|Michigan Tech's Open Sustainability Technology Lab.|
Community Solar Lit Review
Note to Readers[edit | edit source]
Please leave any comments on the Discussion page (see tab above) including additional resources/papers/links etc. Papers can be added to relevant sections if done in chronological order with all citation information and short synopsis or abstract. Thank You.
Background[edit | edit source]
U.S. Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Laboratory National Community Solar Partnership web-community. https://www.energy.gov/eere/solar/national-community-solar-partnership Started in 2019. 518 "members" as of March 17, 2021. Open system for information sharing and learning about Community Solar.
- Google for Community Solar
- Google for shared solar
- Google for solar gardens
Major Journals[edit | edit source]
*Renewable Energy, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Energy Policy, Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, Energy for Sustainable Development
Community Solar[edit | edit source]
“Community shared solar” is defined as a solar-electric system that provides power and/or financial benefit to multiple community members.
David Feldman, Anna M. Brockway, Elaine Ulrich, and Robert Margolis,"Shared Solar: Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation" NREL,April 2015..
Restrictions on Community solar[edit | edit source]
- Uncertainty about the applicability of Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) requirements i.e when and how shared solar program is considered as "security".
- subject to regulation State and local laws.
- uncertain tax credit applicability such as 25D for residential purposes only up to 30% which restricts off site solar plant users. Section 48 for business have ventures have similar difficulties.
What is security?[edit | edit source]
A security is an investment instrument issued by a corporation, government, or other organization that offers evidence of debt or equity. Any transaction that involves an investment of money in an enterprise, with an expectation of profits to be earned through the efforts of someone other than the investor, is a transaction involving a security. Community shared solar organizers must be sure to comply with both state and federal securities regulations, and avoid inadvertently offering a security.
There is a need of no action letter from SEC for shared solar project
To pass as Federal security there is a Howey Test criteria:
- An investment of money
- In a common enterprise
- Based solely on the efforts of a promoter or a third party
- For which there is an expectation of profits
To pass as state security there is Risk capital test criteria:
- Funds are being raised for a business venture or enterprise
- The transaction is offered indiscriminately to the public at large
- The investors are substantially powerless to affect the success of the enterprise
- The investors’ money is substantially at risk because it is inadequately secured.
Even if a project is classified as security there are exemptions
[edit | edit source]
- Group net metering or VNM: California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont
- Statewide shared energy program: California, Colorado, Delaware, District of Columbia, Massachusetts, Minnesota
- Incentives: Washington
[edit | edit source]
It is estimated that 49% of households and 48% of businesses cannot host a PV system of adequate size on their property or virtually net meter an entire system themselves. By opening the market to these customers, shared solar could represent 32%–49% of the distributed PV market in 2020, growing cumulative PV deployment in 2015–2020 by 5.5–11.0 GW and representing $8.2–$16.3 billion of cumulative investment.
John Farrell , Beyond Sharing: How Communities Can Take Ownership of Renewable Power, 2016 
- Barriers are clearly defined
- Systematic way to break barriers.
- Cost of securities mentioned
- self ownership cost most out of all structures
- Crowd funding possibility
- JOBS act to provied a new way for odinary people to pool in their money to invest in renewable energy.
- Working examples of CS those who busted the barriers.
Jason Coughlin, Jennifer Grove, et al., "Guide to community solar: Utility, private, and non-profit project development"U.S. Department of Energy, 2011. 
- Great Overview of community shared solar
- Three different models – group members to be located within the same utility service territory, require solar array. Also talks about some main methods of implementation - Comparison between three main models Utility,Special purpose entity & Non profit
Note - special purpose entity mave have issues in obtaining ITC tax credits because of it recuries taxable income members.
- Includes Various state policies to support community shared solar
Billing methods – Group billing, virtual net metering and joint ownership 1.Group billing – master metering, net metering ((total from utility – PV generation)/total participants) based on agreement 2.Virtual net metering – Credits appear on each individual customer’s bill, Colorado best example, Few examples of California, Colorado, Massachusetts, Delaware’s community solar program 3.Joint ownership – joint ownership between customer/owner and utility, businesses etc, Example of Maine and Washington’ s program
- sample budget for community solar
- Tax policy & incentives
- Security compliance – security laws are intended to protect individuals who provide financial support for a project with an expectation to receive profits from the efforts of others or with the expectation to receive a valuable benefit when the investor does not have control over managerial decisions of the venture.
- Basic step by step guidelines for community solar program
ENERGY, N.C., 50States. 24th Jan 2017
- US Distributed Solar Market
- Net Metering Policy Changes
- Community solar Policies
- Proposed Charges on Residential Solar Customers
- Third- party solar ownership
- Utility-led Rooftop Solar Program Updates
- Questions answered with this:
1. How are state regulatory bodies and legislatures and electric utilities addressing fast growing markets for distributed solar PV?
2. What changes to traditional rate design features and net metering policies are being proposed, approved, and implemented?
3. Where are distributed solar markets potentially affected by policy or regulatory decisions on community solar, third-party solar ownership, and utility-led residential rooftop solar programs?
- Report include actions on:
1. Significant changes to state or utility net metering laws and rules, including aggregate caps, system size limits, aggregate net metering rules, and compensation rates for net excess generation.
2. Changes to statewide community solar laws and rules, and individual utility-sponsored community solar programs arising from statewide legislation.
