FA info icon.svg Angle down icon.svg Project data
Authors Koami Soulemane Hayibo
Uzair Jamil
Location London, ON
OKH Manifest Download

Readers Please!![edit | edit source]

Any comments are welcome on the discussion page including additional resources/papers/links etc. Papers can be added to relevant sections if done in chronological order with all citation information and short synopsis or abstract. Thank You.


Background[edit | edit source]

Floating PV[edit | edit source]

Determination of the Optimum Angle of the Floating Solar Panels to Reduce Evaporation and Energy Production by the Ansys Fluent Model (Case Study: Chahnimeh No. 4 Sistan)[1][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Evaporation is a process that changes fluid from liquid to gas. Evaporation rates from free surfaces depend on factors such as temperature, wind speed, water depth and vapor pressure. A detailed study of the information received from the Meteorological Office of Zahak concluded that the factors of temperature and wind speed in this region were the most influential factors, and interestingly, the main factor was the high wind speed. There are several methods to deal with the phenomenon of evaporation, which include the use of physical covering and wind speed. According to previous research, the best attraction of sunlight is to produce the highest Efficiency power in the northern hemisphere to the south. The use of solar panels is considered simultaneously as a physical covering to reducing evaporation and high-energy production. In this paper, priority is given to reducing evaporation and energy production equally. The use of modeling the flow rate effected by horizontal and vertical positioning angles of solar panels was used to obtain the best evaporation reduction using the ANSYS FLUENT 16 model and determining the best horizontal and vertical angle for obtaining the best output efficiency power. The results shows that in this case of designing solar panels measuring 2.5 × 2.5 meters by the angles of, the horizontal angle of 0° (Northwest towards the wind direction) and the angle of inclination of 60° with the evaporative reduction of 90.25 Percentage will be achieved. Also, the highest energy efficiency is achieved under the horizontal angle of 30 degrees (northwest towards the wind direction) and the angle of inclination is 30 degrees to 99.45 percent. Therefore, according to the available data, the optimal possible condition is the horizontal angle of 30 degrees (northwest direction, wind direction) and the angle of inclination of 30 degrees, with a reduction of evaporation of 71.36 percent and energy efficiency of 99.45 percent, Relative to the ideal state.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Fill in ...
    • Goal: ...
  2. Methods
    • Fill in ...
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Fill in ...
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • No English version of the article
  • NOT INCLUDED IN REVIEW
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency

Abstract of Advantages of using , IJSR, Call for Papers, Online Journal[2][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

The limited fossil fuel resources and higher energy demand concentrates on solar energy, which is free of cost and, IJSR, Call for Papers, Online Journal

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Fill in ...
    • Goal: ...
  2. Methods
    • Fill in ...
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Fill in ...
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Article page not found
  • NOT INCLUDED IN REVIEW
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency

Deploying effectively dispatchable PV on reservoirs: Comparing floating PV to other renewable technologies[3][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

In this article, we present a detailed simulation of floating photovoltaic's (PV) energy yield and associated evaporation reduction potential for the largest 128 US hydropower reservoirs. A recent article by Cavusoglu et al., published in the journal Nature Communications, outlined a hypothetical evaporation engine that could harness the energy of lake water evaporation while simultaneously conserving the water resource. Its authors suggest that evaporation engines deployed across all US lakes and reservoirs could, collectively, yield up to 70% of the total U.S. electricity production. We show that floating PV technology could: (1) deliver considerably more electrical energy than evaporation engines, amounting to 100% of the US production with only a fraction of the lakes; (2) deliver this energy on a firm, effectively dispatchable basis; and (3) conserve as much water as the evaporation engines.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Goal:
      • Systematic quantification of FPV power production and water conservation potential in largest US reservoirs
      • Comparison to evaporation engines and hydropower
  2. Methods
    • Detailed information on assumptions and methodology used
    • 128 largest US reservoirs considered (1km³ of volume and above) -> provided physical specs of the reservoirs
      • Great Lakes excluded
    • PV assumptions
      • c-Si PV modules
      • 24% efficiency
      • Tilt angle -> 10°
      • Azimuth -> South
      • Energy density -> 200W/m²
    • Used oversizing of PV to meet load demand
      • Introduced a new metric called firm PV production density
    • Simulated power output of each of 128 reservoirs
      • simulation period -> 10 years (2006 - 2015)
      • Software -> SolarAnywhere
      • SUNY model for long-term irradiation forecast
    • Simulated evaporation at each lake
      • Used FLake model
      • HTESSEL and ECMWF for snowpack modeling
      • Penman-Monteith evaporation model -> discarded nighttime values
      • Compared FLake model vs Penman Monteith
    • Compared FPV vs Evaporation Engine vs Hydro
  3. Results and Discussion
    • mean PV generation density -> 28W/m² - 48W/m²
    • Total PV capacity for all 128 reservoirs -> 1.05TW and 9250TWh/year
      • Firm capacity-> 525GW and 4620TWh/year
    • Hydropower -> 32GW and 112TWh/year
    • 1.2% coverage of lake with FPV <=> Current Hydropower capacity
    • Sized PV able to cover US electricty consumption in 2016 -> 4100 TWh
    • At same coverage FPV 10% > evaporation engines
    • Water conservation density of FPV
      • 680mm/year (Strawberry Reservoir, Utah) - 1850mm/year (Falcon Lake, Texas)
      • 667 m³/year (New Mexico) - 5673 m³/year (Minnesota)
      • Total amount 28km³ -> timeframe not specified
    • Hydropower generation improvement
      • 565MW extra capacity
  4. Conclusions
    • FPV space efficiency > evaporation engine
    • FPV space efficiency > Hydro

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Mentioned in Intro
    • Water conservation (evaporation reduction) -> indirectly increase hydropower capacity
    • Algae growth reduction
    • Wave-induced erosion reduction
  • Water saving potential
    • Simulated
    • 680mm/year - 1850mm/year
    • 667m³/year - 5673 m³/year
    • 28km³
  • Hydropower improvement
    • Estimated form simulation
    • 565MW extra capacity
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
1.05TW crustalline Silicon USA 9250TWh 24%

Overview and Feasibility of Floating Solar Photovoltaic System in Nepal[4][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

As a next generation technology, Floating Solar Photovoltaic (FSPV) System has had a remarkable growth in the field of Renewable Energy since 2014 with an installed capacity of more than 200 MWp as of 2017. Interest in FSPV system is on the rise compared to its land-based counterpart due to significant benefits like an increased efficiency of the panel, omission of land-related cost and cost of the mounting structure along with environmental benefits like water conservation of the reservoir through a reduced rate of evaporation and containment of algae boom. In this paper, the overall benefit of exploiting FSPV system in case of Nepal has been explored and the techno-economic feasibility of such system in Nepalese scenario has been analyzed. Improvement in efficiency of the panel has been calculated mathematically which also seems to support results from previous works. After analyzing the techno-economic benefits, it was found that FSPVs, even though having a marginal financial profit at current PPA rate of Rs. 7.3/kWh, can still prove beneficial if used concomitantly with storage type hydropower plants.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Fill in ...
    • Goal: ...
  2. Methods
    • Fill in ...
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Fill in ...
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Conference proceedings
  • NOT INCLUDED IN REVIEW
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency

Feasibility of Floating Photovoltaics in the City of Bengaluru[5][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Floating Photovoltaics (FPV) is one of a kind technology which is said to be more beneficial than the conventional Solar Photovoltaics (SPV). There is also a growing need for potable water in metropolitan cities due to constant increase in population and also depleting water reserves due to various reasons. Henceforth, this paper deals with the feasibility of FPV in the city of Bengaluru. The main aspects for consideration here is a prediction model of the potential energy that can be produced for a 1 MW FPV plant on the Hesaraghatta lake in Bengaluru. An approximate of the amount of water that can be saved from the putting up of the FPV on the Hesaraghatta lake is also made in this report as part of the pilot project. The final statistical data of energy obtained are verified in connection with the PVsyst® and PVWatts® software for substantiation. A total energy of 1586 MWh of energy is obtained from the FPV as against 1539 MWh from SPV annually. Also PR is about 73.63% for FPV while SPV has a PR of about 71.48%. The CUF of FPV is 18.12% as against 17.59% of the SPV plant on for the Bengaluru city, over the water surface of Hesaraghatta lake. An estimated 81.586 million liters of water is saved by stationing FPV on the Hesaraghatta lake. Also to be mentioned is the estimated cost of stationing a FPV at Hesaraghatta lake is found to be around 7 crore Indian rupees and a payback period of about 5 years with an energy cost of around 8 Indian rupees per KWh

