- ‘Historic moment’ for nature as Europe’s first wild river national park announced in Albania, The Guardian (Mar 15, 2023)
Albania ( (listen) a(w)l-BAY-nee-ə; Albanian: Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania (Albanian: Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe. It is situated in the Balkans, and is located on the Adriatic and Ionian Seas within the Mediterranean Sea and shares land borders with Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, North Macedonia to the east, and Greece to the south. The country displays varied climatic, geological, hydrological, and morphological conditions, in an area of 28,748 km2 (11,100 sq mi). The landscape ranges from the snow-capped mountains in the Albanian Alps and the Korab, Skanderbeg, Pindus, and Ceraunian Mountains, to the hot and sunny coasts of the Adriatic and Ionian Seas along the Mediterranean. Tirana is its capital and largest city, followed by Durrës, Vlorë, and Shkodër.
Albania has been inhabited by different civilisations over time, such as the Illyrians, Thracians, Ancient Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Venetians, and Ottomans. The Albanians established the autonomous Principality of Arbër in the 12th century. The Kingdom of Albania and Principality of Albania formed between the 13th and 14th centuries. Prior to the Ottoman conquest of Albania in the 15th century, the Albanian resistance to Ottoman expansion into Europe led by Skanderbeg won them acclaim over most of Europe. Albania remained under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries, during which many Albanians (known as Arnauts) attained high-ranking offices in the empire, especially in the Southern Balkans and Egypt. Between the 18th and 19th centuries, cultural developments, widely attributed to Albanians having gathered both spiritual and intellectual strength, conclusively led to the Albanian Renaissance. After the defeat of the Ottomans in the Balkan Wars, the modern nation state of Albania declared independence in 1912. In the 20th century, the Kingdom of Albania was invaded by Italy, which formed Greater Albania before becoming a protectorate of Nazi Germany. Enver Hoxha formed the People's Socialist Republic of Albania after World War II, modeled under the terms of Hoxhaism. The Revolutions of 1991 concluded the fall of communism in Albania and eventually the establishment of the current Republic of Albania.
Climate action[edit | edit source]
Climate change is predicted to have serious effects on the living conditions in Albania. The country is recognised as vulnerable to climate change impacts, ranked 80 among 181 countries in the Notre Dame Global Adaptation Index of 2019. Factors that account for the country's vulnerability to climate change risks include geological and hydrological hazards, including earthquakes, flooding, fires, landslides, torrential rains, river and coastal erosion.
As a party to the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement, Albania is committed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 45% and achieve carbon neutrality by 2050 which, along with national policies, will help to mitigate the impacts of the climate change. W
Biodiversity[edit | edit source]
Wikipedia: Albania: Flora and fauna. Although a small country, Albania is distinguished for its rich biological diversity. The total number of plants is over 3250 species, approximately 30% of the entire flora species found in Europe. Over a third of the territory of Albania – about 10,000 square kilometres (3,861 square miles);– is forested.
Open spaces[edit | edit source]
The protected areas of Albania comprise a number of various current designations across the territory of the country. The national policy for governing and management of the protected areas is implemented by the Ministry of Environment and Tourism through the National Agency of Protected Areas of Albania (AKZM). Currently, there are 799 protected areas consisting of 12 national parks (including 1 marine park), 2 nature reserves, 23 managed nature reserves, 5 protected landscapes and 770 other protected areas of various categories representing 21.3% of the territory as of 2022. Further a biosphere reserve, 3 World Heritage Sites, 4 ramsar sites, 45 important plant areas and 16 important bird areas are located in Albania. Meanwhile, the Albanian government has proclaimed the Coastline of Albania and the Tirana Greenbelt as areas of national importance.
However, protected areas are being threatened by illegal logging, forest fires, and the construction of hydroelectric power plants which have prompted several protests from environmentalists and civil society, meanwhile the logging and hunting moratorium has somewhat successfully revived the fauna and flora of some protected areas.
In 2020, the Albanian Government has revamped the protected areas map by changing designations, coverage areas, and by adding new areas to the network such as the Vjosa River.
Community energy[edit | edit source]
Wikipedia: Renewable energy in Albania W, Solar power in Albania W
News and comment[edit | edit source]
I Speak For The Trees, April 21
Environmental issues in Albania[edit | edit source]
There are a number of known environmental issues in the post-communist country of Albania. Issues include air and water pollution, poor waste management infrastructure and deforestation. The Albanian environmental movement includes around 40 active non-government organisations.
The country has a moderate and improving performance in the Environmental Performance Index with an overall ranking of 62 out of 180 countries in 2020. Albania's ranking has however decreased since its highest placement at position 15 in the Environmental Performance Index of 2012. W
Deforestation[edit | edit source]
Illegal logging is the main threat to Albanian forests. The other threat comes from forest fires which in the last years have intensified.
Albania had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 6.77/10, ranking it 64th globally out of 172 countries.
External links[edit | edit source]