3. Legislative or regulatory-led efforts to study the value of solar, net metering, or distributed solar generation policy, e.g., through a regulatory docket or a cost-benefit analysis.
4. Utility-initiated rate requests for charges applicable only to residential customers with solar PV or other types of distributed generation, such as added monthly fixed charges, demand charges, stand-by charges, or interconnection fees.
5. Utility-initiated rate requests that propose a 10% or larger increase in either fixed charges or minimum bills for all residential customers.
6. Changes to the legality of third-party solar ownership, including solar leasing and solar third-party solar PPAs, and proposed utility-led rooftop solar programs.
The growth in solar PV market is expected to continue, particularly due to the recent extension of the federal investment tax credit. The credit, which was previously set to expire for residential systems at the end of 2016, will be available at its current 30% level through 2019, then will step down over the next several years and expire at the end of 2021. The credit will remain at 10% permanently for commercial systems after 2021. GTM Research estimates that the extension of the federal investment tax credit will increase residential solar PV installations by 35% between 2016 and 2020 compared to a scenario without the extension.
- The solar PV system is located at a residential location in the U.S.
- You own the solar PV system (e.g., you purchased it with cash or through financing – but are not leasing it or in
an arrangement to purchase electricity generated by a system you do not own).
- The solar PV system is new or being used for the first time. The ITC can only be claimed on the “original
installation” of the solar equipment.
- It is not a necessity to be a homeowner to claim the tax credit. A tenant-stockholder at cooperative housing corporation and members of condominiums are still eligible for the tax credit if they contribute to the costs of an eligible solar PV system.
- OFF-SITE COMMUNITY SOLAR PROGRAM: There is an example for this. "For example, one arrangement is the creation of a “Special Purpose Entity,” where community members form and invest in a business that operates the community solar project. If your participation is limited to investing in the community solar project and you do not participate in the operation of the project on a regular, continuous, and substantial basis, you are constrained in taking advantage of the ITC because you are considered a “passive investor.” IRS rules require that a tax credit associated with a passive investment only be used against passive income tax liability, which only applies to income generated from either a rental activity or a business in which the individual does not materially participate. Many homeowners will therefore not have passive income against which the ITC can be claimed."
How solar+storage Could Protect Multifamily Affordable Housing from Power Outages at little or no net Cost 
1. Between $17.9 billion and $23.3 billion of electricity value alone would flow into these communities, if all low-income households went solar.
2. The installation and operation of a full low-income solar build-out would also contribute an additional $18.7 billion of local economic output each year, resulting in roughly 138,376 jobs.
3. The 49.1 million households that earn less than $40,000 of income per year make up 40 percent of all US households but only account for less than 5 percent of solar installations. Lower income households face key barriers that are difficult to overcome.
4. Lower income households are less likely to own their roof due to higher rates of living in multi-family buildings and being renters (49.1 percent of households with incomes less than $40,000 are renters versus 21.8 percent of households with incomes greater than $40,000).
5. Electricity costs account for 5.7 percent of the median low-income family’s budget, while they only account for 1.9 percent for other families.
6. A typical low-income family consumes roughly 10,060 kilowatt-hours of electricity at a cost of $1,272 per year. Other, more affluent families consume roughly 11,720 kilowatt-hours of electricity on average, at a cost of $1,558 per year. Nevertheless, low-income families do use less electricity overall and use only 22 percent of the electricity used in American homes despite accounting for roughly 25 percent of all housing units.
7.The federal government spends billions of dollars each year on energy for low-income households:
- In fiscal year 2014, the federal government provided states with $3.4 billion through the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) to assist low-income families with their home energy bills. Historically, these LIHEAP dollars only cover about 15 percent of all eligible low-income households.
- The U.S. Department of Housing of Urban Development (HUD) expends about $6.3 billion on energy costs each year for federally assisted housing.
Off Grid Community Solar Literature[edit | edit source]
There are many difficulties when considering a completely off the grid solar community, unless drastic measures are taken in reducing energy usage, energy storage is necessary. The most feasible application of off grid community solar is rural areas where typical annual energy consumption is much less that of non-rural, developed areas. Concerning completely off grid solar the literature shows that most systems are extremely rural and have a very light load. Throughout the literature review there has been no mention of a real life off grid community solar application with average energy consumption values of developed countries.
Hu, Huafen and Godfried Augenbroe. "A Stochastic Model Based Energy Management System For Off-Grid Solar Houses". Building and Environment 50 (2012): 90-103. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.[edit | edit source]
- Deeply technical energy management (stochastic modeling)
- Very insightful to different risks of off grid solar (risk management)
- Ranks appliances according to which needs power most.
Jolly, Suyash, Rob Raven, and Henny Romijn. "Upscaling Of Business Model Experiments In Off-Grid PV Solar Energy In India". Sustainability Science 7.2 (2012): 199-212. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.[edit | edit source]
- Investigates different companies and their effectiveness
Miller, Damian and Chris Hope. "Learning To Lend For Off-Grid Solar Power: Policy Lessons From World Bank Loans To India, Indonesia, And Sri Lanka". Energy Policy 28.2 (2000): 87-105. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.[edit | edit source]
Abstract: The World Bank has sought to advance the diffusion of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology for o!-grid applications in the developing world. As these systems are fundamentally different to centralized power stations and conventional rural electrification, the World Bank has been learning how best to lend for such technology. This study seeks to highlight the lessons learned from the World Bank's first loans for off-grid PV to India, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka. It uses lifetime cost analysis to justify continued intervention in this sector, and it draws on theories of innovation diffusion to guide analysis and ultimately policy recommendations. Because of the special role of entrepreneurial start up companies in the rural PV sector, the paper also uses a company cash #ow model to demonstrate the efficacy of various supply-side policies. Finally, the study concludes with a checklist of policy lessons and a consideration of the role of the International Finance Corporation in this sector.