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Described temperture effect on PV modules
    • Stats on Bengaluru lakes since 1960:
      • Water bodies reduction in Bengaluru -> 35%
      • Water surface area reduction-> 8.6%
    • Goal:
      • Prediction model for a 1MW FPV on Hesaraghatta Lake: energy and evaporation modeling
  2. Methods
    • Description of FPV systems
    • Description of the city of Bengaluru (Bengalore)
    • Solar Irradiation modeling / losses / and energy calculations provided
    • Metrics considered ->
      • Performance Ratio (PR)
      • Capacity Utilization Factor (CUF)
    • Evaporation calculation -> simplified equation
    • PV Specs
      • Capcacity -> 1MW
      • Modules -> poly-cSi / 320W / 16.47% efficiency
    • Data source -> PVGIS, 2017
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Irradiation results provided
    • Energy generation
      • FPV -> 1674.23MWh/year
      • GPV -> 1625.25MWh/year
    • FPV has lower temp
      • FPV -> 23.11°C
      • GPV -> 28.11°C
    • Water savings FPV -> 81.586 millions liters/year
  4. Conclusions
    • Results compared to PVSyst

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Water evaporation reduction
    • Calculated
    • 81 millions liters/year
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
1MW poly-cSi Bengalore, India 1625.25MWh/year 16.47%

Power Generation, Evaporation Mitigation, and Thermal Insulation of Semitransparent Polymer Solar Cells: A Potential for Floating Photovoltaic Applications[6][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

To explore the advantages of emerging semitransparent polymer solar cells (ST-PSCs), growing efforts have been devoted to developing multifunctional ST-PSCs for power-generation and heat-insulation applications. In this work, three groups of ST-PSCs are fabricated on the basis of fullerene and nonfullerene systems. We perform a systematic characterization of the power generation, transparency, and color perception of the ST-PSCs. The evaporation mitigation and heat-insulation properties of ST-PSCs are here evaluated for the first time. Gratifyingly, power conversion efficiencies of around 5.6–6.7% with average visible transmittances between 22 and 30% are obtained from the ST-PSCs under a large active area of 0.1 cm2. These ST-PSCs can serve as an efficient thermal barrier, which significantly lowers the surface temperature of water bodies, reduces the water evaporation rate, and suppresses the photothermal conversion efficiency of solar transpiration. This work discovers a new function for ST-PSCs and paves an intriguing prospect of floating the third-generation photovoltaic cells in the near future.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Densely populated area -> PV conflicts with agriculture and residential sector
    • Define FPV and describe its advantages
    • Described semitransparent polymer solar cells (ST-PSCs) and advantages
    • Goal:
      • Manufacture an testing parameters of 3 typical ST-PSC
      • Parameters tested: water evaporation + thermal insulation
  2. Methods
    • Fabrication, efficiency measurement, and water evaporation measurement processes decribed
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Provided device-level characterization and performance at molecular level
    • Water evaporation reduction
      • Experimental measurement and calculation method provided
      • Base case scenario open seawater evaporation rate -> 0.69 kg/(m².h)
      • Base case scenario open freshwater evaporation rate -> 0.45 kg/(m².h)
      • Glass coverring water ->0.44 kg/(m².h) (freshwater) and 0.41 kg/(m².h) (seawater)
      • ST-PSC covering both surfaces: 0.3 kg/(m².h)
      • Quantified evaporation reduction using ST-PSC: 33.33% - 56.52%
    • Heat transmission reduction -> 30.31%
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Mentioned in Intro
    • cutting down habitable land usage
    • prevent water evaporation
    • algae bloom reduction
  • Water evaporation reduction
    • Experimental -> microscale (use of scale to measure water weight)
    • 33.33 - 56.52%
  • Heat transmisison reduction
    • Experimental (Thermal camera)
    • 30.31%
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
ST-PSC Lab 5.6% 6.7%

The Land Sparing, Water Surface Use Efficiency, and Water Surface Transformation of Floating Photovoltaic Solar Energy Installations[7][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Floating photovoltaic solar energy installations (FPVs) represent a new type of water surface use, potentially sparing land needed for agriculture and conservation. However, standardized metrics for the land sparing and resource use efficiencies of FPVs are absent. These metrics are critical to understanding the environmental and ecological impacts that FPVs may potentially exhibit. Here, we compared techno-hydrological and spatial attributes of four FPVs spanning different climatic regimes. Next, we defined and quantified the land sparing and water surface use efficiency (WSUE) of each FPV. Lastly, we coined and calculated the water surface transformation (WST) using generation data at the world’s first FPV (Far Niente Winery, California). The four FPVs spare 59,555 m2 of land and have a mean land sparing ratio of 2.7:1 m2 compared to ground-mounted PVs. Mean direct and total capacity-based WSUE is 94.5 ± 20.1 SD Wm−2 and 35.2 ± 27.4 SD Wm−2, respectively. Direct and total generation-based WST at Far Niente is 9.3 and 13.4 m2 MWh−1 yr−1, respectively; 2.3 times less area than ground-mounted utility-scale PVs. Our results reveal diverse techno-hydrological and spatial attributes of FPVs, the capacity of FPVs to spare land, and the utility of WSUE and WST metrics.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • 2.2GW of FPV installed globally (2020)
    • Annual growth rate -> 22% over next 5 years
    • Highlighgted lack of research on the technical, hydrological, and spatial attributed of FPV
    • Humidity documented to decrease PV efficiency -> study effect of humidity on FPV production
    • FPV set to reduce water evaporation => increased packing factor / low wind loading
    • Optimal angle in FPV might be different compared to GPV
    • Highlighted the need to study the impact opf FPV on the hydrology parameters of the water body
    • Mentioned land sparing and its possible quantification in FPV
    • Difficult to compare data accross studies because no existence of standard metrics
    • Goal:
      • Develop a standardized framework to quantify land sparing and resource use efficiencies of FPVs
      • Comparison of techno-hydrological attributes of 4 FPVs in the US
      • Define and quantify land sparing in FPVs
      • Develop water surface use efficiency metrics
  2. Methods
    • 4 FPV sites selected -> all human-made
      • Far Niente Winery -> Oakville, CA
      • Ciel et Terre -> Windsor, CA
      • City of Walden -> Walden, CO
      • Orlando Utilities Commission -> Orlando, FL
    • Data collected from PRISM climate group
    • Spatial attributes of water bodies calculated using Google Earth Pro (equations provided)
      • Compactness
      • Roundness
      • Eccentricity
    • Defined Land Sparing Ratio - Water Surface Use Efficiency - Water Surface Transformation
      • Calculation methods (equation provided)
      • assumptions made
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Climate attributes and technohudrological attributes given -> Tables 1 to 4
    • Details given on all proposed metrics
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Land Occupation Reduction
    • Quantify trhough collected data
    • developed new metric called land sparing ratio -> we used land sparing ratio and power to find out the land occupation reduction
    • 16.27 - 28.48 m²/kWp
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
206 Sharp ND-208U2 Oakville, CA 12.8%
1780 Risen Energy RSM72-6-360M Windsor, CA 18.6%
74 Jinko 355W Walden, CO 18.3%
31.5 Renesola JC315M-315W Orlando, FL 16.2%

Water Conservation Potential of Self-Funded Foam-Based Flexible Surface-Mounted Floatovoltaics[8][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

