This page is the literature review of large scale plasmonic cell fabrication and severs as part of my PhD project at Michigan Tech under supervision of Dr. Pearce.

Controlled distance nanosphere lithography literature reviews.

Nanosphere lithography fabrications[edit | edit source]

Nanostructure Array Fabrication with a Size-Controllable Natural Lithography[1][edit | edit source]

Abstract: A simple technique for size-controllable nanostructure array formation has been developed, using self-assembled polystyrene beads whose diameters can be arbitrarily reduced by reactive ion etching. We have produced a hole array of 83 and 157 nm diameter with 200 nm pitch on Si substrate. This technique can find potential applications in many areas of science and technology.

  • X-ray, e-beam and ion beam have many advantages but they are large, expensive and not easy to handle; natural lithography which relies on small structure self-organization is a relative simple and inexpensive way for large scale manufactory.
  • polystyrene beads size is controlled by subsequent RIE, the array pitch is determined by the size of the sphere thus also subjected to the etch of the beads. The experiment is conducted on Si(100) with polystyrene beads with initial size of 200nm
  • obtain the polystyrene beads array: Si(100) wafer rinsed in acetone then ultrasonic for 1h, the cleaned wafer was preserved in pure water to keep a hydrophilic surface. To form the array, wafer was taken out from pure water and tilted and suspension of beads diluted pure water was dropped onto it, the substrate was kept still until all the water was evaporated
  • styrene beads were attenuated by oxygen RIE, the silicon wafer was not affected because the etch rate for silicon in oxygen is much smaller than the rate of the beads.
  • Masking(this process can also be used for some plasmonic metal masking): The Pt-Pd mask was deposited using sputtering for about 5nm in thickness, the polystyrene beads with Pt-Pd on top were removed by rubbing the surface with acetone-soaked cotton bud.
  • Lithography: The sample was etched by RIE using a mixture of oxygen and carbon fluoride(CF4:O2=9:1), since Pt-Pd mask has a much higher resistance than Si does, the Si wafer is etched and an array of Si holes formed.
  • Structure nonuniformity was found in the hole size, position and shape, ascribed to the initial nonuniform bead size, rate of RIE and the non uniformity of the self-organization, however, the overall array, seeing from the SEM images attached, is quite uniform and conformal.
  • By changing the RIE time for the beads, different hole diameters were obtained, by changing the time of Si etching, the pitch depth can be adjusted.
  • the author summarized an empirical equation to show the diameter of the hole is in relation with the etching time of the beads, d = d0cos[arcsin(kt/2d0)], d is the diameter of the hole(equivalent to the diameter of the beads after etch), d0 is the initial diameter of the beads, k is a constant, depending on etching conditions and t is the bead etching time.
  • the authors said in summary that the hole diameter being tested falls in the range of 87nm to 157nm with a pitch depth of 200nm

Fabrication of Nanopillars by Nanosphere Lithography[2][edit | edit source]

Abstract: A low cost nanosphere lithography method for patterning and generation of semiconductor nanostructures provides a potential alternative to the conventional top-down fabrication techniques. Forests of silicon pillars of sub-500 nm diameter and with an aspect ratio up to 10 were fabricated using a combination of the nanosphere lithography and deep reactive ion etching techniques. The nanosphere etch mask coated silicon substrates were etched using oxygen plasma and a time-multiplexed 'Bosch' process to produce nanopillars of different length, diameter and separation. Scanning electron microscopy data indicate that the silicon etch rates with the nanoscale etch masks decrease linearly with increasing aspect ratio of the resulting etch structures.

