continue to illegally clear forests.
Ecoregions[edit | edit source]
Brazil's immense area is subdivided into different ecoregions in several kinds of biomes. Because of the wide variety of habitats in Brazil, from the jungles of the Amazon Rainforest and the Atlantic Forest (which includes Atlantic Coast restingas), to the tropical savanna of the Cerrado, to the xeric shrubland of the Caatinga, to the world's largest wetland area, the Pantanal, there exists a wide variety of wildlife as well.
Open spaces[edit | edit source]
National Parks (Portuguese: Parques nacionais) are a legally-defined type of protected area of Brazil. The first parks were created in the 1930s, and other parks were gradually added, typically protecting a natural monument such as a waterfall or gorge near to a coastal population centre.At least two early parks were later submerged by hydroelectric reservoirs.The first park in the Amazon rainforest was inaugurated in 1974. Today the national parks cover a huge area, particularly in the Amazon.However, many of them suffer from outstanding claims for compensation from former owners or users of the land, and many lack the management plans, physical infrastructure and personnel needed to support public visits.The responsible government agency does not have the capacity to provide services such as food and drink, souvenir sales and guided tours, and bureaucracy has delayed letting the private sector bid on providing such services.
Trees, woodland and forest[edit | edit source]
Brazil once had the highest deforestation rate in the world and in 2005 still had the largest area of forest removed annually. Since 1970, over 600,000 square kilometers (230,000 sq mi) of the Amazon rainforest have been destroyed. In 2012, the Amazon was approximately 5.4 million square kilometres, which is only 87% of the Amazon's original state.
Rainforests have decreased in size primarily due to deforestation. Despite reductions in the rate of deforestation in the last ten years, the Amazon Rainforest will be reduced by 40% by 2030 at the current rate. Between May 2000 and August 2006, Brazil lost nearly 150,000 square kilometres of forest, an area larger than that of Greece. According to the Living Planet Report 2010, deforestation is continuing at an alarming rate, but at the CBD 9th Conference 67 ministers signed up to help achieve zero net deforestation by 2020. W
2022 Brazilian general election, Environmental issues[edit | edit source]
Some commentators noted the importance of this election for the Amazon rainforest, as well as climate change. On 23 September, the British environmental-focused website Carbon Brief released a report made by researchers at the University of Oxford, the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis and the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research showing that deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon could be reduced by 89% if Lula were elected in 2022 and his environmental policy continued until 2030. The report said that Lula's enforcement of the Brazilian Forest Code, the country's flagship legislation for tackling deforestation in the Amazon and other ecosystems, would curb forest clearings and could also reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Instead, a re-election of Bolsonaro would likely see the pace of deforestation accelerate in the coming years, including what one of the report authors described as huge areas beyond the scope of the Forest Code.
Community involvement[edit | edit source]
Community energy[edit | edit source]
Cycling activism[edit | edit source]
Ethical consumerism[edit | edit source]
Food activism[edit | edit source]
Belo Horizonte's Food and Nutrition Security Policy[edit | edit source]
Recognizing the need to make basic foods more readily available to low-income people, the "Restaurantes Populares" initiative (People's Restaurants, or Popular Restaurants in the original Portuguese) has been a key part of Belo Horizonte's pioneering Food and Nutrition Security Policy (Law No. 6.352, 15/07/1993).
Strategically distributed across various areas of the city to broaden access to the vulnerable population, there are currently four People's Restaurants and one canteen that promote equity over "fast culture." They provide cheap, healthy, safe and accessible food for all, made from fresh local produce. As reported by ICLEI in 2013, lunch costs 3 reals (about $1), half that price to the beneficiaries of the "Bolsa Família" (Family Basket) program, and free to the registered homeless — which represent about 160,000 people per year. In order to maintain the consistency of both price and quality, all the outlets are directly managed and administered by the municipality.
The program has allowed the community not only to make sure that the population is provided with fresh, nutritious food, but also to create a secure market for local farmers to sell their produce. According to Fondazione Giangiacomo Feltrinelli's report, Milan Urban Food Policy Pact, Belo's People's Restaurants serve almost 3 million meals annually.
Reduce, reuse, repair & recycle[edit | edit source]
Sharing[edit | edit source]
Social inclusion[edit | edit source]
wikipedia:Homeless Workers Movement (Movimento dos Trabalhadores Sem Teto - MTST)
Instituto Querô, organização da sociedade civil de interesse público que utiliza o audiovisual como ferramenta para estimular talentos, promover a inclusão cultural, transmitir valores, desenvolver o empreendedorismo e dar voz a jovens que vivem em condições de alto risco social. (civil society organization of public interest that uses audiovisual talents as a tool to stimulate, promote cultural inclusion, transmit values, develop entrepreneurship and give voice to young people living in conditions of high social risk.)
wikipedia:Landless Workers' Movement (Movimento dos Trabalhadores Sem Terra, or simply MST)
Sustainable transport activism[edit | edit source]
Urban sustainability[edit | edit source]
The Open Source City, Part 1: Curitiba, wikia:Wethink:Chapter 11
Resources[edit | edit source]
Networks and sustainability initiatives[edit | edit source]
- Gaia Movement, Fundação Gaia
Ecovillages[edit | edit source]
- Ecovila Cunha, located 20 km from the town of Cunha/SP, Ecovila Cunha on Facebook
- IPEC - Ecocentro at the Instituto de Permacultura e Ecovilas do Cerrado / The Institute of Permaculture and Ecovillage of the Cerrado is an experimental educational design center and international community located on the Cerrado savanna of Brazil. IPEC began on a bare, degraded cattle pasture in 1998 to teach and demonstrate permaculture and to apply this information in the construction of a prototype ecological village, or ecovillage. The community exists on 25 hectares (60 acres) of land and is located in Pirenópolis, in the state of Goiás, central Brazil. IPEC is connected to the national university in Brasilia as well as many government ministries, schools and other non-profit organizations.
- Ecoversidade is IPEC's educational arm and is dedicated to education for sustainable living by fostering a profound understanding of the natural world, grounded in direct experience, that leads to sustainable patterns of living. Ecoversidade functions as a model of viable rural settlement, incorporating the realities of appropriate technology, living systems and sustainable community life from a holistic perspective.
- IPEC is also the host of the 8th International Permaculture Convergence, taking place May 22–25, 2007 to provide a unique opportunity for permaculturalists to set continental and global agendas, make appropriate connections, and share innovative experiences. W
- Lothlorien, 470 km west of Salvador, in the state of Bahia.
Maps[edit | edit source]
Video[edit | edit source]
Água Potável on youtube
Gelo a partir do Sol on youtube
News and comment[edit | edit source]
See separate article: Brazil news
Near you[edit | edit source]