Examples of Appropriate Technology from the Dominican Republic. This page was started by students in the Practivistas Dominicana Appropriate Technology Program.

## Food

Image Description Location
These bottles were used as vegetable gardens in a house in the neighborhood of La Yuca. The abundance of plastic bottles necessitates creative ways to recycle the bottles so they don’t end up in land fills. By using the plastic bottles families are able to grow vegetables in their house in a limited amount of space and without having to use a large amount of resources. La Yuca, Santo Domingo
Foto de Auyama
Este es una foto de una auyama que es una calabaza que se vende en la esquina de calle F y calle A de Alma Rosa . Este es un ejemplo de tecnología apropriada porque hay camaradería en la comunidad. Y para tener la poder para comprar solo que necesita para las comidas que no van a pudrirse fácilmente después de cortaron. También hay sostenibilidad porque puede salvar el resto de una fruta o verdura para el resto de la comunidad. Alma Rosa, Santo Domingo

## Agriculture

Image Description Location
La comunidad puede producir algunas frutas localmente y reducir la huella de carbono que se produce al transportar los productos a tiendas. The community can produce some local fruits and thereby reduce their carbon footprint from transporting produce to stores. Parqueo de UNIBE, Santo Domingo
Drip irrigation is a more appropriate method of watering ornamental plants, such as this lawn area. The slow application of water reduces water usage, as well as soil erosion and nutrient loss. The use of the drip irrigation also allows water to go directly to the roots and minimizes the chance of the water evaporating before reaching the roots. This is especially important in Santo Domingo because the heat causes evaporation very quickly. Bella Vista Mall, Santo Domingo
An aquaculture system was built in Caberete. Aquaculture is a system that grows fish and plants simultaneously. The fish waste provides nutrients for the plants, and the plants filter the water for the fish. Both the fish and plants can be harvested for food. Cabarete
Greenhouses can be used for many reasons, including temperature regulation, pest control and prevent damage through contact with weather and pollutants. Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
Instead of having the dead and fallen palm tree branch become debris on the side of the road, this citizen/worker is using the natural agriculture as a tool for sweeping the boardwalk from trash and debris. If this citizen is getting paid, then it provides income while also enhancing the atmosphere of a largely touristy part of Santo Domingo, encouraging tourists to come and spend money and boost the local economy. Gazcue, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
Food security is something that many communities have issues with. Rooftop gardens address this issue by making a surface into a multipurpose area that addresses multiple issues at once. This Rooftop Garden was built on the roof of the parking structure at La Universidad Iberoamericana. This location allows the plants to get direct sunlight as well as rain water during irregular showers. It hosts a shade structure for visitors which is appropriate in the constant high heat of the area in addition to a stand for working on when planting new food products. Each garden bed is slightly slanted in order to encourage water drainage to avoid standing water which can encourage growth of unwanted organisms in anaerobic settings and can rot the roots of plants. Drainage can occur through a small drainage pipe from each bed. UNIBE, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