  • The general purpose of the paper is to use the nanosphere lithography to produce nano pillars and they demonstrate that not only the size but also the packing density resist the etching so the time of etching needed to be precisely controlled to yield distance-specified separation.
  • experiment briefs: 2 by 2 cm Si wafer goes through RCA clean at 70 Celsius for 30min followed by DI cleaning and N2 flow drying. 350ul of PS beads with diameter 500nm was diluted with a mixed solution(50ul Triton X-100 in methanol by 1:400), the solution was SPIN-COATED on the samples with a spin coater, the spin program consists three parts:1) 400rpm 10s to spread the solution evenly; 2) 800rpm for 2min to spin away the excess bead solution; 3) 1400rpm 10 s to spin off the excess materials from the edges. the samples were then tailored by a parallel plate RIE etcher with 200sccm of oxygen and 8.4 sccm of tetrafluoromethane at a pressure of 200mTorr and RF power of 100W
  • Nano pillar fab: alternative cycles of RIE in a flow of SF6 (12 sccm 12 sec) and passivation in a flow of C4F8( 85 sccm 9 sec) were used to etch the unprotected areas and to deposite fluorinated polymer to protect the side walls of the resulting etched structures. RF power = 600W, pressure = 4.5 mTorr, temperature = 25 C.
  • the spin-coating was a more controllable process than the traditional dip-drying process in spreading the beads on the sample surface, especially for patterning a monolayer of beads.
  • During the fab of nano pillars from the bead mask, the reactive ions preferentially attack the bottom of the pitch. The side walls were etched only minimally due to the parallel directionality of the ions to the side walls and the protection of deposited fluorinated polymers.
  • This is likely to say: without the alternative etching cycles, the side walls may be attenuated from top to bottom, resulting in a spike-like nano pillar. For pillars with high aspect ratio this etching process is crucial but for pillars that is very shallow the prectetion of the polymer is not further demonstrated to be necessary
  • the difference between this paper and the previous one is that in the first paper it is the areas that covered by beads being 'etched', this one etched the unprotected areas which are the areas without beads on them!
  • silicon etch rate drops as the aspect ratio goes higher, beads mask was degraded in prelonged silicon etch period

Surface patterning by nanosphere lithography for layer growth with ordered pores[3][edit | edit source]

Abstract: Porous Ta layers were grown by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) onto two types of regular surface patterns: honeycomb nanodot arrays and pyramidal hole arrays. The patterning technique employs colloidal self-assembly of 260- to 700-nm-diameter SiO2 nanospheres that form hexagonal close packed monolayers on Si(001) surfaces. Directional evaporation through the holes between the nanospheres yields honeycomb nanodot patterns, while sputter deposition through the nanospheres leads to a thin film mesh that acts as a mask during subsequent anisotropic etching, resulting in an array of inverted pyramid holes. GLAD on nanodot patterns results in honeycomb nanopillar arrays containing a regular array of 450-nm-wide pores that are each surrounded by six 286-nm-wide pillars. GLAD on inverted pyramid hole patterns leads to porous layers with arrays of 280-nm-wide vertical nanochannels separated by 60–130 nm wide Ta nanorod walls. These results demonstrate that substrate patterning by nanosphere lithography is effective in controlling both the size and the arrangement of pores during GLAD.

  • This paper shows a particular application of NSL(nanosphere lithography): To pattern the surface for growth of GLAD porous materials. The paper combines GLAD and NSL to produce honeycomb shaped nano pillar and vertical nano channel array.
  • two PVD methods being used are 1) e-beam evaporation and 2) magnetron sputtering, the e-beam of Cr comes perpendicular to the surface of the sample through the pores of the closed packed nanosphere array, resulting in small pyramids of Cr clusters forming a honeycomb array, the sputtering is not direction selective so that it comes at all direction, giving a broader yet thinner layer that almost cover everywhere on the sample surface other than those pre-occupied by the big silica sphere, in other word, it forms a Cr thin interconnected two dimensional mesh.
  • nano spheres were removed chemically, using 0.5% HF solution. for the Cr mesh formed in sputtering process, the author performed a second etch using 25% sodium hydroxide at 70 Celsius for 30 sec, gives an inverted pyramid hole array(the masked area is protected and remains intact during etching).
  • The author then did the so-called GLAD in a UHV charmber using magnetron sputter deposition system. Ta target is used with a angle of 84 degree. In the e-beam one the Ta is grown on the Cr pyramids to form an array of pillars, six such pillars encircles a pore; for the sputtered one Ta grows on the thin mesh layer(with inverted pyramidal holes). Deposition i nthe holes is suppressed by atomic shadowing, leading to a squared shaped nano channels that elongate along the growth direction perpendicular to the surface.

Ordered nanostructures array fabricated by nanosphere lithography[4][edit | edit source]

Abstract: Ordered PS array was deposited on the silicon substrate and the rigid monolayer formed due to the interconnection by the sodium dodecyl sulfate. Metal film with nanoholes was fabricated by depositing the film onto the PS array. Co nanorings were fabricated in the following Ar ion etching process masked by PS particles. Silicon-based nanoholes were also fabricated by RIE process after the removal of the PS particles by chemical solution. The diameter of PS particle was thinned by the O2 etching process, and thus it is possible to control the diameters of the nanorings and the nanoholes.

