Solid models[edit | edit source]
A computer-generated representation can be of great assistance for those wishing to communicate to a fabrication partner. A graphical representation is generated by creating a solid model, which can be used for further development and assists in visually describing the desired resultant product. Downstream from the 3D model, fabricators can utilize these models in creating tooling using advanced manufacturing techniques (3D printing, CNC machining, etc.).
3D parametric modeling[edit | edit source]
Organic modeling[edit | edit source]
Repositories of existing 3D models[edit | edit source]
- Thingiverse - Download - Makerbot collection of models
- GrabCAD - Download - an online community of professional designers, engineers, manufacturers, and students
Capturing 3D Models of an existing 3D object[edit | edit source]
- Photogrammetry - Download - Generate 3D models from a number of photographs
- MeshMixer - Download - “Swiss Army Knife” for processing 3D geometry
Reading[edit | edit source]
- Elfar, J., Stanbury, S., Menorca, R. M. G., & Reed, J. D. (2014). Composite bone models in orthopaedic surgery research and education. The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 22(2), 111.
Materials[edit | edit source]
Nothing is a perfect substitute for the actual, but you can get close. Materials that can mimic different tissue types can be found below, along with information on how to manufacture (i.e., mold to create a 3D representation).
Material choice and use[edit | edit source]
- Material Selection
- Choosing between different materials
- Choosing materials for building projects
- How to Choose the Most Innovative Materials for Your Project
- How To Evaluate Materials - Properties To Consider
- Fabrication Strategies
Plastics[edit | edit source]
General use of plastics[edit | edit source]
General description of plastics and manufacturing methods - cutting, thermoforming, molding, and printing.
- Common Plastics for Thermoforming
- A Simple Guide To Plastic Molding
- Open source 3-D printable extruder for converting plastic to 3-D printing filament
- An Introduction to 3D Printing with Plastics
- 7 of the most popular and commonly used plastics
- The Eleven Most Important Types of Plastic
Mold making[edit | edit source]
- Mold Making & Casting Basics
- Basics of Mold Making
- Mold Making Tutorial: Silicone Mold of Clay Sculpture
- Injection Molding: Draft Angle
- Draft Angle Guidelines for Injection Molding
- Calculate Plastic Mold Shrinkage
- What is the Molding Shrinkage Phenomenon?
- Mold Making Materials and Supplies
3D printing[edit | edit source]
- Introduction to 3D Printing
- 3D printing materials and their use in medical education
- How to Prime and Paint 3D Printed Parts
- Ultimate 3D Printing Materials Guide
General construction[edit | edit source]
A general primer on the use of wood, metal, stone, and other construction methods for fixtures for simulation
Natural materials[edit | edit source]
- Simulation, 3D printing combine to duplicate (or improve!) natural materials
- Materials used to simulate physical properties of human skin
- (PDF) Hybrid and Composite Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering
Silicone[edit | edit source]
Silicone-based materials that can be used in the fabrication process and how to work with these products.
How to[edit | edit source]
- Step-by-Step Mold Making and Casting Tutorials
- How To Make a Needle Insertion Trainer
- How To Make a Silicone Suture Pad
- Custom Fabrication of a Renew Silicone Partial Foot Prosthesis
- Prosthetic Socket Refinement With Renew Silicone Replicator
- How To Make a Silicone Pregnancy Overlay
- How To Make Your Own Suturable Vessels
Augmented reality[edit | edit source]
Sometimes creating something in physical life can be challenging, while a picture or an overlay to the physical world can help explain or give a better interpretation. For example, a complex motion (a twist and rotate while pivoting) can be shown with an augmented reality overlay with directional arrows showing the force necessary, timing or motion, and direction all in 1 quick pictorial.
The most widely accessible type of augmented reality (AR) is video-see-through AR. A user views a 3D scene through their smartphone or tablet screen, which simultaneously shows a live video feed of the real scene captured by the forward-facing camera. Virtual content is then anchored to positions in the real world shown via video on the screen. Creating a video-see-through AR experience requires first having appropriate 3D models [see the section on Solid Modeling] and then authoring an AR scene that uses these models.
File:ARKit.png Authoring and Viewing AR Scenes[edit | edit source]
- Graphical Authoring Tools
- Software libraries for custom software:
- ArUco - marker tracking (open source)
Virtual reality[edit | edit source]
Virtual Reality involves creating simulated, synthetic scenes containing 3D models that are animated or otherwise interactive. In many VR scenes, simulated objects will also have simulated behaviors, e.g., through physics simulation. Users interact with virtual reality scenes through hardware such as virtual reality headsets (also known as head-mounted displays - HMDs) and controllers. For the source of 3D models, see the section [Solid modeling].
360-Degree Photography and Video[edit | edit source]
360-Degree Photos and videos allow the viewer to interactively change the viewing orientation (but not the camera location) while they watch. Such photos and videos require special hardware to capture the scene. Playback can be on either regular displays (e.g., platforms such as Youtube and Vimeo support 360 videos in their desktop and mobile players) or immersive displays such as VR headsets. 360-degree photography and video capture real scenes. To work with virtual scenes, see the following sections on augmented and virtual reality.
- A guide to 360 degree photography -basic principles of 3D space
- 360-degree video creation hardware and software explained
Collaborative Model Viewing[edit | edit source]
Mozilla Hubs allows multiple participants to view and annotate models in real-time through various 2D and 3D platforms.
3D Application Platforms[edit | edit source]
A 3D application platform allows creators to arrange 3D objects modeled in one of the modeling applications above into interactive scenes that can be viewed and interacted with, including adding simulated physics to built-in physics engines.
The two main application platforms used in professional work are Unity and Unreal. Unreal is free for educational use; Unity’s license grant program may provide free licenses to educational institutions.
- Deep Learning-Based Object Recognition Using Physically-Realistic Synthetic Depth Scenes
- Media production with a correlation of image stream and abstract objects in a three-dimensional virtual stage
- Pros and Cons of Building a Custom Physics Engine
- Physics engine - Wikipedia
- (PDF) An Evaluation of Open Source Physics Engines for Use in Virtual Reality Assembly Simulations
Modeling software[edit | edit source]
Guide to Blender, Sketchup, wireframe modeling.
- Blender - open source software
- Sketchup - open source software
- How to Create a Wireframe - A Beginner's Guide to Wireframing
- A Beginner’s Guide to Wireframing
Displays[edit | edit source]
- Low-cost Cardboard VR viewers: Low-cost VR headsets can repurpose existing smartphones are VR displays. The main downside is that such platforms have poor interaction capabilities - they do not offer rich ways of providing input to a VR scene. They are often limited to 3D orientation changes of the camera (which makes them suitable for 360-degree photo and video viewing). This limitation can be overcome with projects such as Opensource-VR-Cardboard
- Smartphone screens explained: display types, resolutions and refresh rates
- Head-mounted display