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Shotcrete solar racking literature review

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Shotcrete Solar Racking[edit]

This literature review covers the concept of using shotcrete as a PV racking material it supports the following publication:


Shotcrete: Methods and Compositions[edit]

Dr. Anwar Khitab Shotcrete: methods and Compositions

  • Introduction to shotcrete technology and its application methods

Types of shotcrete and its applications[edit]

  • Helps in identifying which shotcrete methods to be used for different applications

Shotcrete application for different conditions[edit]

  • Helps in identifying which shotcrete methods to be used for different applications.

Comparative evaluation of steel mesh, steel fibre and high-performance polypropylene fibre reinforced shotcrete[edit]

O Cengiz L Turanli "Comparative evaluation of steel mesh, steel fibre and high-performance polypropylene fibre reinforced shotcrete in panel test" Cement and Concrete Research Volume 34, Issue 8, August 2004, Pages 1357-1364

Abstract In this study, experimental investigations were performed on steel mesh (SM), steel fibre (SF) and high-performance polypropylene fibre (HPPF) reinforced shotcrete (HPPFRS) panels to evaluate performance characteristics such as toughness, flexural ductility, energy absorption and load capacity. The panel tests, in accordance with European specification for sprayed concrete (EFNARC), were made on 18 prismatic specimens having the same mix designs and were cured for 28 days but reinforced with various fibres. In addition, the rebound characteristics of these mixes were determined to compare the actual in situ fibre contents.

Test results show that all reinforcements, including HPPFs that are low-modulus fibres, greatly improved the flexural ductility, toughness, and load-carrying capacity of the brittle matrix. It was seen that there was a positive synergy effect between steel and polypropylene fibre in hybrid fibre usage from a performance point of view. According to results, it can be concluded that a hybrid polypropylene-SF can be used alternatively instead of SM and monosteel fibre as a reinforcement in shotcrete applications to get better efficiency in mechanical properties of composite.

  • compares which type of Shotcrete application is better

Projects using Shotcrete technology[edit]

  • Helps in understanding Shotcrete technology better and the difficulties that can occur while performing.

Mechanism of wet shotcrete interacting with rock in support systems[edit]

LI Li, WU Ai-xiang, WANG Yi-ming, HAN Bin, WANG Hong-jiang, WANG Chun-lai "Mechanism of wet shotcrete interacting with rock in support systems"

Abstract: In order to have a good understanding of the behavior of wet shotcrete as a support element interacting with the rock mass, mechanism of wet shotcrete interacting with rock in support systems was analyzed through theoretical, numerical study and analytical analysis. A new model of distribution of rock stress state after wet shotcrete was applied, which includes shotcrete layer, composite layer, strengthening layer, plastic layer and elastic layer, and a full illustration of the rock mass stress state was given after shotcrete interacting with rock mass. At the same time, numerical analysis with FLAC gives a stress distribution along the monitor line, respectively, at the sidewall and roof of the tunnel. The displacement obviously decreases with the depth of rock, the tangential stress for tunnel supported by shotcrete is lower than that without shotcrete, and radial stress for tunnel supported by shotcrete is higher than that without shotcrete. It has been demonstrated by AIRY’S stress function, which gives a reasonable solution. Finally, the application of wet shotcrete in Jinfeng Gold Mine shows that the displacement of tunnel decreases obviously in sidewall and roof.

Fibre reinforced shotcrete[edit]



ABSTRACT Fibre Reinforced Shotcrete (FRS) reinforced with macro-synthetic fibres has now been used to stabilize ground in underground mines and tunnels, and for slope stabilization, for over 10 years. Experience has demonstrated that macro-synthetic fibres are capable of exhibiting very high levels of performance and are a highly effective form of reinforcement for both temporary and permanent ground support. Engineering data also exists showing that macro-synthetic fibres excel with regard to corrosion resistance and embrittlement in shotcrete, and are very effective in ground subject to high deformation. Despite this, the design of FRS linings using this type of reinforcement lags behind that of linings incorporating alternative forms of reinforcement. There is a lack of appreciation within the engineering construction community that methods of design exist for this material and that these have been proven satisfactory. This paper will attempt to summarize generic approaches to the design of temporary and permanent ground support based on macro-synthetic FRS.

  • Can know about fibre reinforced shotcrete strength
Embrittlement of fiber-reinforced shotcrete[edit]

Erik Bernard Embrittlement of fiber-reinforced shotcrete

  • To know about the environmental effects on shotcrete

Age-dependent changes in post-crack performance of fibre reinforced shotcrete linings[edit]

Erik StefanBernard "Age-dependent changes in post-crack performance of fibre reinforced shotcrete linings"

Abstract It is commonly assumed that when a mix achieves satisfactory performance in Quality Control tests at 28 days this result will translate into satisfactory performance throughout the design life of the corresponding concrete structure. While this is generally true of the compressive strength of concrete it is not necessarily true for other parameters. The post-crack performance of fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) differs from that of conventionally reinforced concrete in that the post-crack performance of fibres is related in a complex manner to the characteristics of the concrete matrix. Age-dependent changes in the characteristics of the concrete matrix can effect changes in the post-crack behaviour of fibres. The present investigation has examined how the post-crack energy absorption of fibre reinforced shotcrete (FRS) changes with aging and has found that some types of fibre exhibit dramatically different performance characteristics at late age compared to that displayed at 28 days. This change can have significant consequences for the design of ground support based on fibre reinforced shotcrete. Tunnel linings required to resist sustained ground stresses, or which may be subject to deformation associated with seismicity or ground movement at later ages, should be designed with consideration of a possible long-term loss of ductility exhibited by some types of fibre reinforced shotcrete.