  • This paper, differed from other NSL methods, used a easy self-assembly method to form a close packed polystyrene nanosphere array that is much more uniform than tradition spin-coating or Langmuir-Blodgett methods(from those attached SEM images), the following RIE and sputtering have no fancy stuff, just to accomplished a complete NSL course..
  • Experimental: start from commercial 200nm monodisperse polystyrene particles. Wafer was then immersed into water and polystyrene particles solution to form a normal Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer, the layer at this moment is, however, less close packed and less uniform. The nanosphere floats randomly on the surface for the sake of surface strain, the pattern showed no long-range order. fancy stuff begins here, they dipped sodium dodecyl sulfate solution into the wafer surface and this drove the monolayer into highly ordered, dense packed hexagonal pattern over 1cm2,
  • The author doesn't mention what tricky chemical reaction happen there but just said the dodecyl sulfate solution acts as interconnector between spheres. I guess the dodecyl sulfate anion behaves as a surfactant with hydrophilic end(negatively charged) closed to the (static electronically positive) organic sphere while hydrophobic chain stretching out like a long tail, because the hydrophobic nature they tend to crosslink each other, hence the loose and less close packed sphere array became denser.
  • So the key to this is to make sure the surfactant falls onto it the monolayer properly so that there won't be any three dimensional crosslink, and the structure of the monolayer is kept intact but denser. Thus why the author doing the lift off very carefully.
  • Let's review the whole process: first, diluted polystyrene solution applied to a modified substrate and spread all over the substrate;second, a monolayer of spheres formed on the surface of water; third, carefully slide the wafer into the glass vessel filled with water and polystyrene particles on surface; dip sodium dodecyl sulfate solution onto the water surface; lift off the silicon wafer carefully.take a look at ref [19] for more information!!!
  • similiar empirical oxygen RIE equation for bead etching was obtained, D = D0cos(arcsin(kt)/2D0), in this experiment the author took k=4.0 as an empirical value. data agrees well with the equation, according to the author, thus controlling of the size of the beads become feasible.
  • either fancy hexagonal pyramids by e-beam eva or Au spread films with holes by sputtering is applicable as important applications of NSL, many of those applications find their further development in optical, especially in plasmonic related areas.
  • tetrahydrofuran can etch away the polystyrene beads, do it in ultrasonic bath!!!

Application of two-dimensional polystyrene arrays in the fabrication of ordered silicon pillars[5][edit | edit source]

Abstract: 2D ordered Si-based pillars were fabricated by nanosphere lithography. Polystyrene nanosphere monolayer was deposited onto the silicon substrate by the self-organization technique, which was used as mask in the following RIE process. The polystyrene nanospheres were thinned by oxygen plasma, and thus the radius of silicon pillars can be controlled.

  • This paper is a proceeding work from the previous one, the author is the same author, method is the same method, the only difference is that the author find a new application to make nano pillar using the polystyrene beads NSL, the resulting nano pillars are spike-like shaped, not column which has uniform diameter from top to bottom, this is probably because the author didn't use any protection methods to protect the sidewalls of newly grown nano pillars, the protection approach introduced in the 2nd paper would be useful for this kind of application.
  • The author wrote a more detailed lab instruction this time, but I'm still confused with some of the description. Posted the full context here for further analysis. Experimental: polystyrene particles purchased were in 10wt% aqueous solution, which was then diluted by equal amount of ethanol. Si(100) wafer boiled in solution of NH4OH, H2O2 and H2O(volume 1:2:6) for 5min. Then the wafer were washed thoroughtly and were kept in 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate solution for 24h to yield a hydrophilic surface. (they dried the wafer or not?)7uL diluted polystyrene solution mentioned above was applied onto the modified substrate(make sure it spread all over the substrate!). The wafer was then slowly immersed into the glass vessel filled with water and polystyrene particles started to form an unordered monolayer on the water surface(I don't what solution is filled into the glass vessel, nor do the author specifies it!Is that the )Some sodium dodecyl sulfate solution was dipped onto the water surface and a large monolayer with highly ordered areas was obtained. Such monolayers were then lifted off using previous mentioned silicon wafers.
  • So, the monolayer is formed on the water surface, then my spread 7uL diluted PS solution onto the modified substrate? And what is actually filled in the glass vessel before immersing the wafer?
  • All the RIE stuff is no fancy at all, it is a copy of those mentioned before.