A potential solution to the coupled water–energy–food challenges in land use is the concept of floating photovoltaics or floatovoltaics (FPV). In this study, a new approach to FPV is investigated using a flexible crystalline silicon-based photovoltaic (PV) module backed with foam, which is less expensive than conventional pontoon-based FPV. This novel form of FPV is tested experimentally for operating temperature and performance and is analyzed for water-savings using an evaporation calculation adapted from the Penman–Monteith model. The results show that the foam-backed FPV had a lower operating temperature than conventional pontoon-based FPV, and thus a 3.5% higher energy output per unit power. Therefore, foam-based FPV provides a potentially profitable means of reducing water evaporation in the world’s at-risk bodies of fresh water. The case study of Lake Mead found that if 10% of the lake was covered with foam-backed FPV, there would be enough water conserved and electricity generated to service Las Vegas and Reno combined. At 50% coverage, the foam-backed FPV would provide over 127 TWh of clean solar electricity and 633.22 million m3 of water savings, which would provide enough electricity to retire 11% of the polluting coal-fired plants in the U.S. and provide water for over five million Americans, annually.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Explained PV benefits and limitations regarding land occupation
    • FPV to grow 20% over next 5 years (2020)
    • Goal:
      • Proposed new approach to FPV using foam as racks
      • Evaporation and energy generation analysis using Lake Mead as a sample case
  2. Methods
    • Data collection procedure described
    • Experimental setup and data collection of FPV described
    • Water evaporation modeling described (detailed equations provided)
      • Penman-Monteith model
    • Energy produciton, and temperature models described
    • Temperature model based on Kamuyu's model
    • Water savings estimated based on past studies percentage values
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Water evaporation and energy produciton values given
      • lake surface coverage -> 10 - 50%
    • FPV temperature cooler with proposed model
    • Water saving potential -> 4.95 m²/kWh
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Mentioned in Intro
    • Water evaporation reduction
  • Water evaporation reduction
    • Estimated through simulation rfesults and data found in literature
    • 4.95m²/kWh
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
mono-cSi Lake Mead, Nevada, US annual study -1 year 25.59TWh/year 127.93TWh/year 23%

Complementing hydroelectric power with floating solar PV for daytime peak electricity demand[9][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Renewable energy is the cornerstone of our future energy needs. In particular, solar energy is being utilized at a faster pace than ever. Floating Solar Photovoltaics (FSPV) has recently gained traction as a suitable alternative of land-based large scale PV installation. It is a promising technology to utilize water surfaces for placing solar plants. Not only it utilizes the water as real estate but it has several other advantages as well. For example, FSPV can use the existing transmission and distribution infrastructure that is the part of hydroelectric power plants. In this paper, we evaluate an FSPV plant and its integration with the existing hydroelectric power station of a small reservoir in Pakistan. We have investigated the 500 kV, 132 kV and 11 kV voltage levels for the integration of FSPV plant. Moreover, we have devised a hydro-solar optimization model for the efficient utilization of energy. The combined system consisting of hydroelectric and 200 MWp FSPV produces more than 3.5% additional power overall when compared with production of only hydroelectric power. More importantly the FSPV generation coincides with the daily mid-day peak load thus works as a peaker plant for the national grid.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Fill in ...
    • Goal: ...
  2. Methods
    • Fill in ...
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Fill in ...
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Mentioned in Intro
    • Water evaporation reduction
    • algae growth reduction => water quality improvement
  • Water evaporation reduction
    • Not quantified /mentioned in results
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
200MWp Ghazi Barotha, Pakistan 911kWh/day 15% 20%

Using Floating Photovoltaics, Electrolyser and Fuel Cell to Decrease the Peak Load and Reduce Water Surface Evaporation[10][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Fossil fuel consumption problems and water crisis are serious dangers. Using renewable energy is a solution to reduce fossil fuel consumption. Photovoltaic is a renewable energy generation method which is abundantly used all over the world. By installation of solar panels on the surface of water, the efficiency of panels increases and in addition, the surface evaporation of water will be reduced. Dams are one of the main sources of water. In the present study, installation of solar panel on surface of the Tanguie dam is studied from technical point of view. The generation PV power is used to produce hydrogen by electrolysis process and consume it in PEM Fuel cell to decreases the peak load. Results show 2.6% increase in panel efficiency when they are installed on water. And this increase in efficiency causes that 360780 installed panels generate 4 million kWh additional electricity power in the year. As well as, covering 678628 m2 of dam with these panels prevent from 1.97 million m3 water evaporation in the year. Also, the generated PV power could supply about 99% of load which is above 90MW.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Review of past PV studies
    • Described severity of water crisis in the world and in Iran
    • Review of FPV
    • Review of fuel ceel technologies in PV
    • Goal:
      • advantages of installing PV on dam -> technical and environmental point of view
      • Investigate power generation, efficiency, and water conservation
      • Hydrogen storage from electrolysis usign proton exchange membrane
  2. Methods
    • Temperature distribution analyzed with equations -> provided specs of different PV layers
    • Power generation using single diode, 5-parameters with equations
    • Software used for irradiance -> TRNSYS
    • Description of FPV, Fuell cell, and electrolyzer -> equations provided
    • Description of the Tanguie dam
      • Location -> Sirjan, Iran
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Water evaporation prevention
      • 2903mm/year
      • 1.97 millions m³/year
    • Energy generation -> 135 GWh
    • CO2 emissions reduction
      • 63.25 ktons CO2/year -> compared to natural gas in thermal plant
      • 82.5 ktons CO2/yeat -> compared to natural gas in combined cycle thermal plant
    • Efficiency
      • 19.7%
      • 2.6% higher than ground-based PV
    • Reduction of loss of power probability decrease in hydro -> 1%
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Water evaporation reduction
    • calculated from estimation
    • 1.97 millions m³/year
  • CO2 emisions reduction
    • estimated
    • 62.25 - 82.5 ktons/year
  • Reduction of loss of power probability decrease in hydro
    • calculated by inference
    • 1%
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
72.15MW KC200GT Sirjan, Iran 135GWh/year 19.7%

High-performance semitransparent polymer solar cells floating on water: Rational analysis of power generation, water evaporation and algal growth[11][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Compared to conventional ground-mounted photovoltaic (PV) cells, floating photovoltaic (FPV) cells open new opportunities for scaling-up solar power generation, especially in highly populated countries that may have competing uses for the available land. Large-scale FPV projects normally deploy old-fashioned crystalline silicon panels that are brittle and difficult to integrate. Polymer solar cells (PSCs) are regarded as a newer and more versatile concept that make quite a splash today. High absorption coefficients, thin active layers and tunable absorption spectra through a synergy of molecular and device engineering promote extensive research on the integration of semitransparent polymer solar cells (ST-PSCs) with smart architecture to deliver both practical and aesthetic benefits. In this work, we propose a new concept of extending ST-PSCs to the field of FPV cells and explore the potential of regulating aquatic environments and organisms. Three groups of high-performance ST-PSCs are fabricated. Maximum efficiency of 13% and average visible transmittance over 20% deliver an optimum trade-off between power generation and transparency among the best-performing ST-PSCs. We develop new experimental approaches and propose a feasibility study on the water evaporation and algal growth by placing the large-area ST-PSCs on bodies of water. To the best of our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time that the specific transmittance windows with controlled light intensities generated by the ST-PSCs are capable of regulating water evaporation and algal growth, which provides insight into responsible scale-up of FPVs instead of simply blocking the sunlight. The new functions of ST-PSCs pave an intriguing prospect of developing ST-PSCs for practical FPV applications in the near future.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • PV -> 2% global electricity production
    • GPV constrained by space limitation => FPV potential solution
    • FPV growth -> more than 100times in last 5 years
    • Description of FPV
    • Need to explore how preventing algae bloom impacts aquatic life
    • Polymer solar cells (PSCs) -> good alternative to crystalline PV
    • PSCs advantages for FPV
      • evaporation mitigation
      • heat insulation
    • Goal:
      • Evaluationg ST-PSCs use in FPV
      • Fabrication method
      • Investigation of water evaporation and algae bloom prevention
  2. Methods
    • Experimental methods described at the end of paper
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Physical and chemical specs of the ST-PSC provided
      • Power conversion efficiency: 9.2 - 13%
      • Visible light transmittance -> 18 - 21.5%
    • Water evaporation measurement setup described -> use of high precision scale
      • Provided evaporation rate equation and photothermal conversion efficiency equation
      • Evaporation reduction from 0.77kg to 0.6kg -> 22% reduction
    • Regulation of algae growth by sunlight modulation
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Mentioned in Intro
    • Algae bloom reduction
  • Water evaporation reduction
    • Experimental and calculation
    • 22%
  • Algae growth regulation
    • Experimental
    • Visual observation / no number provided
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
0.97cm² Polymer 9.2% 13%