## Architectural design

Image Description Location
Palacio de los Deportes Virgilio Travieso Soto was built for the XII Central American and Caribbean Games in 1974. “The Sports Palace is a cultural, sports and artistic space, where major sporting events are held and leading figures from the world of music are presented” [1]. This is appropriate technology because the dome creates an insulated space where the athletes can play and there are other performances that do take place, such as concerts and pageants. The dome shape has a high volume to surface area ratio as opposed to a rectangular structure. It also enhances acoustics by projecting voices therefore creating the use of less energy through sound equipment. The view from the pedestrian bridge allows speculation and communal interests of the La Media Naranja. A downfall of this technology is that the entirety of space is not utilized. While it is spacious inside, the higher ceiling due to the dome shape is not necessary in a gymnasium therefore more materials were used. Felipe Maduro, Centro Olimpico Juan Pablo Duarte, Ensanche Naco, Santo Domingo
El canalon es usado para transportar la lluvia de el techo cuando llueve para desviarlo a la calle. Pero para usar technologia appropiada, el codo de tuvo se mueve de direction para transportar la agua a una tina donde puede ser usada la agua limpia. Alma Rosa Primera calle tercera esquina A casa 17
The reflective glass windows on this building allow natural light into the building without exposing the interior to the outside world, reducing the need for artificial lighting. This type of window also cuts down on glare, which lessens the need for blinds or other window shades. Because some of the incoming solar radiation is reflected, less heat is entering the building through the windows. This keeps the building cooler, reducing the need for air conditioning. Ave Sarasota, Santo Domingo (near Bella Vista Mall)
El pasillo al aire libre de UNIBE reduce el consumo de energia electrica artificial al permitir la entrada de luz natural. Open-air hallways at UNIBE reduce the consumption of electricity by permitting the influx of natural light. UNIBE, 7mo piso, Santo Domingo
This is a uniquely shaped overhang that not only keeps the area underneath shaded, but allows the area to still be cooled with a breeze. La Universidad Iberoamericana (UNIBE), Santo Domingo
This is an architectural design which allows for open air flow on the first floor and on the bottom floor; more ventilation without the use of excess materials. Gasque, Santo Domingo
This shop used palm frawns as roofing material, therefore repurposing plam frawns that would otherwise just go back into the carbon cycle. Along with being a green solution, these plam frawns are actually quite aesthetically pleasing. Zona Colonial, Santo Domingo
The use of naturally occurring objects as a base for city lighting rather then building a post for the light itself. Manipulating the present environment is generally more expensive then creative usage of the present objects. Outside the museum of modern art, Santo Domingo
The dried palm leaves to build a roof uses a plentiful resource to build a roof on a structure: the material itself can biodegrade when the roof needs to be disposed of or replaced. The dried leaves also have a higher albedo allowing more incoming radiation to reflect. Santo Domingo Este on the way to Boca Chica
The staircases in Gazcue Have holes in the walls to allow light as well air into the hallways. This reduces the need for electricity in the hallways and keeps the hallways cooler on hot days. Gazcue, Santo Domingo
White roofs and walls reflect more heat than darker colored roofs, which keeps the house cooler and lessening the need to use energy spending cooling devices like fans. A rainwater drain extends across the sidewalk so the water bypasses the concrete and goes straight to the soil. Santo Domingo near UNIBE
Living walls make use of typically wasted space and turns them into an aesthetically pleasing, temperature controlling and oxygen providing system. From the looks of it, this wall utilizes PVC pipes with holes to provide irrigation. El Conde, Santo Domingo
The streets of Santo Domingo are riddled with holes from tree root invasion, earth quakes, and other city wear and tear. The city often covers these holes with rubble from old construction projects (in this case, concrete with rebar) in order to keep people from falling into the holes. This demonstrates appropriateness because it utilizes locally available resources, reduces waste, and provides solutions to everyday issues in an affordable manner. Gazcue, Santo Domingo
Agora Mall is the most popular mall in Santo Domingo at the moment. It consists of a "Green Methodology" where they've implemented recycling bins, automated sinks and other appropriate technology systems. Their most prominent one is in their architecture. Their design implements an enormous sky light, allowing light to come in during the day light, limiting the use of indoor lighting. It perfectly lights their "court yard", right in the center of the mall. Ave. Lincoln, Esq. Ave. John F. Kennedy, Santo Domingo

## Biomass

Image Description Location
A building constructed using advertising materials. Using alternative building designs such as this one are beneficial because waste and building costs are reduced. Santo Domingo, Est. Ozama, Av. Las Americas