Nanosphere Lithography:  A Versatile Nanofabrication Tool for Studies of Size-Dependent Nanoparticle Optics(Review paper)[6][edit | edit source]

Abstract: Nanosphere lithography (NSL) is an inexpensive, simple to implement, inherently parallel, high throughput, materials general nanofabrication technique capable of producing an unexpectedly large variety of nanoparticle structures and well-ordered 2D nanoparticle arrays. This article describes our recent efforts to broaden the scope of NSL to include strategies for the fabrication of several new nanoparticle structural motifs and their characterization by atomic force microscopy. NSL has also been demonstrated to be well-suited to the synthesis of size-tunable noble metal nanoparticles in the 20?1000 nm range. This characteristic of NSL has been especially valuable for investigating the fascinating richness of behavior manifested in size-dependent nanoparticle optics. The use of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy to probe the size-tunable optical properties of Ag nanoparticles and their sensitivity to the local, external dielectric environment (viz., the nanoenvironment) is discussed in detail. More specifically, the effects of nanoparticle size, shape, interparticle spacing, nanoparticle-substrate interaction, solvent, dielectric overlayers, and molecular adsorbates on the LSPR spectrum of Ag nanoparticles are presented. This systematic study of the fundamentals of nanoparticle optics promises to find application in the field of chemical and biological nanosensors; herein, the initial data demonstrate that LSPR spectroscopy of Ag nanoparticles can be used to sense specifically bound analytes with zeptomole per nanoparticle detection limits and no detectable nonspecific binding.

  • LSPR: localized surface plasmon resonance, occurs when the correct wavelength of light strikes a metallic nanoparticle, causing the plasma of conduction eletrons to oscillate collectively. The term LSPR is used because this collective oscillation is localized within the near surface region of the nanoparticle. The two consequences of exciting the LSPR are 1) selective photon absorption and 2) generation of locally enhanced or amplified electromagnetic fields at the nanoparticle surface. LSPR for noble metal nanoparticles in the 20 to a few hundred nanometer size regime occurs in the visible and IR regions of the spectrum and can be measured by UV-VIS-IR extinction spectroscopy.
  • To spread the nanospheres across the substrate to form a uniform monolayer, chemical modification of the nanosphere surface is often done to have cnegatively charged functional group such as carboxylate or sulfate coated surface that is electronstatically repelled by the negatively charged surface of a substrate such as mica or glass. Only hexagonally closed-packed nanospheres is self-assembled onto the substrate.
  • double layer periodic particle arrays can form if one increases the concentration of nanospheres in the solution to be self-assembled onto the substrate, a significant portion of the colloidal crystal will consist of double layers of hexagonally close=packed nanospheres. The resulting double layer has two possible configurations with the third layer to be assembled onto it, 1)ABAB, 2)ABCABC, the latter offers no space for metal to be deposited onto the substrate. Double layer has promising application in increasing the store capacity in magnetic storage material.double layer array offers a much smaller space for deposition, therefore the resulting metal array will be consisted of dots rather than triangular shaped domains. Diameter of those dots can be adjusted down to 30nm according to the author
  • This may be useful in plasmonic implementation, tracking!!! Nanoring: An array of nanorings within a single layer NS array formed by e-beam deposition of high melting point transition metals, Hypothesis: low kinetic energy atoms that travel along a direct line of sight from the depositon target to the substrate and stick where they strike the substrate to give a triangular array; high kinetic energy atoms(1-10eV) that travel along off-normal trajectories are able to continue their journey after the first strike. After several times bounce between the substrate and the NS mask they lose all their KE and finally settled close to the foot of NS to form a nanoring.
  • Angle-resolved NSL: Control of the deposition angle to produce new deposition motifs.(not quite useful for our purpose)
  • LSPR with Ag particles.Figure 11 is very important here! It shows the maximum absorption wavelength varies with shape, height and length of Ag array. YOU MUST CHECK THE FIGURE!!

Wafer-Scale Periodic Nanohole Arrays Templated from Two-Dimensional Nonclose-Packed Colloidal Crystals[7][edit | edit source]

Abstract: This communication reports a simple yet versatile nonlithographic approach for fabricating wafer-scale periodic nanohole arrays from a large variety of functional materials, including metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics. Spin-coated two-dimensional (2D) nonclose-packed colloidal crystals are used as first-generation shadow masks during physical vapor deposition to produce isolated nanohole arrays. These regular nanoholes can then be used as second-generation etching masks to create submicrometer void arrays in the substrates underneath. Complex patterns with micrometer-scale resolution can be made by standard microfabrication techniques for potential device applications. These 2D-ordered nanohole arrays may find important technological applications ranging from subwavelength optics to interferometric biosensors.