  • To know the effect of age on the shotcrete


ABSTRACT: As a result of excavation blasting, traffic, sudden ground movements, rock bursts, and seismic activity, shotcrete is often subjected to impact and other dynamic loads. Limited data exist, however, with regard to the resistance of shotcrete to such dynamic loads. Impact resistance of wet-mix shotcrete reinforced with 10 different types of fibers was investigated using instrumented drop weight impact tests. A direct comparison was made with the quasi-static response. Both beam and plate specimens were tested and the data were correlated. Fiber reinforcement was found to be highly effective in improving the fracture energy absorption and toughness under impact loading, but the improvements under impact loading were found to be substantially different than those seen in quasi-static tests, and were also highly dependent on the type of fiber used. When beams and plates were compared, the relative improvements between fiber types were found not necessarily in agreement.

  • To know why Fibre reinforced wet mix shotcrete is better

Accelerating admixtures for shotcrete[edit]

Luiz Roberto Prudêncio Jr. "Accelerating admixtures for shotcrete"

Abstract A variety of additives and admixtures are added to shotcrete to improve strength, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, freezing/thawing and abrasion resistance characteristics, and reduce rebound. Accelerators are being used increasingly in both dry- and wetprocess applications. Accelerators are common in the dry process to increase early strength and reduce dust and rebound and in the wet process are used to achieve rapid set and early strength. The choice of a particular accelerator and its dosage is largely governed by the setting time required for the shotcrete application. Various watersoluble salts of the alkali metals can be used to accelerate the setting of cement. Most of the set accelerators used today are based on alkali aluminates in combination with carbonates and hydroxides and produced in both liquid and powder form. The performance of these accelerators depends on the cement chemical composition and fineness, and the presence of mineral additions such as flyash, and blastfurnace slag. This performance is generally evaluated using setting tests on cement/ accelerator pastes despite the belief of some researchers that this procedure can produce misleading results. This paper describes the main accelerators used in shotcrete and presents some results of field tests performed on shocrete panels evaluating the behavior of different accelerators. Particular attention is given to a new liquid alkalifree shotcrete accelerator that showed a very interesting behavior at very early ages and no strength loss at later ages. The early strengths were evaluated using non-destructive tests (Constant Depth Penetrometer and Constant Energy Penetrometer).

  • May be used for shotcrete knowledge but not necessary

slope stabilization using soil nails: design assumptions and construction realities[edit]

Tan,Yean-chin and Chow Chee-Meng "slope stabilization using soil nails: design assumptions and construction realities"

  • May be useful if racking is to be done on on slope.

Detachment of shotcrete lining due to long terminteraction with ground water[edit]

Dr. Michael Romer "Detachment of shotcrete lining due to long term interaction with ground water"!/file/10.pdf

  • useful if shotcrete solar racking is done in a location where land is wet.

Soil and rock slope stabilization using fiber-reinforced shotcrete in North America[edit]

Mike Ballou and Matt Niermann"Soil and rock stabilization using shotcrete in north america"

  • useful for shotcrete application at any location

Optical Design and Characterization ofSolar Concentrators for Photovoltaics[edit]

J. Nilsson, "Optical Design and Characterization ofSolar Concentrators for Photovoltaics"

  • optics of concentrators
  • optical efficiency of the concentrators
  • Models to estimate output

Effects of low concentration planer concentrators on array-scale solar photovoltaic systems performance[edit]

Photovoltaic system performance enhancement with non-tracking planar concentrators: Experimental results and BDRF based modelling[edit]

  • Experimentally shows use of concentrator increases energy output.

Model of Loss Mechanisms for Low Optical Concentratioon on Solar Photovoltaic Arrays with Planar Reflectors[edit]

Rob Andrews, Nabeil Alazzam, and Joshua M. Pearce, “Model of Loss Mechanisms for Low Optical Concentratioon on Solar Photovoltaic Arrays with Planar Reflectors”, 40th American Solar Energy Society National Solar Conference Proceedings, pp. 446-453 (2011).

  • Losses involved in using flat plate concentrator theoretically.

Design Procedure of V-troughCavities for PhotovoltaicSystems[edit]



Concentrating solar module with horizontal reflectors[edit]

Toshio Matsushima, Tatsuyuki Setaka, SeiichiMuroyama

  • Helpful in constructing a Solar module with concentrators

The enhancement of energy gain of solar collectors and photovoltaic panels by the reflection of solar beams[edit]

M.D.J Pucarab, A.R Despicb

  • Can be used for optimal positioning of concentrators

Performance evaluation of photovoltaic modules at different tilt angles and orientations[edit]

Comparative study of PV modules with and without a tilted plane reflector[edit]

Optimization of operational and design parameters of plane reflector-tilted flat plate solar collector systems[edit]

H.M.S. Hussein, G.E. Ahmad, H.H. El-Ghetany

  • Useful in construction of solar modules along with concentrators, and for there positioning

Booster ReØectors for PVModules in Sweden[edit]

  • Ueful in designing the module

Flow and heat transfer in the air gap behind photovoltaic panels[edit]

  • Useful in temperature reducing of the panels.

A review of solar photovoltaic systems cooling technologies[edit]



A Combined Optical, Thermal and Electrical Performance Study of a V-Trough PV System—Experimental and Analytical Investigations[edit]