水泵是用于移动水的任何装置。水泵是最古老和最普遍的机器之一，并且存在多种样式。shaduf或shadoof W （平衡杆上的铲斗）是一种非常原始的泵，已知自公元前 2000 年左右就已经存在。
- 风力: Windpumps
- 水力: Ram pump , Noria W
20 世纪上半叶进一步发展，特别是向螺旋桨式风力机发电。到 1920 年，仅在美国就有 600 万台风泵在使用，它们的制造和使用在各大洲都已司空见惯。但风泵的辉煌只是昙花一现。随着 1950 年代和 1960 年代廉价化石燃料的出现以及泵送技术的发展，风力泵在美国几乎已经过时。
脚踏泵是一种人力泵，旨在将水从七米或以下的深度提升。踏板W是一种由脚踩下以驱动机器（在本例中为泵）的杠杆装置。脚踏泵可以完成电动泵的大部分工作，但购买成本要低得多（75%）。因为它不需要化石燃料（它由操作员的体重和腿部肌肉驱动，它的运行成本也比电动泵低（50%）。它每小时可以从井中抽取 5 到 7 立方米的水，并且钻孔W深达 7 米，也可用于从水源中取水比如湖泊和河流。许多脚踏泵是在本地制造的，但如果没有高技能的焊工和生产硬件，它们可能难以始终如一地生产。
Standard treadle pumps are Suction pumps, and were first developed in the early 1980s in Bangladesh and made popular by IDE. Since then pressure pumps, a modification to the original design that means water is forced out of the pump under pressure, have also been developed and are widely in use in East Africa though KickStart. Pressure treadle pumps allow farmers to spray water and run sprinklers - saving the need for an elevated water storage tank and suction pump system.
Many NGOs (IDEW, KickStartW, Practical Action, IDEI ) have been active in developing and promoting treadle pumps, as well as student and researcher teams at universities.
Hydraulic ram pumps
The Hydraulic Ram Pump, Hydram, or simply Ram Pump is an automatic pumping device that is capable of pumping water higher than its original source without using electricity or any other power source. It uses just two moving parts, and it is therefore mechanically very simple. This gives it very high reliability, minimal maintenance requirements and a long operation life.
The Hydraulic Ram Pump, Hydram, or simply a Ram Pump is a pump that uses the water hammerW effect from built up water pressure. Using this pressure that has been created by a water source above the pump, it is able to lift water to an elevation higher than the pump. Using just two moving parts, simple fluid mechanics and the energy within the water the Hydraulic Ram Pump is able to run without electricity or any other power source.
Papa ram pump
The Papa ram pump is a 21st century version of the traditional Hydraulic ram pumps (water pumps powered by nothing more than a flow of water), being smaller, lighter, cheaper and more efficient.
The choice of water lifters available is large and varied, making the selection of an appropriate device difficult. In America and Europe during the 19th century the design of mass-produced hand pumps evolved by trial and error rather than through scientific research and development. There are now a large number of adequate, rather than optimum, designs conceived by local manufacturers, and it is hard to know which pump is the best for each application. This brief presents an overview of the types of human-powered water-lifters available, the applications appropriate to them and their comparative advantages.
Water-lifters can be broken down into the following categories:
- Groundwater (open-well, shallow-well and deep-well pumps)
- Surface Water (shadouf, dhone, chain and washer and Archimedean screw)
Industrial hand pumps, such as the Indian Mark II, for communal wells donated by development projects often break down after two years. If maintenance costs are the responsibility of the users, then this cost is too high when repairs prove necessary and the pump is left nonfunctional.
An alternative reliable hand pump is needed for communal and private use to supply clean drinking water and irrigation. These pumps will raise the standard of living if they are low cost, reliable and pump water effectively. Efficiency is critical to irrigate a garden in the dry season due to the relatively large amount of water involved. Such gardens provide food and increased income.
Local affordability, maintenance and good pump efficiency are required features. Local affordability means a twenty-to-hundred-fold cost reduction compared to imported industrial goods. Local maintenance is only possible when made with local resources and skills.
The pumping system should prevent contamination of drinking water by permitting the well to be sealed. This is especially true of communal wells. Industrial pumps need to be bolted onto a concrete slab positioned over the well. However, this makes the water inaccessible when the pump breaks down. Immediate maintenance on the pump or access to the well through an emergency hatch permits continuous access to life-giving water.
A coil pump is a low lift pump which is composed of a tube, shaped as a coil and mounted on a rotating axle powered by an engine or an animal capable of turning the axle around rapidly. Due to the rotation, water is then picked up by the tube and pumped upwards in the hose.
A noria (Arabic: ناعورة, nā‘ūra, plural نواعير nawāʿīr, from Syriac: ܢܥܘܪܐ, nā‘orā, lit. "growler") is a hydropowered scoop wheel used to lift water into a small aqueduct, either for the purpose of irrigation or to supply water to cities and villages.