## Earth

Image Description Location
This was an uncovered balcony on the top floor of an apartment building in Gazcue. The owners decided to created a shaded area by using tightly woven netting. The netting goes along the sides that offers protection Mosquitos or any other bug. Because it is a netting it still provides shade with minimal sun and rain coming through. Since some rain and sun can make it through the fabric, it allows the plants to grow and be watered to maintain health. This multipurpose design is simple, cost efficient and great way to find a second use for something. Gazcue, Santo Domingo
The bright colored plants create an aesthetically pleasing median that provides a safe zone for vendors and pedestrians. The median is a form of appropriate technology because it promotes walking and less car use, while at the same time providing a place for nature to thrive in the midst of a busy city. The median is also appropriate because it directs traffic flow. The creators of the median utilized nature instead of going against it by creating yet another concrete median. The downfall to this plant median is that if the plants were too tall and dense, drivers would not be able to look before they merged into traffic. Av. Máximo Gómez, Villa Juana, Santo Domingo
Passive Cooling of a house without the use of electricity. Using a renewable resource (tree), and intelligent design strategies, the windows of the room are protected against direct sunshine, and thus heat. Enfriamiento pasivo de una casa sin el uso de electricidad. Usando un recurso renovable (árbol), y estrategias de diseño inteligentes, las ventanas de la habitación se protegen de la luz solar directa, y por ende del calor. Santo Domingo Oeste
The city of Santo Domingo has taken advantage of green landscaping and reflective “light-colored” building paints in order to reduce the heat sink caused by concrete buildings. By utilizing standing water, the area becomes insulated since water has a higher heat capacity than the earth. Trees and shrubs are used not only for shade, but also retain a large amount of water to insulate the city further. Many of the city’s buildings are painted white or a light-color. This reflects the energy of the sun away from the buildings so that the concrete or structural material will not absorb additional heat. These factors contribute to a cooler city during the mid-day heat with very little additional expenditures for maintenance when compared to conventional methods. UNIBE, Santo Domingo
This is a photo of palm trees lining the street near Av. Maximo Gomez and Av. 27 de Febrero in Santo Domingo. Planting trees near roadways in cities helps improve air quality by absorbing pollutants and CO2. Trees and other plants also help people connect with nature in an urban environment. Ese es un foto de algunos arbustos en una de las aceras de la av. Maximo Gomez casi esquina 27 de Febrero, en Santo Domingo. Plantar arboles en las avenidas y calles de las ciudades ayuda a contrarestar la contaminacion ya que absorben contaminantes y CO2. Ademas de esto, los arboles ayudan a las personas a conectarse con la naturaleza en un ambiente urbano. Av. Maximo Gomez cerca de la Av. 27 de Febrero
Where the earth is covered by concrete people have created places to grow plants. These planter boxes sit on top of a wall, and are created from different objects: from water jugs cut in half to buckets to rusted metal containers. Using items that can be found, these people have created a place to grow medicinal plants, increase carbon sequestration, and enhance quality of life through the presence of nature. Ave. 25 de Febrero, near the intersection of Ave. de Las Americas.
The greenery climbing all over this building not only serves as a cooling aesthetic in the midday sun, but also, through the process of photosynthesis, the leaves continue to consume CO2 all day long while yielding oxygen for people to breath amidst the passing carros. Zona Colonial, Santo Domingo

## Society

Image Description Location
This is a mosquito net. It reduces the need for keeping fans on and the use of pesticides to keep mosquitos off of someone at night. Santo Domingo Este
This is a bamboo blind used to hide an unsightly mass of exposed wiring. The bamboo has been sealed in a clear coat and anchored in concrete block. This method is highly effective, easily reproducible, inexpensive, and socially accepted. The concrete used has a relatively high carbon footprint but this could be reduced using other AT already in use in this country (Dominican Republic). Gazcue, Santo Domingo
Vendors stand in the street of Expreso 27 selling cellphones, chargers, and other small goods to commuters as they are stopped in traffic. Rather than, every day, hundreds of people adding more miles to their commute to buy certain goods, only a few vendors travel out to Expreso 27 and bring the good to the consumer. This helps reduce aggregate carbon emissions, and probably helps cut down on traffic as well Expreso 27 de Febrero y Avenue Tiradentes. (Entre de Unibe y La Yuca)
Street vendor near subway station up-cycles a baby stroller and fabricates it to transport snacks for sale to pedestrians. Vendedor ambulante cerca estación de metro para arriba-ciclos un cochecito de bebé y fabrica para transportar aperitivos para la venta a los peatones, Se llama paletera. Santo Domingo Este
This is a free outdoor gym that offers free Zumba classes. The gym is designed so that the user incorporates his/her own body weight into the routine. For example, instead of pulling weights down to work out your shoulders you pull yourself up. Why have an outdoor gym if you're basically using your own weight in the first place? The outdoor gym targets certain muscles without stressing other joints which is beneficial when working out. Playa guibia is a lively beach where many locals go to work out and hang out. Out door gym at the beach in santo domingo (playa guibia) At the corner of George Washington and Gomez
These workers are provided by the government to sweep and pick up trash along the Av. George Washington in Santo Domingo. This provides jobs to citizens while keeping the streets of the city free from trash and debris. Av. George Washington is a large tourist area and is the backdrop for many high end hotels and casinos, so keeping it clean encourages tourists to come and spend money and boost the economy, and encourages them to return. Gazcue, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
En el pais de Republica Dominicana es muy divicil para tener constante electricidad en la casa. Es comun que el electricidad se falla de repente, pero se vuelve prenderse en algún horas. Algunos familias, pero no muchos, tiene un simple y efectivo solución para esta problema común. La familia tiene una sistema de inverso. Cuando el electricidad se falla, el inverso se prende y puedes usar las luces. Esta tecnología apropiado sirve para no estar en el oscuro o usar velas que son peligroso porque es fácil a encender materiales de la casa. Esta es un tecnología apropiado de energía y sociedad. Alma Rosa, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