Save water and energy: A techno-economic analysis of a floating solar photovoltaic system to power a water integration project in the Brazilian semiarid[12][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

This paper proposes the use of a floating solar photovoltaic (FSPV) power plant as an alternative renewable energy resource for the San Francisco River Integration Project (SFIP), which aims to deliver water to 12 million people in the Brazilian semiarid. The SFIP requires considerable amounts of energy in a region that has had increasing electricity costs and consumption of water in the past decade. By simulating an FSPV power plant at the System Advisor Model (SAM) using techniques and parameters of real FSPV projects, the results demonstrated the techno-economic feasibility of this technology linked to the SFIP. The economic outcomes are positive net present value (NPV), \2.8 million, and a payback varying from 10.5 to 11.7 years. The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of \32.17/MWh is smaller than the current energy rates paid by the SFIP administrator, and the water costs to final consumers could be reduced by 40%. In addition, the FSPV's capacity factor was 21.1%, and the system could minimize water evaporation from one of the SFIP's reservoirs by 16.7%. The system can also create revenues for the San Francisco and Parnaiba Valleys Development Company (CODEVASF) by trading the excess of electricity with the grid. This paper also analyses the FSPV's environmental impacts and its relevance under the water–energy nexus in the Brazilian Northeast. The FSPV could minimize the SFIP's operational costs, avoid environmental impacts, and improve the efficiency of water and energy management. Such components are crucial when analyzing the water–energy nexus in such a region, marked by strong competition for water access and long periods of drought.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Fill in ...
    • Goal: ...
  2. Methods
    • Fill in ...
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Fill in ...
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • FULL TEXT REQUESTED FROM AUTHORS
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency

Simulation and experimental performance analysis of partially floating PV system in windy conditions[13][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

The floating solar photovoltaic system (FPVT) is a new concept for solar energy harvesting that contributes to growing energy demand but with higher performance compared to the land-based system (LBPV). The working temperature of an FPVT system is lower and the efficiency is better than that of an LBPV system. The current experimental study aims to further enhance the superiority of floating PV technology through an innovative partially floating (FPVWS) system for more energy harvest. The underwater portion allows reliable temperature management for the PV system via mutual heat transfer with the ambient water and consequently enhances the electricity production. Then an experimental floating set up has been constructed to examine the performance of the new FPVWS system under real windy conditions and the reason for such dominance was explained. The acquired data demonstrated that the working temperature of the FPVWS reduced by11.60%, the output power rose by about 20.28%, and the electrical efficiency rose by 32.82% at a 49% increment in wind speed. The performance of the FPVT module is improved with the submerging technique and the favorable northerly-westerly wind flow direction, which provided the most gain to its performance. The levelized cost of energy decreased by 17% along with a reduction in global average CO2 emissions of 69.51 kg CO2/summer season at a 49% increment in wind speed.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Increase in global energy demand -> 50% by 2040
    • Reviewed temperature impact on PV and cooling methods
      • Water cooling -> FPV
    • FPV -> 2GWp FPV in 2020 -> expected 1.8TW by 2050
    • Compared FPV to GPV
    • Goal:
      • Propose and investigate performance of new design of FPV -> partially floating FPV
  2. Methods
    • Experimental setup described with data collection equipment
    • PV System
      • Location -> Egypt
      • Tilt angle -> 30°
      • Tech -> poly-cSi
      • power -> 80W
    • Data collected and analyzed
      • Irradiance
      • Infrared images
      • Termperature
      • Wind speed
      • Electrical output
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Analyzed effect of wind on the PV temperature distribution and power production
    • Water saving potential of FPV ->0.563m­³/year
    • CO2 emissions reduction -> 211kg CO2/year
    • Economisc analysus performed
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Water savings
    • Estimated
    • 0.563 m³/year
  • CO2 emission reduction
    • Estimated
    • 211 kgCO2/year
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
80W poly-cSi Port Said, Egypt 25 year 214kWh/year 8.5% 17%

Study of Massive Floating Solar Panels over Lake Nasser[14][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Recently, the technology of floating photovoltaic panels has demonstrated several advantages over land installations, including faster deployment, less maintenance cost, and higher efficiency. Lake Nasser is the second largest man-made freshwater lake in the world with a surface area of almost 5000 square km. Being in one of the hottest areas in the world, evaporation of water causes loss of very precious and scarce resources: freshwater. Fortunately, the lake is also located in a very rich area in solar energy. This paper presents a study to utilize Lake Nasser’s surface for massive production of solar energy, while significantly reducing the loss of water by evaporation from the lake surface. The project has the potential to be one of the largest producers of low-cost clean electric energy in the world for Europe and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, especially with the ongoing efforts to connect the North African countries with the European super power grid. The study shows that the first phase of the project is expected to deliver about 16% of European need of electricity and save about 3 billion m3 of freshwater. The subsequent phases will provide low-cost green energy to replace the combustible fuels in Europe by 2045, while saving up to 10-12 billion m3 of freshwater lost by evaporation from Lake Nasser.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • EU RenErgy directive 2018/2001/EU -> meet or exceed 32% renewables by 2030
    • Stats of energy in EU
    • Electricity demand in Europe and North Africa -> 5850TWh in 2050
    • Review of PV projects in Egypt
    • Description of Lake Nasser
      • Covering lake surface -> 12-16billions m³/year saved
    • Goal:
      • provide comprehensive account of key factors to develop terawatt scale FPV on Lake Nasser
      • Economic, environmental, social, engineering viewpoints
  2. Methods
    • Full description on Lake Nasser specs
      • Hydrology + management
      • Climate
      • Water temp
    • Analysis of water evaporation on the lake
      • annual losses by evap -> 12-16 biliom m³
      • Evap estimated by Bowen ratio energy budget -> equations provided
      • Reviewed other studies that analyzed evap
    • Reviewed techniques to limit evaporation
      • Physical -> suspended covers
      • Biological -> floating plants palm fronds
      • chemical
    • Past studies -> FPV could reduce evap: 25 - 50%
    • Review of solar energy potential in the lake area
    • Market and economic analysis
    • Review of floating polatforms technology
    • Review of energy storage solutions
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Fill in ...
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Water evaporation reduction
    • Estimated
    • 12-16 billions m³/year
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
1000km² Lake Nasser, Egypt 25 years 8.23TWh/year

Floating Solar Power Plants: A Way to Improve Environmental and Operational Flexibility[15][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

The Photovoltaic modules installed on the surface of the water are naturally cooled, reducing the loss of thermal power generation. Floating photovoltaic systems (FPVS) combine existing photovoltaic systems with a floating structure to generate clean energy. To meet the growing electricity demand, FPV systems will be integrated alongside existing dams to enhance existing power sources. The results indicate that the investment toward installing FPV systems over the dams’ reservoirs leads to a significant improvement in the overall system reliability minimizes load curtailment, and could potentially add more flexibility to the operator to dispatch power generated by hydropower plants during peak demands. The execution of the Karun-4 FPV power plant with an annual production of 16758969 kWh of energy has reduced the water evaporation of the dam's reservoir water and after eight years and four months, the investment cost was returned and its nominal performance is 81.7 percent. Adding a floating solar power plant with 10% of the lake reservoir cover of six dams saves 70.7 million cubic meters of water per year. This amount of fresh water is enough to meet the annual needs of one million people.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Only 200MW in Iran -> renewables
    • Iran evaporation rate -> 2100 mm/year -> 3 times > worlwide average (700mm/year)
    • Energy-related CO2 emissions -> 2/3 global GHG
    • Review of past PV and FPV studies
    • Goal:
      • presents roadmap to built folating hydropower and FPV
      • technical, economic, and environmental perspective
  2. Methods
    • Location -> on Karun river
    • Software
      • AutoCAD
      • PVSyst
      • CPMFAR 3
      • Minitab
    • Hydropower specs provided
    • Evaporation in lakes and dams affected by (equations provided):
      • water temp
      • air temp
      • humidity
      • windspeed above water
    • Economic analysis
      • NPV
      • IRR
      • ROI
  3. Results and Discussion
    • FPV size -> 100,000m² / 11MW
    • PV modules -> Yingli YL365D-36b
    • Power analysis provided
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Mentioned in Intro
    • Water evap reduction
    • GHG emissions reduction
  • Water Evaporation reduction
    • Calculated
    • 80% reduction
  • CO2 emisisons reduction
    • estimated
    • 1502072 metric tons/year
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
11MW Yingli YL365D-36b Karun, Iran 16.76GWh/year

Assessment of floating solar photovoltaics potential in existing hydropower reservoirs in Africa[16][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Africa is characterised by a very high solar potential, with a yearly sum of solar irradiation exceeding 2000 kWh/m2. Many African countries are heavily dependent on hydropower, however, increasingly frequent droughts have been severely affecting hydropower generation in the last few decades. The installation of floating photovoltaics (FPV) in existing hydropower reservoirs, would provide solar electricity to help compensate hydropower production during dry periods and reduce evaporation losses while helping to sustainably satisfy the current and future energy needs of the fast-growing African population. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the potential of FPV installation in Africa, by using highly accurate water surface data of the largest 146 hydropower reservoirs in the continent. In addition to the electricity production, evaporation savings and the potential extra hydroelectricity generated by these water savings are also estimated at reservoir level for four different cases and two types of floating structures. The results indicate that with a total coverage of less than 1%, the installed power capacity of existing hydropower plants can double and electricity output grow by 58%, producing an additional 46.04 TWh annually. In this case, the water savings could reach 743 million m3/year, increasing the annual hydroelectricity generation by 170.64 GWh.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Africa -> lowest electricity access rate -> 54%
    • Large untapped hydropower potential in Africa -> only 11% of available resource used
      • 37 GW in 2019
      • 138 TWh generation
      • extra 15GW by 2025
      • Hydroplant in jeopardy due to evaporation
    • PV in Africa
      • 5GW with 6TWh in 2018
      • estimate of 15GW/year -> 320GW by 2040 estimated by IEA
    • Review of past FPV studies
    • Goal:
      • comprehensive assessment of installation of FPV in African hydropower reservoirs
      • evaporation and extra hydropower generation potential investigated
  2. Methods
    • Data used
      • satellite image
      • hydropower reservoirs data
        • 146 largest reservoirs -> total of 29,222km²
        • Installed capacity > 5MW
    • PV energy calculation and specs provided
      • area factor -> 0.16kWp/m²
      • PErformance ratio -> 0.8
      • Inverter load ration -> 1.25
    • Water savings
      • calculated using previous data (Botempo et al.)
      • 2 types of floaters analyzed
    • Extra hydropower potential evaluated -> equation provided
    • 4 cases
      • 100% coverage
      • 10% coverage
      • 1% coverage
      • PV power = hydropower
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Installed Power -> 29.22 GWp - 292.22 GWp
    • Electricity production -> 52.94TWh - 529.349 TWh
    • Evaporation reduction
      • 304.58 - 9353 mcm/year
    • Added hydro capacity
      • 56.6 GWh/year - 1737 GWh/year
    • Cost analysis results detailed and explained
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Mentioned in Intro
    • Hydro generation improvement -> Peak load support
    • water evaporation reduction
    • water quality improvement (algae growth reduction)
  • Evaporation reduction
    • estimated form past studies
    • 304.58 - 9353 mcm/year
  • Added hydro capacity
    • Estimated
    • 56.6GWh/year - 1737 GWh/year
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
29.22 GWp 292.22GWp Various Locations, Africa 52.94 TWh/year 529.349 TWh/year

Recent technical advancements, economics and environmental impacts of floating photovoltaic solar energy conversion systems[17][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Floating Photovoltaic (FPV) is an emerging technology that has experienced significant growth in the renewable energy market since 2016. It is estimated that technical improvements along with governmental initiatives will promote the growth rate of this technology over 31% in 2024. This study comprehensively reviews the floating photovoltaic (FPV) solar energy conversion technology by deep investigating the technical advancements and presenting a deliberate discussion on the comparison between floating and ground-mounted photovoltaic (PV) systems. Also, the economics and environmental impacts of FPV plants are presented by introducing the main challenges and prospects. The FPV plants can be conventionally installed on water bodies/dam reservoirs or be implemented as multipurpose systems to produce simultaneous food and power. Installing FPV modules over water reservoirs can prevent evaporation but penetration of solar radiation still remains an issue that can be eliminated by employing bifacial PV modules. The salt deposition in off-shore plants and algae-bloom growth are other important issues that can degrade modules over time and adversely affect the aquatic ecosystem. The capital expenditure (CAPEX) for FPV systems is about 25% higher than ground-mounted plants, mainly due to the existence of floats, moorings, and anchors. It has been stated that the capacity increase of FPV plants (ranges from 52 kW to 2 MW) can intensely decrease the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) up to 85%. It is estimated that FPV technology can become more affordable in the future by further research, developments, and progress in both technology and materials.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Fill in ...
    • Goal: ...
  2. Methods
    • Fill in ...
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Fill in ...
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • REVIEW PAPER
  • NOT INCLUDED IN REVIEW
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency

Feasibility study of floating solar panels over lakes in Bengaluru City, India[18][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Sustainable energy production has become an issue of prime concern for regions across the globe. With all the global bodies urging nations to explore and adopt clean sources of energy, India’s enormous solar potential provides a sustainable source of energy, replacing conventional sources that are both polluting and rapidly depleting. To produce large amounts of solar energy, solar parks spanning across large areas are required, making it impossible to serve in highly populated cities like Bengaluru, where spacious lands are not available. The rooftop solutions contribute very minimally towards the city’s energy demand because of the dense urban cover and congested planning. But the city has a large number of water bodies including tanks, large lakes and reservoirs. This paper studies the floating solar photovoltaic (FSPV) technology to provide an alternative solar route to harness sustainable energy. In this study, 32 lakes within the city limits were considered spanning across 3294 ac of lake area and analysed for the climatic suitability of FSPV systems, solar output assessment and estimation of evaporation losses. The study found that the FSPV systems adopted on lakes with a coverage ratio of 0.5–0.6 could meet an average of 26% of the city’s annual power demand.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Review of India energy goals
    • Reviewd thypes of PV in Bengaluru
      • rooftop PV not convenient
      • FPV potential for large-scale utility level PV
    • Reviewed past studies
      • FPV performance
      • FPV technologies -> floating systems
      • FPV energy estimation methods
      • FPV impact on evaporation
      • Environmental impact of FPVs
    • Description of the city of Bengaluru
    • Goal:
      • Investigate the scope of FSPV in providing sustainable energy in densely populated areas
  2. Methods
    • Water bodies not considered
      • lakes restricted only to swimming, fishing, or recreational activities
      • water bodies used for religious and navigation purposes are not considered
    • 2 set of parameters
      • climatic parameters -> wind, iradiation, and temperature
      • water evaporation -> Mayer's model -> equation provided
      • 22.87 millions m³ saved per year
    • Description of the FPV system and data collected provided
      • Total installed capacity -> 459MW / 3924acres
    • Water bodies considered -> size > 20acres (32 water bodies in total)
    • Efficiency of modules -> 15%
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Fill in ...
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Mentioned in Intro
    • Water evaporation reduction
    • CO2 emisisons reduction
    • Algal growth reduction -> water quality improvement
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
459MW Hydrelio ASM-7-PERC-AAA Bengaluru,

India

4.089 TWh/year 15%

Semitransparent polymer solar cells floating on water: selected transmission windows and active control of algal growth[19][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Floating photovoltaic (FPV) systems are gaining attention across the world, which make an important contribution to the green energy revolution and diffuse the heated debate on use of land worldwide. Large-scale FPV systems generally deploy crystalline silicon panels that are brittle, heavy and difficult to integrate. Polymer solar cells (PSCs) are one of the emerging PV technologies to date. The potential deployment of PSCs on bodies of water can combine the unique advantages of organic electronics, which allow them to become semitransparent and simultaneously provide controlled shading and green electricity. So far, little attention has been paid to the impacts of FPV technologies on water bodies and their ecosystems. In this study, we propose a new concept of extending semitransparent PSCs (ST-PSCs) to the field of FPV and focus on exploring the environmental impacts and benefits of placing high-performance ST-PSCs on bodies of water. We demonstrate for the first time that the specific transmittance windows with controlled light intensities provided by ST-PSCs can scale up solar energy generation and regulate the growth of four representative microalgae that are widely distributed in diverse aquatic habitats. This work provides insight into environmentally responsible FPV systems for sustainable management of the important primary production in the aquatic ecosystem, instead of simply blocking the sunlight with conventional opaque solar panels.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Highlighted land-occupation challenges of GPV
    • Reviewed FPV around the world
    • Reviewed previous achievements in ST-PSCs + their extra functionalities
      • light tuning
    • Goal:
      • feasibility study fo ST-PSCs as algae bloon control
      • PCE 16.6% opaque / 11.2% with 20% transparency
  2. Methods
    • Fill in ...
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Chemical structure results + optical an energy performance presented
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Algae growth control
    • Show by experimentation with light control ability of ST-PS
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
0.07cm² 0.97 cm² ST-PSC Lab environement 11.2% 16.6%

Analysis of the potential for use of floating solar panels on Naghlo hydropower dam[20][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

The water and energy challenges have become a big concern in Afghanistan that need to be addressed cooperatively. One of the challenges in the country is electricity generation, and a small part of it is produced in the country, so there are a huge burden and cost to meet the remaining electricity need. Over years and without sustainable management almost all of the dams in Afghanistan lost their effective life due to reservoir sedimentation that led to the reduced reliability of water and power supply. On the other hand, Global warming and high temperature have a direct impact on the number of water sources. Since Afghanistan is located in an Arid to a semi-arid climate that is characterized by the high value of annual evaporation where the precipitation is less than annual evaporation, besides other forms of losses, its surface water is lost through evaporation. On the other hand, one of the challenges in the country is electricity generation, and a small part of it is produced in the country, so there are a huge burden and cost to meet the remaining electricity needs. One of the approaches that can meet both challenges simultaneously is the use of floating solar panels. It has significant advantages over the ground-based type of solar panels. These benefits include reducing water evaporation, improving water quality by reducing the growth of algae, and high solar panel performance. This paper aims at illustrating the potential for use of floating solar panels to generate power and the impact of floating solar panels installation on preventing surface water evaporation on Naghlo Dam.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Provided stats on Afghanistan water resources and evaporation
    • Provided stats on Afghanistan energy needs
    • Describe Afghanistan solar resources
    • Brief review of FPV
    • Goal:
      • Study evaporation reduction and power produciton potential of FPVon Naghlo Dam to overcome evaporation and energy needs
  2. Methods
    • Info on Naghlo dam
      • 100 MWh
    • Simplified Penman-Monteith for evaporation calculation used -> equations provided
    • Dam coverage: 0.25% - 10%
    • Evaporation reduciton efficiency -> 30% [ref provided]
    • Used data from Kabul <=> data from Surobi not available
    • Explained PV generation using equations
    • PV modules
      • Mono-cSi
      • Efficiency -> 17%
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Evaporation rate results shown -> daily and monthly
      • 2839 mm/year => 34.5 millions m³/year
    • Water conservation potential
      • between 93,618 m³ to 1.872 millions m³
      • depends on coverage
    • Energy Production
      • 11.6MWh/year - 465.7MWh/year
      • depends on coverage
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Water evaporation reduction
    • Calculated -> Penman-Monteith method
    • 93,618 m³ - 1.872 millions m³
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
mono-cSi Surobi, Afghanistan 11.6MWh/year 465.7MWh/year 17%

Assessment of floating solar PV (FSPV) potential and water conservation: Case study on Rajghat Dam in Uttar Pradesh, India[21][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Widely acceptable Photovoltaic (PV) technology faces the challenge of substantial land requirement. However, emerging PV technology over water bodies through floating solar panels can resolve this challenge and additionally leads to operation of the panels at low temperature, improving the energy generation efficiency and insulating water bodies to account for reduction in evaporation loss. In this work, simulation tasks are performed to assess the technical potential of floating photovoltaic power generation and discusses the sustainable system of floating solar PV technology in terms of prospective PV potential, conservation of water and potential to conserve agriculture land bank. The study estimates, power potential of 6513 MWp for 25% coverage of total submergence area at Rajghat dam located in the Southern part of Uttar Pradesh, India, and annual power generation of 10,623,501 MWh. The study also reports annual evaporation loss reduction of 1395 cubic meter per MWp (or 0.9 l per kWh) as an additional benefit. In terms of economic assessment, the Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is reported as $ 0.036/kWh (INR 2.61/kWh) with 8.55% internal rate of return (IRR), a very encouraging parameter for large scale deployment of FSPV plants. Based on the findings, the study recommends FSPV installation in water reservoirs, justified by considerable savings in water evaporation losses and avoiding use of cultivable land for solar PV Installation purpose.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Stats on India's renewable power obligation (RPO) program
    • Land requirement for GPV -> 2ha/MW
    • In India, GPV faces high transmission and distribution cost => affordable land far from demand
    • Reviewed past FPV and water evaporation studies
    • Goal:
      • add into FPV knowledge bank
      • provide platform to quantify additional benefits of FPV
      • estimate PV potential , economic easibility, and water loss reduction using FPV
  2. Methods
    • Provided a description of FPV components
    • FPV potential assessed through pilot case study
    • Water surface coverage -> 14.25%
    • Software
      • PVSyst
      • AutoCAD + Google Earth-> surface modelling
    • Described the Rajghat dam specs
    • PV system
      • mono-cSi
      • Efficiency -> 17.7%
      • Power -> 350Wp
      • Total power -> 6513 MWp
      • Surface area -> 3450 ha
    • Described specs of existing hydrodam -> 45MW
    • Mentioned studies that reviewed water evaporation prevention methods
    • Evaporation reducaiton estimation -> 9.084 million m­³
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Same as methodology numbers
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Mentioned in Intro
    • Water evaporation reduction
    • Water quality improvement
    • Land occupation reduction
  • Water evaporation reduction
    • estimated
    • 9.084 millioms m³
  • Transmisison and distribution losses reduction
    • not quantified
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
6.513 GWp mono-cSi Utttar Pradesh, India 10.623TWh/year 17.7%

Analysis of Biological, Chemical, and Physical Parameters to Evaluate the Effect of Floating Solar PV in Mahoni Lake, Depok, Indonesia: Mesocosm Experiment Study[22][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Waters provide essential needs both for human societies as well as natural ecosystems. Floating solar PV (FPV) applications on water bodies are currently in strong demand worldwide. Floating solar PV system is a new concept in renewable energy with the solar plants by harnessing available water surface, such in dams, lakes, and other water bodies. Although the floating solar PV industry is becoming more and more popular, the study on the biological, chemical, and physical properties effects of using FPV cover on natural water coverage—especially in tropical countries—has not been widely carried out yet. This paper aimed to evaluate the effect of floating solar PV on temperature, DO (dissolved oxygen), TDS (total dissolved solids), total phosphorus concentration, and chlorophyll-a concentration using mesocosm experiments to understand the biological, chemical, and physical process under closed environment. The experiment was conducted in a natural water body, Mahoni Lake, in which a total amount of 7 water samples were collected from each mesocosms. The results show that the floating solar PV reduces the average temperature, DO, conductivity, TDS, and chlorophyll-a concentration changes (p-value < 0,05); and the floating solar PV does not directly reduce the average total phosphorus concentration due to high probability of thermal stratification (p-value > 0,05).

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Goal: ...
  2. Methods
    • Fill in ...
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Fill in ...
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Revie[edit | edit source]

  • DOES NOT DISCUSS FPV BENEFITS
  • DISCUSS IMPACT OF FPV ON WATER QUALITY
  • NOT INCLUDED IN REVIEW -> USEFUL IN DISCUSSION
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency

Green cottage power supply and floating solar power plant: A Techno-Economic analysis[23][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Iran's energy sector, which includes power generation, transportation, industry, buildings, and homes, is a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions. Plans for efficient design and development of maximum power control systems aim to increase the share of renewable energy in electricity usage. Floating photovoltaic systems combine existing photovoltaic systems with a floating structure to generate clean energy and integrate existing dams to enhance power sources. The results indicate that installing a hybrid floating solar power plant at a level of more than 1 km2 over the dam reservoir's surface provides 194 GWh to 257 GWh of electricity per year. Installation floating photovoltaic plant would supply electricity for 2260 green cottages while also improving the environment and reducing water evaporation. Adding a floating solar power plant with 10% of the lake reservoir cover of six dams saves 70.7 million cubic meters of water per year which is enough to meet the annual needs of one million people. This study fills a research gap in the energy sector by studying the economics of hybrid renewable energy systems in Net-zero energy buildings.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • 2019 in Iran -> 96% electricity from fossil fuel
    • Evaporation in Iran -> 700mm/year
    • Reviewed past PV and FPV studies
    • Goal:
      • maximize use of local energy resources
      • design integrated FPV-hydro to supply green cottages on energy, minimize water evaporation, and keep a reliable
  2. Methods
    • Description of the Karun 4 dam
    • Meterological data from dam for 2000-2020 used
    • Software
      • PVSyst
      • AutoCAD
      • COMFAR + Minitab
    • Hydrodam at Karun 4
      • Power 250MW x 4
    • Economic analysis performed
    • Evaporation equation given -> method name not specified
    • System lifetime -> 25years
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Weather data discussion provided
    • PV size -> 11MW
    • Modules -> yingli 365W / yl365d-36b
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Mentioned in Intro
    • water evaporation reduction
    • land occupation reduction
  • INCONSISTENCIES IN PRESENTED RESULTS
  • NOT INCLUDED IN REVIEW
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
11mw yingli 365W / yl365d-36b Karun 4 Dam, Iran 25 years 194 GWh/year 257 GWh/year

Floating solar PV to reduce water evaporation in water stressed regions and powering water pumping: Case study Jordan[24][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Water resources are essential for human consumption and food production. The extraction and delivery of water resources are highly dependent on energy. Hence water, energy and food security are inextricably linked, and this nexus constitutes a major global societal challenge. Furthermore, globally, irrigation constitutes around 70% of our freshwater resources, rising to 90% in developing countries. There are over 300 million drinking water and irrigation ponds globally where 90% of the world’s standing irrigation water resides. There is a need to conserve such resources, considering more than two thirds of the world’s population are currently experiencing water stress. Hence, this work tackles the conservation of such resources addressing two important issues related to energy and water, thereby addressing elements of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Its considered approach is the use of floating solar photovoltaic (FPV) technology implemented on irrigation reservoirs to conserve water by reducing evaporation losses whilst providing sustainable electricity at enhanced yield that can be utilised locally. For the study, we selected an arid and water stressed region of Jordan where real-world water and energy consumption data were available. Various floating PV (FPV) system configurations were modelled for installation on an irrigation reservoir where currently no FPV exists. A fixed tilt 300 kWp FPV system was found to be the optimum design in terms of water savings, energy yield, economics, and reductions in CO2 emissions. Standard floating PV was deemed the preferred option compared to ground-mounted PV and FPV with tracking and/or active cooling. System payback period for the recommended design was 8.4 years with an annual greenhouse gas emission reduction of ∼ 141TCO2. For the considered site, around 12,700 m3 of water can be saved annually or 42% savings when compared to the uncovered reservoir. This research has wider applicability to other arid regions such as Africa, Middle East, and the Indian Subcontinent.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Irrigation is largest water consumer
      • 70% water resources globally
      • 90% in developping countries
      • 60% in developed countries
    • Stats on water pond, globally
    • FPV as a soluition to water-energy-food
    • Reviewed past studies
      • FPV
      • FPV and water evaporation
      • Cost of FPV
    • Goal:
      • model FPV for irregation reservoir in arid climate conditions
      • compare fixed tilt FPV to GPV with tracking or active cooling
      • quantify evaporation reduction, CO2 emissions reduction, economics in a reservoir in Jordan
  2. Methods
    • Described Jordan water resources and energy production schemes
    • Software
      • Homer Pro -> system with best NPC
    • 4 case scenarios
      • reservoir with no PV
      • Small Footprint FPV
      • Large footprint FPV
      • Ground-mounted PV
    • System load -> 121.6 kWh/day
    • Investigated impact of tracking anf active cooling on GPV and FPV
    • Evaporation calculation -> Penman Monteith - different consideration for small footprint and large footprint FPV
    • GHG emissions - > equations provided
  3. Results and Discussion
    • PV size -> 300kWp
    • Presented evaporation result for each case scenario
    • CO2 emissions reduction
      • FPV compared to no FPV on lake (235.8 tCO2eq/year) - difference between FPV and no FPV given below
      • large footprint FPV -> 141 tCO2eq/year
      • small footprint FPV -> 133 tCO2eq/year
    • Energy production
      • small footprint FPV -> 467 MWh/year
      • large footprint FPV -> 463 MWh/year
    • Water savings
      • small footprint -> 7,500 m³/MWp or 3.2 m³/MWh
      • large footprint -> 42,000 m³/MWp or 27.5 m³/MWh
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Mentioned in Intro
    • Water evaporation savings
  • Water evaporation reduction
    • calculated -> Penman Monteith
    • 3.2 - 27.5m­³/MWh
  • CO2 emissions reduction
    • calculated
    • 133 - 141 tCO2eq/year
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency Comments
300 kWp mono-cSi Jordan 20years 463 MWh/year 467MWh/year 17.1% Efficiency is product of PV efficiency and inverter efficiency

Potential Assessment and Performance Evaluation of a Floating Solar Photovoltaic on the Great Ethiopian Renaissance Dam[25][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

The demand for electricity has increased rapidly in Ethiopia. Renewable energy sources such as solar PV are being used to respond to the power demand and cover a small percentage of the country’s energy need. However, in Ethiopia, where the majority of the land is utilized for agriculture, the land required to generate solar PV power in a large scale is a significant barrier. Big dams, such as Great Ethiopia’s Renaissance Dam, can be used for a solar floating system to eliminate the need for land and transmission infrastructure. Due to its wider area covered by the reservoir, which is about 1,874,000,000 m2, the potential of the renaissance dam needs to be investigated for solar PV floating installation to meet the electricity demand in residential, commercial, and industrial sectors in Ethiopia. In addition, the cooling action of the water on the PV floating allows it to keep its efficiency and increase the power output from the panels. In this study, the performance of grid-connected floating PV systems was evaluated in terms of power generation potential, performance ratio, capacity utilization factor, greenhouse gas emissions, and water conservation. The power consumption of peoples living in the GERD generation site is nearly 1 MW. Though they get electricity through the grid, this study considers performance assessment of a 1 MW solar FPV with the intention of covering the energy need of the hydropower station itself and near rural communities. Modeling and simulation of the proposed FPV plant is done with the help of PVsyst software tool. Finally, the analysis reveals that the GERD has the FPV capability to generate 18,740 MW of maximum power, and its performance was assessed for a 1 MW grid-connected FPV system. The benefits of employing FPV in energy production, water conservation, CO2 emission reduction, and economic benefit are demonstrated in this study. Furthermore, the installation of 1 MW FPV saves 54.4 million liters of GERD water from evaporation per year, which benefits the Blue Nile’s downstream countries to conserve their share of water.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • High soiling potential => increase in PV land demand => solution: FPV
    • Highlighted benefits of water on PV
    • Description of major components of FPV
    • Description of FPV state of art in Africa, and Ethiopia
      • No significant FPV plant despite huge potential
    • Performed a review of past FPV studies resumed in a table
    • Compared a potential FPV system to a cmmisioned GPV system in Ethiopia
    • Goal:
      • design and analysis of grid-connected FPV
      • 10% coverage of water surface
  2. Methods
    • Location -> Great Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD)
    • PV system
      • size -> 1MW
      • Module: 400W / SR-M672400HL / 19.89%
      • Inverter: 98.9%
    • Software: PVSyst
    • PV design procedure explained
    • Ptovided equaitons for irradiation and performance factors calculation -> Performance Ratio; Capacity Utilization Factor
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Annual energy -> 9.549 MWh
    • Investment cost -> 425,245 USD/MW
    • CO2 emisisons reduction -> 7.81tCO2/MW for 20 years
    • Water saving -> 54.4 million liters of water /year
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Mentioned in Intro
    • water evaporation reduction
    • CO2 emisions reduction
    • transmission and distribution loss and cost reduction
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency Comment
1MW SR-M672400HL Ethiopia 20 9.549 MWh/year 19.67 Efficiency is the product of inverter and module efficiency

Techno-economic perspective of a floating solar PV deployment over urban lakes: A case study of NUST lake Islamabad[26][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Water bodies like small lakes, canals, and rivers in urban areas serve to be a way forward to deploy photovoltaic technology with no constraints to involve land procurement. This article aims to estimate the potential deployment of a floating photovoltaic system on an urban lake site to assess its scope and compare it with a similar specification on-ground photovoltaic system. System Advisor Model (SAM) has been used for techno-economic analysis of a site in Pakistan. The technical analysis involves observing the effect of real time temperature drop and calculation of water reduction efficiency for FPV systems. The economic parameters like net present value (NPV) and payback period are used to judge the economic feasibility of the floating photovoltaic deployment project. The floating photovoltaic deployment in an urban area is subject to soiling as the water reservoir being used exists in an area close to or within the city boundaries. The required cleaning water costs a one-time extraction rate of $1435, while for a floating photovoltaic system, the extraction cost is estimated to be $1.35. Under standard temperature conditions (STC) one-year capacity factor turns out to be 0.70% more, producing an additional energy yield of 64 kWh/kW for lake scenarios when a 10 °C temperature drop is considered. The total power potential for the entire NUST Lake turns out to be 4.47 MW. A 1 MW FPV system in NUST lake would result in a water reduction efficiency of 11.6%/year. Under standard temperature conditions, the net present value for the on-ground system becomes negative while it remains optimistic for the floating photovoltaic system as no land costs are required. Similarly, once the land cost is included in the feasibility analysis, the payback period for the on-ground system goes beyond 15 years which is only 5.37 years for a floating photovoltaic system signifying the economic feasibility of the floating photovoltaic project.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • 2.6 GW total capacity FPV in construction during 2020
    • FPV cost tnd to be > GPV
    • FPV cost can be reduced through addiitonal services:
      • water saving
      • land saving
      • combination with hydro
    • Review of FPV systems around the world
    • Economic parameters for FPV feasibility
      • LCOE
      • Payback period
      • NPV
    • Description of the energy production resources in Pakistan -> 5% from renewables
    • Goal:
      • perform techno-economic analysis of FPV on NUST lake
      • 100kW FPV compared to 100kW GPV, including cleaning
  2. Methods
    • Description of the case study site
      • NUST lake -> classified as non-utilizable
      • 100kW GPV exists already
    • PV system
      • Modules: poly-cSi / 385W / 19.66%
      • System Efficiency -> 16.87% (included all losses from SAM)
      • Lifetime -> 25years
    • Software-> SAM
    • Description of the system design in SAM
    • Description of cleaning schedule and water requirement -> equation provided for water pump power requirement
    • Financial comparison methods explained
  3. Results and Discussion
    • System designed capacity -> 102.5kWp
    • Power generation potential of entire lake (area1 + area2) -> 4.47MW (not analyzed)
    • Water evaporation calculation explained -> equation provided
      • 1.17% evaporation reduction efficiency -> 35,100 litres
    • data of the power consumption of pumping system provided
    • Compared FPV and GPV performance -> data provided (not useful for the review)
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Mentioned in Intro
    • water savings
    • land savings
  • Water evaporation prevention
    • calculated -> unnamed method
    • 35,100 litres (periodicity unspecified)
  • Environemtal impacts reduction
    • Not quantified
  • Land savings
    • Not quantified
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency Comments
100 kW poly-cSi Islamabad, Pakistan 25years 6.167 MWh/year 7.995 MWh/year 16.87%
  • energy difference comes from sensitivity in temperature profiles
  • efficiency was calculated considering PV efficiency and various losses

The greenest solar power? Life cycle assessment of foam-based flexible floatovoltaics[27][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

This study presents a life cycle analysis (LCA) of a 10 MW foam-based floatovoltaics (FPV) plant installed on Lake Mead, Nevada, U.S. A material inventory of the flexible crystalline silicon (c-Si)-based module involved massing and determination of material composition of the module's encapsulation layers with ATR/FTR spectroscopy and electron microscopy. The LCA was performed using SimaPro and the results were interpreted in terms of cumulative energy demands, energy payback time, global warming potential, GHG emissions, and water footprint including negative values for reduced evaporation. A sensitivity analysis was performed on the lifetime of the modules and the foam-based racking. The results show that the 30 year lifetime foam-based FPV system has one of the lowest energy payback times (1.3 years) and the lowest GHG emissions to energy ratio (11 kg CO2 eq per MW h) in c-Si solar PV technologies reported to date. In addition, the foam-based FPV system also had 5 times less water footprint (21.5 m3 per MW h) as compared to a conventional pontoon-based FPV (110 m3 per MW h). The lifetime of the foam-based racking does not affect the result, while the lifetime of the modules has a significant effect on the lifecycle impacts of the foam-based FPV plant. Foam-based FPV has a net positive impact on the environment for CO2 emissions and energy consumption if its lifetime is above 7.4 years and the technology has the potential to become the greenest c-Si-based solar PV technology if the lifetime of the modules can be guaranteed for at least 26.6 years. Future work is needed to determine the lifetimes of these systems and expand them.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Reviewed past PV LCA studies
    • PV better than cola for CO2 emisison, but land use still high => solution: FPV
    • Not much literature on FPV LCA
    • PV racking not decreasing as other PV components
      • 8% total PV cost in utility-scale
      • 8-23% totla cost in small GPV
    • Goal:
      • determine environmental impact of foam-based FPV
      • cradle-to-grave analysis of 10MW FPV
      • Analysis of EBPT, CO2PBT, waterfootprint
  2. Methods
    • Provided full description of LCA process
      • Goal and scope
      • Life cycle inventory (LCI)
      • impact assesments methods
    • Goal and scope
      • FU -> 650GWh delivered to the grid
      • Lifetime -> 30 years
    • LCI
      • Full material inventory provided
      • Material analysis using electron microscopy and FTIR
    • Impact assessment methods
      • EPBT -> Cumulative energy demand
      • CO2PBT -> Global Warming Potential
      • Water consumption -> Water Scarecity Index
    • Sensitivity on PV and foam lifetime
    • Software -> Simapro
  3. Results and Discussion
    • EPBT -> 1.3years
    • CO2PBT ->0.82 years
    • Water savings -> 3.4 millions m³
    • CO2 emissions reducitons -> 266.51 ktons CO2eq
    • Sensitivity analysis performed with results
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Water evaporation savings
    • Simulated -> Simapro
    • 3.4 millions m³ in 30years
  • CO2 emisisons reducitons
    • Simulated Simapro
    • 266.51 ktons CO2eq
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
10MW mono-cSi Lake Mead, Nevada, USA 30 650.3 GWh/30years 20.9%

Foam-based floatovoltaics: A potential solution to disappearing terminal natural lakes[28][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Terminal lakes are disappearing worldwide because of direct and indirect human activities. Floating photovoltaics (FPV) are a synergistic system with increased energy output because of water cooling, while the FPV reduces water evaporation. This study explores how low-cost foam-based floatovoltaic systems can mitigate the disappearance of natural lakes. A case study is performed on 10%–50% FPV coverage of terminal and disappearing Walker Lake. Water conservation is investigated with a modified Penman-Monteith evapotranspiration method and energy generation is calculated with an operating temperature model experimentally determined from foam-based FPV. Results show FPV saves 52,000,000 m3/year of water and US$6,000,000 at 50% FPV coverage. The FPV generates 20 TWh/year of renewable energy, which is enough to offset all coal-fired power plants in Nevada thus reducing carbon-emission based climate forcing partially responsible for a greater rate of disappearance of the lake. The results of this study, which is the first of its kind, indicate foam-based FPV has potential to play a crucial role in mitigation efforts to prevent the disappearing of natural lakes worldwide.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • FPV system description + advantages
    • Reviewed past PV and FPV studies
    • