paysage du Rwanda (région de Gitarama), 2003. Author: Jonathan Serex
  • Mountain gorillas: The ripple effect of conservation, BBC News (Jun 20, 2022)

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Rwanda ( (listen); Kinyarwanda: u Rwanda [u.ɾɡwaː.nda] (listen)), officially the Republic of Rwanda, is a landlocked country in the Great Rift Valley of Central Africa, where the African Great Lakes region and Southeast Africa converge. Located a few degrees south of the Equator, Rwanda is bordered by Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is highly elevated, giving it the soubriquet "land of a thousand hills", with its geography dominated by mountains in the west and savanna to the southeast, with numerous lakes throughout the country. The climate is temperate to subtropical, with two rainy seasons and two dry seasons each year. Rwanda has a population of over 12.6 million living on 26,338 km2 (10,169 sq mi) of land, and is the most densely populated mainland African country; among countries larger than 10,000 km2, it is the fifth most densely populated country in the world. One million people live in the capital and largest city Kigali.

Biodiversity[edit | edit source]

The wildlife of Rwanda comprising its flora and fauna, in prehistoric times, consisted of montane forest in one third the territory of present-day Rwanda. However, natural vegetation is now mostly restricted to the three National Parks and four small forest reserves, with terraced agriculture dominating the rest of the country.

The national parks and forest reserves are under threat due to poaching, invasive plants such as water hyacinth, unauthorized livestock grazing, illegal fishing, bush fires, mining, bamboo harvesting, encroachment of protected land for agricultural farming, firewood gathering, be keeping and herbal plant extraction. This situation is attributed to governance issues lacking in legal acts and guidelines and also heavy anthropogenic pressure.

Conservation management plans have been instituted for all protected areas which involves the community of villages living in and around the protected areas. Conservation activities have focused on increasing the forest density by planting trees in a "natural self rehabilitation and natural regeneration of primary and high value species". The planting has involved species such as carissa macrocarpa, entandrophragma (a genus of eleven species of deciduous trees) and symphonia globulifera, and erecting protective fencing on the boundary of the forest reserves using leguminous thorny plants.

One of the concerted efforts initiated by the Government of Rwanda is to increase the number of protected areas and to proliferate tree plantations to increase the present forest area cover of 10% to 20% by 2020.

Trees, woodland and forest[edit | edit source]

The country had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 3.85/10, ranking it 139th globally out of 172 countries. — From Wikipedia:Rwanda#Biodiversity

Ecoregions[edit | edit source]

Rwanda contains three terrestrial ecoregions: Albertine Rift montane forests, Victoria Basin forest-savanna mosaic, and Ruwenzori-Virunga montane moorlands. — From Wikipedia:Rwanda#Biodiversity

Community energy[edit | edit source]

The use of off-grid solar power has increased as solar panel prices have fallen and many areas do not expect grid connections in the near future. Solar power produces over 2% of electricity in the country. The country is in the midst of a rapid expansion of its electrical grid and many new plants are proposed or under construction.

Resources[edit | edit source]

Apps for sustainability[edit | edit source]

News and comment[edit | edit source]


Rugby bringing African communities together, Feb 4[1]


Rural Rwanda is home to a pioneering new solar power idea, Oct 9[2]


Road safety initiative helps Rwanda's motorbike taxis stay on the right track, Clar Ni Chonghaile, December 28[3]

How Africa's fastest solar power project is lighting up Rwanda, November 23[4]

How Rwanda's clinics have gone off-grid and onto renewable energy, June 25[5]


2010 SEED Award Winners,[6] November 3

"Production and Distribution of Pressurized Biogas in Gas Cylinders". This initiative has been developed by a private company, an international NGO and government organizations to produce and store pressurised biogas for cooking made from urban, domestic and industrial wastes. Environmental benefits are achieved by offering an alternative firing material to firewood and charcoal.

"Efficient Charcoal Production and Smoke Recycling". This partnership of international NGOs, government institutions and a reforestation initiative is promoting new technologies to increase the energy output of charcoal. As a result, this significantly reduces the amount of forestland used for the production of charcoal and lessens air pollution by recycling tar and other smoke components.

Rwanda named global host of World Environment Day 2010,[7] February 17

External links[edit | edit source]


References[edit | edit source]

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