  • In this paper the author demonstrate a 2D nonclosed-packed colloidal crystal array(nanosphere array) using spin-coating. The principle is that the normal pressures produced by spin-coating and monomer photopolymerization squeeze particles against the substrate to form nonclose-packed 2D array. In their SEM images the beads are separated from each other at a distant of about 1.4D, where D is the diameter of the beads..
  • The spheres function as shadow masks to obstruct material deposition underneath them. As the colloids are not in contact in the original templates, the deposited materials fill interstitials to form continuous films rather than distinct islands as in nanosphere lithography

Sub-100 nm Triangular Nanopores Fabricated with the Reactive Ion Etching Variant of Nanosphere Lithography and Angle-Resolved Nanosphere Lithography[8][edit | edit source]

Abstract: Nanosphere lithography (NSL) is combined with reactive ion etching (RIE) to fabricate ordered arrays of in-plane, triangular cross-section nanopores. Nanopores with in-plane widths ranging from 44 to 404 nm and depths ranging from 25 to 250 nm are demonstrated. The combination of angle-resolved nanosphere lithography (AR NSL) and RIE yields an additional three-fold reduction in nanopore size.

  • The author demonstrate that by using angle resolved nanosphere lithography(AR NSL), the criterion for nanopores with the following properties can be met:1) extremely uniform nanopores(in-plane widths = 44nm-404nm); 2)controlled nanopore depth(25nm-250nm); 3) controlled, uniform nanopore shapes; and 4) high areal density(~1010pores cm-2)..
  • The nanopores formed by simply employing a single layer PS beads array followed by reactive ion etch looks uniform in wafer scale with slight amount of slip dislocations( dislocation free region ~= 10-100um2, given the etching condition, by changing the etching time(2-10min), nanopores depth ranges from ~25nm - 250nm.
  • cross-sectional SEM and AFM are used in analysis the nanopores, however, AFM tip is sometimes too big for a small pore thus tip convolution is inevitable.
  • Theoretically predicted in-plane with goes in agreement with experiment results! slight deviation can be attributed to AFM tip convolution, anisotropic RIE process.
  • The RIE variant of AR NSL yields a further reduction in nanopore in-plane widths by approximately a factor of 3. In addition, a variety of nanopore aperture shapes are possible with AR NSL. However, tilting of the substrate will affect the uniformity of the etching parameters. resulting in further deviation of the experimental nanopore geometry from the predicted nanopore geometry. The tilted sample yields generally more stretched nanopores in terms of the tilt angle.
  • personally, this paper may not be a Nano Letter level paper!!!

Optical properties[edit | edit source]

Nanosphere Lithography:  A Versatile Nanofabrication Tool for Studies of Size-Dependent Nanoparticle Optics(Review paper)[6][edit | edit source]

Abstract: Nanosphere lithography (NSL) is an inexpensive, simple to implement, inherently parallel, high throughput, materials general nanofabrication technique capable of producing an unexpectedly large variety of nanoparticle structures and well-ordered 2D nanoparticle arrays. This article describes our recent efforts to broaden the scope of NSL to include strategies for the fabrication of several new nanoparticle structural motifs and their characterization by atomic force microscopy. NSL has also been demonstrated to be well-suited to the synthesis of size-tunable noble metal nanoparticles in the 20?1000 nm range. This characteristic of NSL has been especially valuable for investigating the fascinating richness of behavior manifested in size-dependent nanoparticle optics. The use of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy to probe the size-tunable optical properties of Ag nanoparticles and their sensitivity to the local, external dielectric environment (viz., the nanoenvironment) is discussed in detail. More specifically, the effects of nanoparticle size, shape, interparticle spacing, nanoparticle-substrate interaction, solvent, dielectric overlayers, and molecular adsorbates on the LSPR spectrum of Ag nanoparticles are presented. This systematic study of the fundamentals of nanoparticle optics promises to find application in the field of chemical and biological nanosensors; herein, the initial data demonstrate that LSPR spectroscopy of Ag nanoparticles can be used to sense specifically bound analytes with zeptomole per nanoparticle detection limits and no detectable nonspecific binding.

