The holistic approach of permaculture integrates "agriculture, water harvesting and hydrology, energy, natural building, forestry, waste management, animal systems, aquaculture, appropriate technology, economics and community development".
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An earth structure is a building or other structure made largely from soil. Since soil is a widely available material, it has been used in construction since prehistoric times. It may be combined with other materials, compressed and/or baked to add strength.
Soil is still an economical material for many applications, and may have low environmental impact both during and after construction.
Earth structure materials may be as simple as mud, or mud mixed with straw to make cob. Sturdy dwellings may be also built from sod or turf. Soil may be stabilized by the addition of lime or cement, and may be compacted into rammed earth. Construction is faster with pre-formed adobe or mudbricks, compressed earth blocks, earthbags or fired clay bricks.
Types of earth structure include earth shelters, where a dwelling is wholly or partly embedded in the ground or encased in soil. Native American earth lodges are examples. Wattle and daub houses use a "wattle" of poles interwoven with sticks to provide stability for mud walls. Sod houses were built on the northwest coast of Europe, and later by European settlers on the North American prairies. Adobe or mud-brick buildings are built around the world and include houses, apartment buildings, mosques and churches. Fujian Tulous are large fortified rammed earth buildings in southeastern China that shelter as many as 80 families. Other types of earth structure include mounds and pyramids used for religious purposes, levees, mechanically stabilized earth retaining walls, forts, trenches and embankment dams.
Straw bale construction has been around since the early 1900s. Many of the structures built back then are still standing and being used. Some examples of straw bale construction are homes, farm buildings, churches, community centers, etc.
Straw is baled material from oats, barley, rice and others. It was traditionally the waste products that farmers did not till under the soil. Instead it was used as bedding or landscape supply due to its durability. It is essentially the dry plant material left over after a plant has been harvested for seed.
Bamboo can be utilized as a building material for scaffolding, bridges, houses and buildings. Bamboo, like wood, is a natural composite material with a high strength-to-weight ratio useful for structures. Bamboo's strength-to-weight ratio is similar to timber, and its strength is generally similar to a strong softwood or hardwood timber.
Bamboos are some of the fastest-growing plants in the world, due to a unique rhizome-dependent system. Certain species of bamboo can grow up to 91 cm within a 24-hour period, or nearly 4 cm/h.
Adobe is a type of earthen construction composed, like cobb, of sand, clay, fiber (usually straw) and often other organic ingredients. The adobe mixture is shaped into bricks using adoberas (wooden frames) and then dried in the sun. Adobe structures are extremely durable, with many very old structures still in use.[verification needed] They also regulate temperature due to their high thermal mass, which is very useful in climates with high diurnal temperature swings.
Cobb is a type of earthen construction composed, like adobe, of sand, clay, fiber (usually straw) and often other organic ingredients. Cobb is made as one contiguous structure, with clumps of cobb mixture being added to previous cobb clumps, hence the other name for cobb - monolithic adobe-. Cob structures are extremely durable, with many very old structures still in use[verification needed]. They also regulate temperature due to their high thermal mass, which is very usefull in climates with high diurnal temperature swings.
Wattle and daub
Wattle and daub is a method of construction, consisting of a plain weave of vertically placed wooden stakes, and horizontally disposed thin wooden strips (wattle). These interwoven elements are then daubed in a kind of plaster, made up of a variety of materials depending on location and availability, but most commonly mud, clay, animal manure, sand and straw.
Rammed earth, also known as taipa (Portuguese), tapial (Spanish), pisé de terre or simply pisé (French), is a technique used in the building of walls using the raw materials of earth, chalk, lime and gravel. It is an ancient building method that has seen a revival in recent years as people seek more sustainable building materials and natural building methods. Rammed earth walls are simple to construct, incombustible, thermally massive, very strong and hardwearing. Conversely they can be labour-intensive to construct without machinery (powered rammers), and if improperly protected or maintained they are susceptible to water damage. Traditionally, rammed earth buildings are found on every continent except Antarctica. From temperate and wet regions of north Europe to semi dry deserts, mountain areas and the tropics. The availability of useful soil and building design for the local climatic conditions are the factors which favour its use.
Rice hulls are unique within nature. They contain approximately 20% opaline silica in combination with a large amount of the phenyl propanoid structural polymer called lignin. This abundant agricultural waste has all of the properties one could ever expect of some of the best insulating materials. Recent ASTM testing conducted R&D Services of Cookville, Tennessee, reveals that rice hulls do not flame or smolder very easily, they are highly resistant to moisture penetration and fungal decomposition, they do not transfer heat very well, they do not smell or emit gases, and they are not corrosive with respect to aluminum, copper or steel. In their raw and unprocessed state, rice hulls constitute a Class A or Class I insulation material, and therefore, they can be used very economically to insulate the wall, floor and roof cavities of a super-insulated Rice Hull House. This paper also explains how the structure of such a house can be fashioned out of a variety of engineered lumber products derived from sugarcane rind.
There has been a drastic rise in the use of plastic bottles over the past couple decades. Ecoladrillo allows otherwise discarded plastic bottles and trash to be used as a raw material for building construction. Figure 1 is a picture of trash that has become common throughout many parts of the world.
The name is taken from ladrillo, a Spanish word for a brick or or paving stone made from baked clay.
Much of the trouble with acceptance in the mainstream comes from advertising. If a company knows that the average customer is perfectly capable of building their own house of readily available materials for a fraction of the market price, then that company must convince unaware consumers that the "alternative" option simply doesn't exist. Of course, with many of these same companies sitting on planning boards, alternative construction has been given quite an unfavorable reputation in some localities.
- Wofati and earth berm forumsat Permies.com
- Wofati articles at RichSoil
- Cob and adobe forumsat Permies.com
- Straw bale house forumsat Permies.com
- Nomadic housing forumsat Permies.com
- World Hands on Project, promotes the use of natural and recycled material in building.
- Builders Without Borders, an international network of builders who advocate the use of straw, earth and other local, affordable materials.
- Green Home Building, has a wide range of information about sustainable architecture and natural building.
- What is Permaculture - The Permaculture Research Institute
- Pevsner - The penguin dictionary of architecture
- Deja tu Huella everde (2011)。“Ecoladrillos：Una nueva forma de construir。”。< http://www.everde.cl/2011/01/ecoladrillos-una-nueva-forma-de.html?spref=bl/>（2011年 6 月 8 日）。