## Solar

Image Description Location
The roof is utilized for ambient lighting instead of electrical lighting. El techo es utilizado como luz ambiental en lugar de electricidad. Casona, UNIBE, Santo Domingo
En la Republica Dominicana existe una excelente oportunidad con referencia a la energia solar, la insidencia del sol es de manera tal que nos brinda oportunidades innumerables, una muestra como tal es este calentador de agua que brinda servicio a una familia de 5 personas mas el area de lavado. In the Dominican Republic there are innumerable opportunities for using solar energy, especially to heat water as in this example. Santo Domingo Oeste
Es la construcio de la casa. Es technologio appropedia por que es solar passive. Cuando es mas sol, puede ver en la dormatorios y hace temprano, perso cuando es la noche, neccesita a luz y hace frio. Calle Santome, Zona Colonial, Santo Domingo
Water is heated using converted energy from the Sun. Abundant sunshine year-round justifies the investment. "El agua para uso diario es calentada usando energía del Sol. La radiación solar constante justifica la inversión" Santo Domingo Oeste
Here we have an example of protection against the powerful heat of the sun. This is a window from a building on the campus of UNIBE. The tinted windows function to keep the inside of the building cooler by not allowing sun rays to penetrate classrooms, while also eliminating the need for curtains or blinds. UNIBE, Santo Domingo
Here we have an example of how local houses utilize solar panels to produce electricity and power for their house. Blackouts are common throughout Santo Domingo. Using solar panels allows houses to store power during times of power shortage. We considered this appropriate technology because the houses are achieving a greater efficiency from the use of Solar panels than if they were to buy electricity from a company. Santo Domingo