- Old, and not what is considered 'off-grid' in the present day.
Gupta, Ajai, R.P. Saini, and M.P. Sharma. "Steady-State Modelling Of Hybrid Energy System For Off Grid Electrification Of Cluster Of Villages". Renewable Energy 35.2 (2010): 520-535. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.[edit | edit source]
- Hybrid includes some sort of fossil fuel generator however, this paper shows optimization of solar usage
Akikur, R.K. et al. "Comparative Study Of Stand-Alone And Hybrid Solar Energy Systems Suitable For Off-Grid Rural Electrification: A Review". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 27 (2013): 738-752. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.[edit | edit source]
- Includes PV energy usage with respect to load type (AC, DC)
- Stresses need for Battery backup and possible fuel cell usage
Off-grid electricity generation with renewable energy technologies in India: An application of HOMER[edit | edit source]
- This paper analyses hybrid off-grid systems for rural application that can provide reliable and affordable power.
- The paper considers alternative technologies for rural India and identifies the optimal system using HOMER software.
- The solution obtained shows that a hybrid combination of renewable energy generators at an off-grid location can be a cost-effective alternative to grid extension and it is sustainable, techno-economically viable and environmentally sound
Grid-connected versus stand-alone energy systems for decentralized power—A review of literature[edit | edit source]
- most of the articles are context dependent and were applied to isolated cases. A generalized approach to assess suitability of SA and GC systems at a given location, based on techno-economic-financial-environmental feasibility does not find adequate coverage. If data pertaining to system costs, operation, maintenance and other relevant cost details are made available along with the learnings from the case studies, the economic-financial assessment objective could be easily accomplished.
General Community Solar Literature[edit | edit source]
Alafita, T. and J.M. Pearce. "Securitization Of Residential Solar Photovoltaic Assets: Costs, Risks And Uncertainty". Energy Policy 67 (2014): 488-498. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.[edit | edit source]
- asset evaluation and securitization
Asmus, Peter. "Exploring New Models Of Solar Energy Development". The Electricity Journal 21.3 (2008): 61-70. Web. 19 Jan. 2017.[edit | edit source]
- Brings up "community choice aggregation", California legislation.
- Well defined community solar definition
- Solar shares
- List and overview of current (up until 2008) community solar projects
Ashok, S. "Optimised Model For Community-Based Hybrid Energy System". Renewable Energy 32.7 (2007): 1155-1164. Web. 18 Jan. 2017.[edit | edit source]
- Community 'microgrid' idea for rural area, case study in India
- Uses multiple generation sources; wind, hydro, solar, and tries to minimize cost of each
- 'dated' -> optimization plan results in not choosing PV due to cost, although it was included originally.
Baylin, F. et al. "Economic Analysis Of Community Solar Heating Systems That Use Annual Cycle Thermal Energy Storage". (1981): n. pag. Web. 19 Jan. 2017.[edit | edit source]
- Very technical detail about how to store heat in underground tanks
- Multiple geographic locations and community sizes looked at
Haggerty, Jean. Community Solar And Farming Are Proving To Be A Perfect Match. Coalition for Community Solar Access. April 21, 2021.[edit | edit source]
- A Massachusetts case study project will support Agrivoltaics strategies for grazing cows and for growing pumpkins, strawberries, and leafy greens
- Community solar is yet another "companion planting" opportunity for farms.
Noll, Daniel, Colleen Dawes, and Varun Rai. "Community Organizations And Active Peer Effects In The Adoption Of Residential Solar PV". SSRN Electronic Journal 67 330-343. Web. 18 Jan. 2017.[edit | edit source]
- Analyses of residential PV increase
- Solar Community Organizations (SCOs)
- Review of residential PV across U.S.
