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另类建筑是指不同于主流现代建筑的建造方式。他们经常使用天然建筑材料,非常强调可持续设计最近,流行的房屋材料,例如处理过的木材、合成绝缘材料和某些油漆(仅举几例)被暴露为对环境和房屋居民都有害。这个问题没有争议;任何愿意询问的人都会发现,经过处理的木材会在可预测的时间内释放出浸泡过的防腐剂和毒物。这就是替代结构的用武之地。

虽然绿色建筑通常将高科技作为其设计的一部分,但替代建筑更多地依赖于传统设计(反映了几代人的智慧)以及对当地可用材料和有限资源的创造性使用。事实上,考虑到用于节约能源和材料的策略在某些情况下已经记录了数千年,有些人会说“替代建筑”是一个相当奇怪的词组。土坯荆条和涂抹泥砖夯土土袋草捆等做法住房建设活得很好。在许多情况下,与“传统”材料制成的房屋相比,房屋的建造和维护成本更低,居住更健康,更坚固可靠。

好处

替代建筑方法涉及生态和绿色发展,旨在最大限度地减少能源需求。

Sustainable buildings use materials which have a low environmental impact, eliminate sewage and wastewater pollution issues, protect the natural environment. They also promote the health and wellbeing, both physical and mental, of the occupants and those living and working close to the development.

An alternative or natural building involves a range of building systems and materials that place major emphasis on sustainability. Ways of achieving sustainability through natural building focus on durability and the use of minimally processed, plentiful or renewable resources, as well as those that, while recycled or salvaged, produce healthy living environments and maintain indoor air quality. Natural building tends to rely on human labor, more than technology. As Michael G. Smith observes, it depends on "local ecology, geology and climate; on the character of the particular building site, and on the needs and personalities of the builders and users."

The basis of natural building is the need to lessen the environmental impact of buildings and other supporting systems, without sacrificing comfort, health or aesthetics. To be more sustainable, natural building uses primarily abundantly available, renewable, reused or recycled materials. The use of rapidly renewable materials is increasingly a focus. In addition to relying on natural building materials, the emphasis on the architectural design is heightened. The orientation of a building, the utilization of local climate and site conditions, the emphasis on natural ventilation through design, fundamentally lessen operational costs and positively impact the environmental. Building compactly and minimizing the ecological footprint is common, as are on-site handling of energy acquisition, on-site water capture, alternate sewage treatment and water reuse.

注意事项

Alternative Eco Friendly Housing should encompass all of the following:

  • Environmental issues: Conservation of the sites natural resources, both plant, animal and mineral. Siting of the building for minimum heat loss through wind and shade and maximum heat gain from solar, high levels of insulation, maximising natural lighting, energy efficient appliances, sewage disposal and lighting systems.
  • Water and wastewater: Rainwater harvesting, water efficient appliances, minimizing and attenuating surface water run-off to prevent flooding and pollution. Sustainable solutions for the disposal of sewage, e.g. Sewage Treatment Plant Sustainable Filter Systems.
  • Transport: Public transport access, close to shops, leisure facilities and work, home offices to reduce commuting.
  • Materials: use of long-life sustainable materials with a low environmental impact avoiding those from non-renewable and non-sustainable sources, use of locally produced materials, use of recycled materials.
  • Health and wellbeing: use of non-toxic materials during all stages of the build and all areas of the building, natural daylighting, freedom from noise and pollution, green spaces, non-obtrusive design which flows into the surroundings.
  • Affordability and adaptability: affordable ownership, flexibility of design to adapt to the changing requirements of the occupants and future owners.

永续农业

Permaculture is a form of whole systems design based on the sustainability of natural systems, seeking to reproduce that sustainability in our living environment. Permaculture designs differ based on climatic factors, bioregion, organizational goals, personal preferences and other factors. They integrate "land, resources, people and the environment through mutually beneficial synergies – imitating the no waste, closed loop systems seen in diverse natural systems"[1] It can hence be said that permaculture is, at its core, a set of thinking tools, in particular towards awareness of context, threats and opportunities.

The holistic approach of permaculture integrates "agriculture, water harvesting and hydrology, energy, natural building, forestry, waste management, animal systems, aquaculture, appropriate technology, economics and community development".[1]

See Permaculture wiki for an explanation of how Appropedia works for permaculture.

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土建

An earth structure is a building or other structure made largely from soil. Since soil is a widely available material, it has been used in construction since prehistoric times. It may be combined with other materials, compressed and/or baked to add strength.

Soil is still an economical material for many applications, and may have low environmental impact both during and after construction.

Earth structure materials may be as simple as mud, or mud mixed with straw to make cob. Sturdy dwellings may be also built from sod or turf. Soil may be stabilized by the addition of lime or cement, and may be compacted into rammed earth. Construction is faster with pre-formed adobe or mudbricks, compressed earth blocks, earthbags or fired clay bricks.

