GSTC Toolbox/Digital and physical design

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Solid Models[edit | edit source]


A computer-generated representation can be of great assistance for those wishing to communicate to a fabrication partner. By creating a solid model, a graphical representation is generated which can be used for further development and assists in visually describing the desired resultant product. Downstream from the 3D model, fabricators can utilize these models in creating tooling using advanced manufacturing techniques (3D printing, CNC machining, etc).

3D parametric modeling[edit | edit source]

Organic modeling[edit | edit source]

Repositories of existing 3D models[edit | edit source]

Capturing 3D Models of an existing 3D object[edit | edit source]

Materials[edit | edit source]

Nothing is a perfect substitute for the actual, but you can get close. Materials that can mimic different types of tissue can be found below along with information on how to manufacture (i.e. mold to create a 3D representation) .

Material choice and use[edit | edit source]

Plastics[edit | edit source]

General use of plastics[edit | edit source]

General description of plastics and manufacturing methods - cutting, thermoforming, molding and printing.

Mold making[edit | edit source]

Standard two plate injection molding tool.jpg

3D printing[edit | edit source]


General construction[edit | edit source]

General primer on use of wood, metal, stone and other construction methods for fixtures for simulation

Natural materials[edit | edit source]

Silicone[edit | edit source]

Silicone-based materials that can be used in the fabrication process and how to work with these products.

How to[edit | edit source]

360-Degree Photography and Video[edit | edit source]

360-Degree photos and videos allow the viewer to interactively change the viewing orientation (but not the camera location) while they watch. Such photos and videos require special hardware to capture the scene. Playback can be on either regular displays (e.g, platforms such as Youtube and Vimeo support 360 video in their desktop and mobile players) or immersive displays such as VR headsets. 360-degree photography and video captures real scenes. To work with virtual scenes, see the following sections on augmented and virtual reality.

Augmented Reality (AR)[edit | edit source]

Sometimes creating something in physical life can be challenging, while a picture or an overlay to the physical world can help explain or give a better interpretation. For example, a complex motion (a twist and rotate while pivoting) can be shown with an augmented reality overlay with directional arrows showing the force necessary, timing or each motion, and direction all in 1 quick pictorial.

The most widely accessible type of augmented reality (AR) is video-see-through AR, in which a user views a 3D scene through their smartphone or tablet screen, which simultaneously shows a live video feed of the real scene captured by the forward-facing camera. Virtual content is then anchored to positions in the real world shown via video on screen. Creating a video-see-through AR experience requires first having appropriate 3D models [see section on Solid Modeling], and then authoring an AR scene that uses these models.

Authoring and Viewing AR Scenes[edit | edit source]

Virtual Reality (VR)[edit | edit source]


Virtual Reality involves creating simulated, synthetic scenes containing 3D models that are animated or otherwise interactive. In many VR scenes, simulated objects will also have simulated behaviors, e.g. through the use of physics simulation.  Users interact with virtual reality scenes through hardware such as virtual reality headsets (also known as head-mounted displays - HMDs) and controllers. For the source of 3D models, see the section [Solid modeling].

Collaborative Model Viewing[edit | edit source]

Mozilla Hubs allows multiple participants to view and annotate models in real-time, through a variety of 2D and 3D platforms.

3D Application Platforms[edit | edit source]

A 3D application platform allows creators to arrange 3D objects modeled in one of the modeling applications above into interactive scenes that can be viewed and interacted with, including adding simulated physics to built-in physics engines.

The main two application platforms used in professional work are Unity and Unreal. Unreal is free for educational use; Unity’s license grant program may provide free licenses to educational institutions.

Modeling software[edit | edit source]

Guide to Blender, Sketchup, wireframe modeling.

Displays[edit | edit source]

Content Examples[edit | edit source]