Stanton, Tom, and Kathryn Kline. The Ecology of Community Solar Gardening: A ‘Companion Planting’ Guide. National Regulatory Research Institute, Report No. 16-07, 2016. https://pubs.naruc.org/pub/FA85C744-AB5F-C165-8DF0-C82D0DB5DA09[edit | edit source]
- Overview, working definition, and descriptions of similar utility- and non-utility programs
- Summary of state laws and rules about community solar
- Regulatory considerations and policy considerations
St. Denis, Genevieve and Paul Parker. "Community Energy Planning In Canada: The Role Of Renewable Energy". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13.8 (2009): 2088-2095. Web. 19 Jan. 2017.[edit | edit source]
- Large vs small communities and interest in renewable s
- energy usage management
- conservation and efficiency vs renewables
Walker, Gordon. "What Are The Barriers And Incentives For Community-Owned Means Of Energy Production And Use?". Energy Policy 36.12 (2008): 4401-4405. Web. 19 Jan. 2017.[edit | edit source]
- cooperatives, community charities, etc -> diffenent community solar models
- high level overview
Huijben, J.C.C.M. and G.P.J. Verbong. "Breakthrough Without Subsidies? PV Business Model Experiments In The Netherlands". Energy Policy 56 (2013): 362-370. Web. 19 Jan. 2017.[edit | edit source]
- micro generation deployment models, company control, plug and play, community microgrid
- Main issues being legislation
- Use of net metering
Palit, Debajit. "Solar Energy Programs For Rural Electrification: Experiences And Lessons From South Asia". Energy for Sustainable Development 17.3 (2013): 270-279. Web. 19 Jan. 2017.[edit | edit source]
- Massive benefits to heavily populated rural areas
- Some technical detail and policy
Seyfang, Gill, Jung Jin Park, and Adrian Smith. "A Thousand Flowers Blooming? An Examination Of Community Energy In The UK". Energy Policy 61 (2013): 977-989. Web. 19 Jan. 2017.[edit | edit source]
- surveys among community energy groups in UK
- development factors
Chaurey, A. and Kandpal, T.C., 2010. A techno-economic comparison of rural electrification based on solar home systems and PV microgrids. Energy policy, 38(6), pp.3118-3129. 22 Jan. 2017.[edit | edit source]
- Off-grid PV power plants
- Micro grids or mini grids distribution networks
- Micro grid: more economic option for flat geographical terrains
- Techno economic comparison of SHS and micro grids
Poullikkas, Andreas. "A Comparative Assessment Of Net Metering And Feed In Tariff Schemes For Residential PV Systems". Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments 3 (2013): 1-8. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.[edit | edit source]
- time of use vs net metering
- Strengthening of grid due to PV systems
- renewable energy credits from net metering
Denis, G.S. and Parker, P., 2009. Community energy planning in Canada: The role of renewable energy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13(8), pp.2088-2095. 23rd Jan 2017.[edit | edit source]
- Renewable energy policy
- Community energy plan
- Community energy management
- Energy conservation
- Climate change policy
Shakouri, M., Lee, H.W. and Choi, K., 2015. PACPIM: new decision-support model of optimized portfolio analysis for community-based photovoltaic investment. Applied Energy, 156, pp.607-617. 23rd Jan 2017.[edit | edit source]
- Solar energy
- Community-based investments
- Mean–Variance Portfolio theory
- Decision-support model
- Residential photovoltaic systems
Klein, S.J. and Coffey, S., 2016. Building a sustainable energy future, one community at a time. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 60, pp.867-880. 24th Jan 2017[edit | edit source]
- Community energy
- Renewable energy
- Sustainable energy
- Grassroots innovation
- Strategic niche management theory
- Multi-level perspective
Funkhouser, E., Blackburn, G., Magee, C. and Rai, V., 2015. Business model innovations for deploying distributed generation: The emerging landscape of community solar in the US. Energy Research & Social Science, 10, pp.90-101. 24th Jan 2017[edit | edit source]
- Community solar
- Utility Business Model
- Distributed generation
- Net energy metering
Jagoda, Kalinga et al. "Development And Commercialization Of Renewable Energy Technologies In Canada: An Innovation System Perspective". Renewable Energy 36.4 (2011): 1266-1271. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.[edit | edit source]
- efficiency vs conservation vs renewables
- Innovation systems
- development among policy makers, community, industry
Bauner, C. and Crago, C.L., 2015. Adoption of residential solar power under uncertainty: Implications for renewable energy incentives. Energy Policy, 86, pp.27-35. 30th January 2017[edit | edit source]
- Household adoption of solar PV using the option value framework.
- Uncertainty in benefits and costs leads to delay in investment timing.
- Policy incentives that reduce uncertainty in returns from solar PV are most effective.
Van der Vleuten, F., Stam, N. and Van Der Plas, R., 2007. Putting solar home system programmes into perspective: What lessons are relevant?. Energy Policy, 35(3), pp.1439-1451. 30th January 2017[edit | edit source]
- New technology available to rural households. (Africa).
- Policy makers and donors supported SHSs in an efficient way?
- Luxury item or an essential element in the development process?
- Trigger or facilitate rural electrification?
Darghouth, Naïm R., Galen Barbose, and Ryan H. Wiser. "Customer-Economics Of Residential Photovoltaic Systems (Part 1): The Impact Of High Renewable Energy Penetrations On Electricity Bill Savings With Net Metering". Energy Policy 67 (2014): 290-300. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.[edit | edit source]
- Looks at long term bill savings with net metering
- Dispatch optimization per hourly load
- Net-metering case study in California, bill savings and time of use rates
Noll, D., Dawes, C. and Rai, V., 2014. Solar community organizations and active peer effects in the adoption of residential PV. Energy Policy, 67, pp.330-343. 30th January 2017[edit | edit source]
- Dataset on Solar Community Organizations (SCOs) in the U.S. during 1970–2012.
- SCOs-driven peer effects found to positively impact PV adoption.
- Leveraging trust networks is crucial for the success of SCOs.
- Financing options also key for SCO's success.
Li, H. and Yi, H., 2014. Multilevel governance and deployment of solar PV panels in US cities. Energy Policy, 69, pp.19-27. 30th January 2017[edit | edit source]
- Evaluation of state and local solar PV policies.
- State RPS -> positive impacts on local solar PV capacity.
- Local financial incentives matter for solar PV deployment.