  • LSPR: localized surface plasmon resonance, occurs when the correct wavelength of light strikes a metallic nanoparticle, causing the plasma of conduction eletrons to oscillate collectively. The term LSPR is used because this collective oscillation is localized within the near surface region of the nanoparticle. The two consequences of exciting the LSPR are 1) selective photon absorption and 2) generation of locally enhanced or amplified electromagnetic fields at the nanoparticle surface. LSPR for noble metal nanoparticles in the 20 to a few hundred nanometer size regime occurs in the visible and IR regions of the spectrum and can be measured by UV-VIS-IR extinction spectroscopy.
  • To spread the nanospheres across the substrate to form a uniform monolayer, chemical modification of the nanosphere surface is often done to have cnegatively charged functional group such as carboxylate or sulfate coated surface that is electronstatically repelled by the negatively charged surface of a substrate such as mica or glass. Only hexagonally closed-packed nanospheres is self-assembled onto the substrate.
  • double layer periodic particle arrays can form if one increases the concentration of nanospheres in the solution to be self-assembled onto the substrate, a significant portion of the colloidal crystal will consist of double layers of hexagonally close=packed nanospheres. The resulting double layer has two possible configurations with the third layer to be assembled onto it, 1)ABAB, 2)ABCABC, the latter offers no space for metal to be deposited onto the substrate. Double layer has promising application in increasing the store capacity in magnetic storage material.double layer array offers a much smaller space for deposition, therefore the resulting metal array will be consisted of dots rather than triangular shaped domains. Diameter of those dots can be adjusted down to 30nm according to the author
  • This may be useful in plasmonic implementation, tracking!!! Nanoring: An array of nanorings within a single layer NS array formed by e-beam deposition of high melting point transition metals, Hypothesis: low kinetic energy atoms that travel along a direct line of sight from the depositon target to the substrate and stick where they strike the substrate to give a triangular array; high kinetic energy atoms(1-10eV) that travel along off-normal trajectories are able to continue their journey after the first strike. After several times bounce between the substrate and the NS mask they lose all their KE and finally settled close to the foot of NS to form a nanoring.
  • Angle-resolved NSL: Control of the deposition angle to produce new deposition motifs.(not quite useful for our purpose)
  • LSPR with Ag particles.Figure 11 is very important here! It shows the maximum absorption wavelength varies with shape, height and length of Ag array. YOU MUST CHECK THE FIGURE!!
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Published 2014
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  1. Haginoya, Chiseki, Masayoshi Ishibashi, and Kazuyuki Koike. "Nanostructure Array Fabrication with a Size-Controllable Natural Lithography." Applied Physics Letters 71, no. 20 (1997): 2934. doi:10.1063/1.120220.
  2. Cheung, C L, R J Nikolić, C E Reinhardt, and T F Wang. "Fabrication of Nanopillars by Nanosphere Lithography." Nanotechnology 17, no. 5 (March 14, 2006): 1339–1343. doi:10.1088/0957-4484/17/5/028.
  3. Zhou, C.M., and D. Gall. "Surface Patterning by Nanosphere Lithography for Layer Growth with Ordered Pores." Thin Solid Films 516, no. 2–4 (December 2007): 433–437. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2007.05.069.
  4. Zhang, Yongjun, Xianghe Wang, Yaxin Wang, Huilian Liu, and Jinghai Yang. "Ordered Nanostructures Array Fabricated by Nanosphere Lithography." Journal of Alloys and Compounds 452, no. 2 (March 2008): 473–477. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2007.11.021.
  5. Zhang, Y.J., W. Li, and K.J. Chen. "Application of Two-dimensional Polystyrene Arrays in the Fabrication of Ordered Silicon Pillars." Journal of Alloys and Compounds 450, no. 1–2 (February 2008): 512–516. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2006.11.184.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Haynes, Christy L., and Richard P. Van Duyne. "Nanosphere Lithography:  A Versatile Nanofabrication Tool for Studies of Size-Dependent Nanoparticle Optics." The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 105, no. 24 (June 1, 2001): 5599–5611. doi:10.1021/jp010657m.
  7. Jiang, Peng, and Michael J. McFarland. "Wafer-Scale Periodic Nanohole Arrays Templated from Two-Dimensional Nonclose-Packed Colloidal Crystals." Journal of the American Chemical Society 127, no. 11 (March 1, 2005): 3710–3711. doi:10.1021/ja042789+.
  8. Whitney, Alyson V., Benjamin D. Myers, and Richard P. Van Duyne. "Sub-100 Nm Triangular Nanopores Fabricated with the Reactive Ion Etching Variant of Nanosphere Lithography and Angle-Resolved Nanosphere Lithography." Nano Letters 4, no. 8 (August 1, 2004): 1507–1511. doi:10.1021/nl049345w.
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