## Transportation

Image Description Location
The use of bicycles for transportation reduces the need for fossils fuel and also they can transport their goods. El uso de bicicletas para el transporte reduce la necesidad de combustible fosil y tambien pueden transportar sus utensilios. C/ Pedro Henriquez Ureña con Av. Máximo Gomez, Santo Domingo
Reduces the use of fossil fuels. Reduce el uso de combustibles fósiles. Near Pontificia Universidad Madre y Maestra, Av. Sarasota, Santo Domingo
This is a society AT because is more difficult to change people's mind. Natural Gas is from the waste of gasoline and it reduces the use of fossil fuels. Anali's car, Santo Domingo.
In Santo Domingo, carros públicos are a common and cheap source of public transportation. The beat-up old cars that typically contain 2 seat belts in front and 3 in the back are utilized to squeeze 1 chauffeur plus 2 passengers in front, and 4 passengers in back. These cars, painted yellow or green on top, zip up and down one route, picking up and dropping off passengers along the way. They are different than taxis because they do not take passengers to their exact location and only cost 25 pesos (39 pesos to 1 US dollar). A person may need to take more than one carro público to reach their destination, typically with some walking involved. When we got into this carro público in La Zona Colonial, el chauffeur put a piece of cardboard over the windshield to keep us cool without using the air conditioner, while he waited in hope of 2 more passengers to maximize the capacity of the car. l La Zona Colonial
In 2008 a metro was built for public transportation in Santo Domingo. The metro encourages more people to take public transportation instead of driving and it provides a wider range for public transportation. Santo Domingo
Another common form of public transport in Santo Domingo is the Guagua, or bus. Guaguas vary in size from large vans to large busses. Usually a person will be calling out the door or window of the bus to let potential riders know the bus route and to encourage them to hop aboard. Guaguas help to keep the amount of personal driving down by providing an alternative form of cheap transportation (riding a Guagua generally costs anywhere from 25 pesos to 50 pesos - up to slightly over $1 US). Guaguas will take as many people as the bus can hold, sometimes there is only barely standing room. Bus station for transport to BocaChica, Santo Domingo. Las carreteras de Santo Domingo pueden ser muy peligras para cuando los peatones tienen que cruzar la calle 27 de Febrero y por esa razón la ciudad ha creado un puente para que los peatones puedan cruzar de un lado a otro sin correr el peligros de ser atropellados. Calle 27 de Febrero ## Waste Image Description Location En nuestra casa avia una cuna quebrada y un paraguas quebrado. Nuestra familia las remendo para crear un paraguas con gancho que deja extender y usar para varias applicaciones Alma Rosa Primera calle tercera esquina A casa 17 These fishermen upcycled a wooden pallet into a wheel barrel. They use the wheel barrel to haul their boat motor from the beach to its place of storage. Playa Guayacanes Se reutiliza vidrio para evitar el paso indebido de personas al colocarlo en la parte superior de muros. Calle Soccoro Sanchez, Santo Domingo Es una pictura de una puerta que es hecho de cosas de la calle. Esas cosas serían basura pero ya estan usadas. Siempre es mejor a usar algo que ya no vale nada que comprar algo nuevo el norte de Santo Domingo, Mamá Ting A building constructed using advertising materials. Using alternative building designs such as this one are beneficial because waste and building costs are reduced. Santo Domingo, Est. Ozama, Av. Las Americas A building constructed using plastic bottles and concrete or ecoladrillo La Yuca, Santo Domingo Here we see advertisement sheets strung up to act as shade canopies for a vendor. These would have been discarded as trash, but have found their way to a better use. Near UNIBE campus Use recycle waste to help improve the efficient of the light bold. La Yuca, Santo Domingo Use of recycled bottles to prevent birds from landing on the top edge of this wall. Gasque, Santo Domingo This shows upcycling of worn out car tires for reuse as a support for toys in an elementary school playground. The rubber from the ties also covers potentially dangerous metal supports for the equipment. Calle Soccoro Sanchez, Santo Domingo Este es un arte de desechos que alenta un filosofia de la naturaleza junto con el humano. Este es un tecnología apropiado de sociedad porque se alenta el comunidad de hacer mas sostenible. Como un volumen alto per capita de la ciudad Santo Domingo, y la pequeña cantidad de espacio; la gente de Republica Dominicana produce copiosa cantidad de residuos. La comunidad utilizan azulejos quebrado, discos compacto, un surtido de botellas de plástico de colores, electronica quebrados, y mucho mas. Esta tecnología apropiada es esencial para reducir el vertido de residuos y toxinas en el medio ambiente. También avía frases positivos como: Paz: Siempre respetar el derecho ajeno, amor al prójimo: Siempre dar de ti, sin reservas, Esperanza: Levantarte cuando todo parece perdido, Justicia Social: Dar oportunidad sin discriminar, Fe: Creer te da la fuerza para vivir, y al fin Somos parte de la naturaleza. Cercas De Unibe, 27 de Febrero, Don Bosco, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic ## Water Image Description Location These are cement structures that are used to farm fish. There are many different types of containers that are used in this location. An individual that farms fish can increase income and their amount of food. Se trata de estructuras de cemento que se utilizan para cultivar peces. Hay muchos tipos diferentes de contenedores que se utilizan en esta ubicación. Un individuo que el pescado puede aumentar los ingresos de las explotaciones y su cantidad de alimentos. Av. Los Americas, Santo Domingo Este Esto es un desague por lluvia de agua. Esto es a lo largo de los cayes en Santo Domingo porque si no estan aqui, esta posible que los cayes inudar. Estos estan en todas partes de Santo Domingo, pero en muchos lugares en esto pais, no estan muy eficiente. Los desagues por lluvia de aqua son apropiado tecnologia por que son una muy facil implementacion en esto pais que intendar a ayudar una problema muy grande. Las problemas son que no estan un solucion muy bueno o eficiente. Los desagues necessito una mas mejore forma. (photo credit: Athena Vescott). UNIBE, Santo Domingo This is a flush-less toilet, or sometimes referred to as a waterless urinal. The design allows for the liquid to flow down the drain without the need for constant flushing, as the label indicates it will save 23,000 gallons of water per year. Las Americas Airport, Santo Domingo This is a water reserve system which sits on the roof, it can recollect water from rain or while a water-pump is on. This system is very efficient because it needs no electricity to work when there water is reserve left, it only uses gravitational power to work. It works because it sits on a high point, then the water just flows down. Santo Domingo This is an example of practical conservation of water while showering. It is quite common to see this type of appropriate technology is use in the Dominican Republic as water pressure intermittently decreases during the evening. A individual shower, using an average shower head, may use as much as 25-50 Gallons of water in 15-20 minutes, while the bucket method consumes only about 1-2 Gallons per use. This means by using the bucket method, an American family of four can save$140-280 per year on water utility bills when figuring the average cost per gallon of water is ~\$0.004. Santo Domingo
Rainwater catchment system for the Escuela Basica in La Yuca - La Yuca rainwater catchment La Yuca del Naco, Santo Domingo
Water is carted by hand up to tanks like these on the roof to be used when municiple water sources are suddenly unavaliable. The potential energy of the water provides pressure for bathing, washing, and toilets. La Yuca, Santo Domingo
Storm water drainage is a big problem in concrete covered cities where there is a lot of precipitation. Permeable surfaces such as cobblestone or tile can lessen the need for drainage systems and prevent water buildup and flooding. Santo Domingo
Hydropower is used to power the Air conditioning in the Cafeteria at Unibe instead of fossil fuel reducing emissions. Unibe, Santo Domingo
The Bidet is commonly used in Latin American, European, and Asian countries. It is more hygienic then using toilet paper, it reduces paper waste as well as water waste and is less costly than buying toilet paper. Santo Domingo
This water filling station provides clean and safe drinking water to people at a lower cost than supermarkets by recycling their pre-owned water jugs. It also provides jobs to citizens and lowers the risk of water born illness to poorer community members in Gazcue. Gazcue, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
This is a bucket is used to collect water that is dripping from a leaky pipe under the sink. The water is used to help flush the toilet and sometimes to wash items. The water is not wasted and left on the floor and extra water is not needed to help the toilet flush. Water is a valuable resource. Alma Rosa, Republica Dominicana