Asmus, P., 2008. Exploring new models of solar energy development. The electricity journal, 21(3), pp.61-70. 30th January 2017[edit | edit source]
- California Solar Initiative (CSI) program
- Design community-based programs
- Solar shares
- Existing Community Solar Programs
Shakouri, M. and Lee, H.W., 2016. Mean-variance portfolio analysis data for optimizing community-based photovoltaic investment. Data in brief, 6, pp.840-842. 30th January 2017[edit | edit source]
- Community solar
- Photovoltaic system
- Portfolio theory
- Energy optimisation
- Electricity volatility
Iler, S., 2012. Assessing the potential for community solar in Durham, North Carolina (Doctoral dissertation, Duke University). 30th January 2017[edit | edit source]
- Reduced costs and increased access to renewable energy.
- Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) analysis of three Durham study areas conducted to estimate the size of possible rooftop solar systems.
- Energy cost ratio – obtained by dividing total installed cost by annual energy output.
- Relationships between suitable solar rooftop areas, differences in energy cost ratios, and parcels of different types.
Frame, D., Tembo, K., Dolan, M.J., Strachan, S.M. and Ault, G.W., 2011, July. A community based approach for sustainable off-grid PV systems in developing countries. In Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2011 IEEE (pp. 1-7). IEEE. 30th January 2017[edit | edit source]
- Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
- Rural electrification.
- Off-grid PV system for remote rural communities.
- Sustainability of off-grid renewable energy.
Alam, M.J.E., Muttaqi, K.M. and Sutanto, D., 2014. An approach for online assessment of rooftop solar PV impacts on low-voltage distribution networks. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 5(2), pp.663-672. 30th January 2017[edit | edit source]
- Mitigate solar photovoltaic (PV) impacts in the future distribution grids.
- Low-voltage (LV) distribution networks
- Real-time network data
- Sliding window
- Solar photovoltaic (PV) impact
Mohammadi, P. and Mehraeen, S., 2016. Challenges of PV Integration in Low-Voltage Secondary Networks. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. 30th January 2017[edit | edit source]
- Impacts of Photovoltaics
- Distributed generation
- Downtown network
- Low-voltage secondary network
- Microprocessor network protector relay (MNPR)
===Hannah Cross, Nicolas Dalhberg, Elijah Romulus, Rebecca Wolfson,The Potential for Community Shared Solar in Massachusetts===�
- Talks about taking the benefit of CS to low and medium income people.
- Financing option for such project.
- Different Case studies of CS projects.
=== THE SOLARIZE GUIDEBOOK:A community guide to collective purchasing of residential PV systems===
- Systamatic 9 step approach to form Cooperative structure for Residential rooftop Installations
- Cost estimation of such approach.
PV site suitability analysis using GIS-based spatial fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation (2011)[edit | edit source]
Abstract -Application of a GIS-based spatial multi-criteria evaluation approach, in terms of the FLOWA module to assess the land suitability for large PV farms implementation in Oman
- According to IEA, by 2050, PV and Concentrated solar power will be able to generate 9000TWh of electricity
- GIS and Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) together provide a fine lens for the optimal site selection for plants.
- Overview of GIS base MCA and it's methodology to PV farms siting
- Classification of various technical (solar radiation, land accessibility, land use), economical(Grid proximity, land slope, load poles) and environmental(sensitive areas, Hydrographi line, sand/dust risk) factors affecting optimum locations for large PV farms
- Case study of Oman with different PV technology
Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods for the evaluation of solar farms locations: Case study in south-eastern Spain (2013)[edit | edit source]
Abstract - Combination of a Geographic Information System(GIS) and tools or multi-criteria decision making(MCDM) methods in order to obtain the evaluation of the optimal placement of photovoltaic solar power plants in the area of Cartagena(Region of Murcia),in south east Spain. The use of MCDM the criteria or factors are weighted in order to evaluate potential sites to locate a solar plant. Analysis and calculation of the weights of the factors are conducted using Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP). The assessment of the alternatives according to their degree of adequacy was carried out through the TOPSIS method (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution). .
- Detailed method for the evaluation of solar farm location.
- Analysis and calculation of the weight of all relevant factors are conducted using Analytic Hierarchy process (AHP). AHP method was used to determine the importance of the different criteria used in the process.
- Assessment of the alternatives is carried out through the TOPSIS method (This method ends with the calculation of the relative proximity to the ideal solution of each alternative that will be called Ranking.
- Main criteria for selection of PV Farm with weight: Location(48.625%), climate(28.562%), Orographical(17.259%),Environmental(5.553%).
- Complete case study for south-eastern Spain using Geographic Information System(GIS) system with Multi criteria decision making methods (GIS-MCDM).
Abstract - Microgrids will enable the integration of distributed renewable energy such as roof top solar panels within smart city communities. For microgrids to operate reliably and efficiently, prediction algorithms are important because of the fluctuation of solar energy and its dependence on weather. This paper presents a machine learning based algorithm, which learns a regression tree model with time of the day and humidity as main parameters.This work shows that solar panel prediction in Houston is heavily dependent on humidity of the region.
- Application of regression tree algorithm for solar power prediction.
- Various solar energy prediction techniques were discussed like Numeric weather prediction method (NWP), persistence method, Auto regressive Model, Support vector machines, Neural network technique etc.
- Most Important variable to predict power are humidity, time of the day and sky condition etc.
- Historical data for various variables for model learning through NOAA(The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) are temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed and wind direction
- solar power production is inversely proportional to the humidity.
Abstract - CoSSMic (Collaborating Smart Solar powered Micro-grids) is an EU funded project aimed at developing a system for smart management and control of solar energy. The system must be relevant to a community of end-users and other stakeholders. Two processes are described to contribute in meeting this aim, user-centered design and lean startup product design. Iterative approach to the design of the system which incorporates these two processes are described.
- Two feasibility studies are conducted in Konstanz, Germany and the Province of Caserta, Italy. Both trial locations are quite different in terms of population, solar irradiation, available equipment and electrical consumption.
- Iterative approach with an emphasis on user-centered design and lean startup product design.
- Establishment of workshops to design the model and strucure.
- quite successful in building up relations between potential users and the project teams
Neural Network for Estimating Daily Global Solar Radiation Using Temperature, Humidity and Pressure as Unique Climatic Input Variables (2016)[edit | edit source]
Abstract - A method for estimating daily global solar radiation, combining empirical models and artificial neural networks. The model uses temperature, relative humidity and atmospheric pressure as the only climatic input variables. Neural networks have better accuracy than empirical models and linear regression.
- Various methods to estimate solar radiation are discussed.
- Initial estimations are generated using empirical model. Then they are used with temperature, relative humidity and atmospheric pressure as input variables for the neural network to improve estimations
- This method is useful even in case of absence of data
Abstract - Study to serve a small community living on Stand-Alone Solar-Energy (S.A.S.E.S.) system. As a basis for the study 1 cubic meter of hydrogen is to be produced by electrolysis in 5 hrs that requires energy input of 5 KW-hr. Solar hydrogen production by water electrolysis is described and design parameters are specified.
- Coupling solar energy with hydrogen production along with fuel cells is the main feature of the S.E.S.A.S.
- Main components: photovoltaic module, water electrolyzer and fuel cell.
- Economic feasibility has been carried out
- More feasible for scale up production
Estimation of Hourly Solar Radiation on Horizontal and Inclined Surfaces in Western Himalayas(2011)[edit | edit source]
Abstract - Method is used to estimate hourly, global, diffuse solar radiation for horizontal surfaces and total solar radiation on inclined and vertical surfaces at different orientations with greater accuracy for any location.
- Hourly global & diffuse solar radiation is measured to calculate the direct radiation from the total solar radiation
- The hourly solar radiation has also been calculated and compared using two methods: 1. Gueymard daily integration
approach from the measured daily solar radiation data & 2. model to estimate global solar radiation using temperature and sunshine hour data has been developed (Chandel et al.) which is used to calculate the hourly solar radiation Data.
- Total solar radiation on the inclined surfaces and vertical surfaces for different orientations have also been estimated.
Towards a local learning (innovation) model of solar photovoltaic deployment[edit | edit source]
Abstract -It is by now familiar that in the deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, the cost dynamics of major system component like solar cell/module is subjected to experience curve effects driven by production learning and research and development at the supplier side. What is less clear, however, is the economics of system integration or system deployment that takes place locally close to the user, involving other market players, in the downstream solar PV value chain. Experts have agreed that suppliers of solar PV system must customize their flexible characteristics to address local unique users’ and applications requirements and compete on price/performance basis. A lack of understanding of the drivers of the economics of system customization therefore is a deficiency in our understanding of the overall economics of this renewable energy technology option.
- Definiation of Balance of System.
- Trend for BOS.
- Economies of scope for deployment of PV.
Abstract Community is a much used word that is readily attached to projects, initiatives and policies as part of the discursive politics of modern governance. In this viewpoint, we consider the way in which community has become attached to renewable energy projects in the UK, both in grassroot action and in mainstream energy policy. We ask what those involved have seen as distinctive about community renewable energy projects that makes them different from other renewable energy installations. We identify a diversity of understandings and interpretations that revolve around questions of both process (who the project is by) and outcome (who the project is for). We evaluate the implications of this diversity, identifying the importance of the process of project development for realising the catalytic and learning effects of meaningful and substantial local involvement.
- Ways in which word community is interpeted
- Participation of Local and openess in project helps.
- diversity in income different opportunities for financing.
What are the barriers and incentives for community-owned means of energy production and use??[edit | edit source]
Abstract This paper on community-owned means of renewable energy production and use, reviews experience to date in the UK and the incentives for and barriers limiting current and future growth. A broad view is taken of what the meaning of ‘community-owned production and use’ might constitute, as there are different models of community ownership, different notions of community and different degrees of connection or disconnection between production and use.
- models of ownership 1) cooperative model 2) community charities 3)development trusts 4)shares owned by local community
- incentives for community projects
- Barriers w.r.t to community projects
The transformation of southern California's residential photovoltaics market through third-party ownership[edit | edit source]
Third-party photovoltaics (PV) ownership is a rapidly growing market trend, where commercial companies own and operate customer-sited PV systems and lease PV equipment or sell PV electricity to the building occupant. Third-party PV companies can reduce or eliminate up-front adoption costs, reduce technology risk and complexity by monitoring system performance, and can repackage the PV value proposition by showing cost savings in the first month of ownership rather than payback times on the order of a decade. We find that the entrance of third-party business models in southern California residential PV markets has enticed a new demographic to adopt PV systems that is more highly correlated to younger, less affluent, and less educated populations than the demographics correlated to purchasing PV systems. By enticing new demographics to adopt PV, we find that third-party PV products are likely increasing total PV demand rather than gaining market share entirely at the expense of existing customer owned PV demand. We also find that mean population demographics are good predictors of third-party and customer owned PV adoption, and mean voting trends on California carbon policy (Proposition 23) are poor predictors of PV adoption.
- Third party ownership details not retailed to community.
Abstract What explains the galvanising of communities to participate actively in energy projects? How do groups mobilize to overcome the often formidable barriers highlighted in the existing literature? Drawing on original qualitative research of 100 community energy groups in Scotland, including six in-depth case studies, we explain how effective mobilization occurs and the political dynamics surrounding such mobilization. To capture these dynamics, we adapt theories offered by literature on social movements, with a particular focus on resource mobilization theories. Applying our adapted framework, we identify two particular sets of resources shaping community energy mobilization: (i) structural resources, which refer to the broad political context structuring and constraining opportunities for community energy mobilization; and (ii) symbolic resources—less tangible resources used to galvanise participants. We investigate to what extent our case study groups were able to draw upon and exploit these resources. We find that structural resources can either facilitate or hinder mobilization; what matters is how state resources are exploited and constraints mitigated. The use of symbolic resources was highly effective in aiding mobilization. Each of the groups examined – despite their considerable variation – effectively exploited symbolic resources such as shared identity or desire for strong, self reliant communities
- case studies of communities in scotland and ways in which community energy can be mobilized.
Three is a crowd? Exploring the potential of crowdfunding for renewable energy in the Netherlands[edit | edit source]
Abstract There is a huge gap between demand and supply of finance for energy transitions, and the financial and economic crisis have had a negative impact in the already meagre funds for transforming the energy system towards renewable sources. In this paper we explore whether crowdfunding for renewable energy, as a novel sociotechnical practice developed in a niche, has the potential to break through and transform both the energy and the financial regimes, utilising the Multi-Level Perspective theory. We empirically investigate crowdfunding platforms linked to renewable electricity projects in the Netherlands. The main conclusion is that the volume of crowdfunding today is low, but the dynamic of these projects holds potential. There is limited indication of learning processes until now, as well as limited support from regime actors, pointing at a low level of niche stabilization and break-through potential, which may however be related to the early stage of development of crowdfunding in the Netherlands. On the other hand, the heterogeneity of crowdfunders is very promising. Platforms dedicated to renewable electricity exclusively, and with an investment based business model seem to be the most successful. We show how governmental market regulation and support mechanisms are shaping crowdfunding as a business model, and discuss the implications for other countries.
- The volume of crowdfunding for renewable energy projects is low, but its dynamic holds potential.
- There is limited support of crowdfunding for renewables from powerful actors.
- Crowdfunders exhibit a variety of normative, gain and even hedonic motivations.
- Governmental market support and regulations are shaping crowdfunding as a business model.
- Exploring the possibility of bring the cost of solar down by proposing collective buying for community.
- talks about people not getting benifits of solar like renters, condonium owners etc.
- Shares model for community solar is disscused.
Talks about solar saftey net and possibility of FEMA funding the project
- Case study of a community solar program stared in a school
- Detailed study from conception of idea to bidding process, fund raising.
- Difficulties and how to mitigate them.
- found PPA is better option then self funding
Business model innovations for deploying distributed generation: The emerging landscape of community solar in the U.S.[edit | edit source]
Abstract Increasing penetration of residential photovoltaic (PV) systems has intensified concerns over the related impacts on utility revenue and the equity of deployment subsidies. Community solar (CS) has surfaced as an alternative deployment model for PV that could potentially mitigate these concerns, while integrating distributed solar PV. Given the potential that CS holds in stabilizing the customer-utility relationship amid deeper penetration of distributed solar, in this paper we combine four complementary datasets to analyze how policy, regulatory, and market factors impact the deployment of CS. Specifically, we present a detailed assessment of CS deployment in the United States, including pertinent insights relating to nameplate capacity, billing models, propensities of off-taker utilities to adopt different types of CS, and local market and policy drivers. We find that accounting for both underlying demand and policy/regulatory conditions is essential for understanding the nuanced connections between utility strategy and CS adoption. A particularly interesting finding, stemming consistently across the multiple data streams we analyze, is that utilities are motivated to develop CS not only to satisfy consumer demand or regulatory requirements for renewable energy, but also to alleviate revenue losses related to residential solar PV.
- survey of the utilities and how they feel about CS.
- Main concern of Utilities is that the maintaince of transmission grid is not fairly compensated in Pv rooftop solar.
Crowdfunding for environmental ventures: an empirical analysis of the influence of environmental orientation on the success of crowdfunding initiatives[edit | edit source]
- The literature on crowdfunding for environmental ventures is reviewed.
- The statistical link between environmental orientation & funding success is tested.
- No positive influence of environmental orientation on funding success is observed.
- Theoretical explanations for the empirical findings are offered.
- The article highlights how crowdfunding for the environment can be more successful.
The economic effect of electricity net-metering with solar PV: Consequences for network cost recovery, cross subsidies and policy objectives[edit | edit source]
- Network users are frequently charged by energy charging and fixed charging.
- Net-metering with energy charging causes potential problems for DSO cost recovery.
- Increasing rolling credit timeframes amplify net-metering impacts on cost recovery.
- Observed capacity charging can incentivize local storage and self-consumption.
- PV owners should receive direct incentives in order to avoid cross subsidization.
- Value for solar tariffs (VOST) concept
- separate billing for consumption and generation
Guidebook for community solar programs in Michigan Communities (2014)[edit | edit source]
- The Act required Michigan electric providers to ramp up their use of renewable energy in order to obtain 10% of their electricity sales from renewable resources in 2015.
- Cherryland Electric Cooperative and Traverse City Light & Power, initiators of Michigan’s first Community Solar project.
- The modeling tools consist of the DOE’s “Systems Analysis Model” (SAM), economic modeling software for renewable energy projects, and the newly created “Michigan Community Solar Analysis Tool”, an Excel spreadsheet-based tool that uses data from the SAM modeling tool to analyze various Community Solar configurations. These tools enable Michigan utilities, businesses, neighborhood associations, citizens’ groups, and others to analyze the financial effects of using various structures and configurations in the development of their projects.
- Despite having less access to solar radiation than Michigan, Germany is setting the global record for solar power production. Community solar programs need to be accelerated.
- Michigan-based Dow Chemical Company is currently manufacturing a shingle product, which protects roofs like a standard shingle and contains solar cells tha]t can power a home.
- The AEPPTE expired on December 31, 2012, leaving the state without a property tax incentive, although there have been several attempts to reintroduce legislation that would continue the exemption and clarify the real versus personal property issue.
- Michigan does not currently have any solar access laws.
- For a comprehensive list of resources Appendix III
- Colorado (followed by Arizona) has the most Community Solar projects.
- Four main business model :Buy PV power, Lease PV panels, Purchase PV panels, Invest in a PV project
1. Buy PV Power - Two Case studies 1. BRIGHT TUCSON COMMUNITY SOLAR & 2. Sacramento Municipal Utility District (CA)’S SOLARSHARES PROGRAM 2. Lease PV Panels - Cherryland Electric Cooperative – Michigan’s first SUN Alliance Community Solar farm Two case studies- 1. Berea Solar Farms & 2. SUNSHARE – COLORADO SPRINGS UTILITIES 3. Buy PV Panels - Community Solar projects that involve purchasing of PV panels by customers are usually owned by a developer under contract with the local utility. case study - CLEAN ENERGY COLLECTIVE, LLC (CEC) of Carbondale, Colorado.
[edit | edit source]
(1) the basics of community shared solar; (2) the benefits of community shared solar; (3) variations in design of community shared solar programs; (4) examples of community shared solar program; (5) California’s regulatory context; and (6) community shared solar’s potential to expand San Francisco’s solar market.
Northwest Solar communities installations in Condominiums[edit | edit source]
- Ways in which housing association can help in Solarizing Condominiums
System Advisor Model, SAM 2014.1.14: General Description[edit | edit source]
- used to simulate grid connected solar model.
Emergency Power Systems for Critical Facilities: A Best Practices Approach to Improving Reliability[edit | edit source]
- Guidelines for Design Considerations for Emergency Power Systems in New Facilities.
- Design Considerations for Optional Standby Power Systems in Existing Facilities.
Community Solar for Low- and Moderate-Income Consumers and Communities[edit | edit source]
Stanton, Tom. Solar Energy that Pays for Low-Income Customers and Communities. National Regulatory Research Institute Insights paper, December 2020. https://www.naruc.org/nrri/nrri-library/nrri-insights/[edit | edit source]
- Review of programs "working to make sure that low-income customers and communities can benefit from solar energy"
- Key aspects of program design and implementation that are helping providers deliver cost-saving solar energy and associated products and services to low-income consumers
- Summary of state policies toward solar energy benefits for low-income customers and communities
- Appendix includes list and links to program examples in seventeen states and District of Columbia.
- See also: NRRI Webinar (Recording), 12/16/20 - Designing Solar Energy Programs For Low-Income Consumers and Communities, on YouTube.
Yale Center for Business and the Environment (CBEY), Wherever the Sun Shines: Bringing Solar Power to All Households, July 2020. https://cbey.yale.edu/sites/default/files/2020-07/CBEY_SEEDS2_GUIDEBOOK_July_9_2020.pdf[edit | edit source]
Public Welfare Investments in Solar Energy Facilities Using Renewable Energy Investment Tax Credit[edit | edit source]
- Federal Tax incentives
Aggregate Net Metering: Opportunities for Local Governments [edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
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- Gordon Walker,"What are the barriers and incentives for community-owned means of energy production and use?"
- Easan Drurya, Mackay Miller, Charles M. Macal, Diane J. Graziano, Donna Heimiller, Jonathan Ozik, Thomas D. Perry,"The transformation of southern California's residential photovoltaics market through third-party ownership"
- Elizabeth Bomberg, Nicola McEwen,,"Mobilizing community energy"
- E. Vasileiadou, J.C.C.M. Huijben, R.P.J.M. Raven,"Three is a crowd? Exploring the potential of crowdfunding for renewable energy in the Netherlands"
- Peter Asmus,"Exploring New Models of Solar Energy Development"
- Carl Pechman, Peter Brown,"Investing in Solar Photovoltaics: A School District's Story"
- Erik Funkhouser, Griselda Blackburn, Clare Magee, Varun Rai,"Business model innovations for deploying distributed generation: The emerging landscape of community solar in the U.S."
- EJacob Hörisch,"Crowdfunding for environmental ventures: an empirical analysis of the influence of environmental orientation on the success of crowdfunding initiatives"
- Cherrelle Eid, Javier Reneses Guillén, Pablo Frías Marín, Rudi Hakvoort ,"The economic effect of electricity net-metering with solar PV: Consequences for network cost recovery, cross subsidies and policy objectives"
- Kenneth W. Costello ,"Major Challenges of Distributed Generation for State Utility Regulators"