Types of earth structure include earth shelters, where a dwelling is wholly or partly embedded in the ground or encased in soil. Native American earth lodges are examples. Wattle and daub houses use a "wattle" of poles interwoven with sticks to provide stability for mud walls. Sod houses were built on the northwest coast of Europe, and later by European settlers on the North American prairies. Adobe or mud-brick buildings are built around the world and include houses, apartment buildings, mosques and churches. Fujian Tulous are large fortified rammed earth buildings in southeastern China that shelter as many as 80 families. Other types of earth structure include mounds and pyramids used for religious purposes, levees, mechanically stabilized earth retaining walls, forts, trenches and embankment dams.

Straw bale

Strawbale construction offers good thermal insulation, thermal mass, and (depending on the other materials chosen) only natural components, with benefits for indoor air quality.

Straw bale construction has been around since the early 1900s. Many of the structures built back then are still standing and being used. Some examples of straw bale construction are homes, farm buildings, churches, community centers, etc.

Straw is baled material from oats, barley, rice and others. It was traditionally the waste products that farmers did not till under the soil. Instead it was used as bedding or landscape supply due to its durability. It is essentially the dry plant material left over after a plant has been harvested for seed.

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Bamboo

Bamboo can be utilized as a building material for scaffolding, bridges, houses and buildings. Bamboo, like wood, is a natural composite material with a high strength-to-weight ratio useful for structures. Bamboo's strength-to-weight ratio is similar to timber, and its strength is generally similar to a strong softwood or hardwood timber.

Bamboos are some of the fastest-growing plants in the world, due to a unique rhizome-dependent system. Certain species of bamboo can grow up to 91 cm within a 24-hour period, or nearly 4 cm/h. [2]

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Adobe

Adobe is a type of earthen construction composed, like cobb, of sand, clay, fiber (usually straw) and often other organic ingredients. The adobe mixture is shaped into bricks using adoberas (wooden frames) and then dried in the sun. Adobe structures are extremely durable, with many very old structures still in use[verification needed]. They also regulate temperature due to their high thermal mass, which is very useful in climates with high diurnal temperature swings.

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Cobb

Cobb is a type of earthen construction composed, like adobe, of sand, clay, fiber (usually straw) and often other organic ingredients. Cobb is made as one contiguous structure, with clumps of cobb mixture being added to previous cobb clumps, hence the other name for cobb - monolithic adobe-. Cob structures are extremely durable, with many very old structures still in use[verification needed]. They also regulate temperature due to their high thermal mass, which is very usefull in climates with high diurnal temperature swings.

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Wattle and daub

Wattle and daub is a method of construction, consisting of a plain weave of vertically placed wooden stakes, and horizontally disposed thin wooden strips (wattle). These interwoven elements are then daubed in a kind of plaster, made up of a variety of materials depending on location and availability, but most commonly mud, clay, animal manure, sand and straw.

The key components in creating a wattle and daub building are the frame, the wattle panel, and daub.[3]

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Rammed earth

Rammed earth, also known as taipa[4] (Portuguese), tapial (Spanish), pisé de terre or simply pisé (French), is a technique used in the building of walls using the raw materials of earth, chalk, lime and gravel. It is an ancient building method that has seen a revival in recent years as people seek more sustainable building materials and natural building methods. Rammed earth walls are simple to construct, incombustible, thermally massive, very strong and hardwearing. Conversely they can be labour-intensive to construct without machinery (powered rammers), and if improperly protected or maintained they are susceptible to water damage. Traditionally, rammed earth buildings are found on every continent except Antarctica. From temperate and wet regions of north Europe [5] to semi dry deserts, mountain areas and the tropics. The availability of useful soil and building design for the local climatic conditions are the factors which favour its use.

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Rice hull

Rice hulls are unique within nature. They contain approximately 20% opaline silica in combination with a large amount of the phenyl propanoid structural polymer called lignin. This abundant agricultural waste has all of the properties one could ever expect of some of the best insulating materials. Recent ASTM testing conducted R&D Services of Cookville, Tennessee, reveals that rice hulls do not flame or smolder very easily, they are highly resistant to moisture penetration and fungal decomposition, they do not transfer heat very well, they do not smell or emit gases, and they are not corrosive with respect to aluminum, copper or steel. In their raw and unprocessed state, rice hulls constitute a Class A or Class I insulation material, and therefore, they can be used very economically to insulate the wall, floor and roof cavities of a super-insulated Rice Hull House. This paper also explains how the structure of such a house can be fashioned out of a variety of engineered lumber products derived from sugarcane rind.

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Ecoladrillos

There has been a drastic rise in the use of plastic bottles over the past couple decades. Ecoladrillo allows otherwise discarded plastic bottles and trash to be used as a raw material for building construction. Figure 1 is a picture of trash that has become common throughout many parts of the world.[6]

The name is taken from ladrillo, a Spanish word for a brick or or paving stone made from baked clay.

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困难

Much of the trouble with acceptance in the mainstream comes from advertising. If a company knows that the average customer is perfectly capable of building their own house of readily available materials for a fraction of the market price, then that company must convince unaware consumers that the "alternative" option simply doesn't exist. Of course, with many of these same companies sitting on planning boards, alternative construction has been given quite an unfavorable reputation in some localities.

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