## Wind

Image Description Location
Clotheslines use sunlight and wind to save energy. Utiliza luz solar y viento para ahorrar energía. Santo Domingo Este, Alma Rosa I
Es una ventana. Es un technologio appropedia por que usar naturaleza para ventilacion y para un HVAC. Pero no es una technologio appropedia por que no es bueno ventalacion y neccesito ventalador por qaue permetir mosquitos y otra bichos entra la casa. Calle Santome, Zona Colonial, Santo Domingo
A prototype wind power system built and tested in La Yuca - La Yuca small scale renewable energy La Yuca del Naco, Santo Domingo
A wind turbine for sale in the window of an electrical store in Santo Domingo, it seems to be advertised for personal use. This is an appropriate technology (or it will be when it is in use) because there is considerable potential for harnessing wind energy in the Dominican Republic, and this turbine is small enough for use on somebody's rooftop or similar. Wind energy is generally considered an Appropriate Technology in part because it provides an alternative to fossil fuels and opportunity for communities to gain energy independence. This particular turbine can provide approximately 130 Watts of power. La Avenida De Las Americas, Santo Domingo
Parque Eolico los Cocos in the Southwest of the Dominican Republic. Wind energy provides an alternative to fossil fuels in la Republica Dominicana. Pedernalis, Southwest Dominican Republic
This is a wind turbine located in the "National Institute of Technical Training-Profecional" (INFOTEP). This is an institute of the State, which allows low-income individuals and stakeholders to have a technical career. It is even an option to become a technician in renewable energies. Av. John F. Kennedy, Santo Domingo

## References

Page data
Authors Ab290, Ellen, Shalyn Eppler, Holly Johnston, Andres Pineda, Baron Creager, Annette Penny, Taylor Edwards, Fernando Flores, Lonny Grafman, Brandon, Tanja Hopmans, Dominick Triola, Elisabeth de Jong, Rosa Anali Guzman Molina, Omar, Greg Pfotenhauer, Luis Gonzalez, jessica, Kaileigh, Luis Garcia, Ers66, Laura, Jocelyn Gwynn, Wick35, Aaa101, Todd Cooley, Lexie Folkerts 2011 CC-BY-SA-4.0 528 No main image
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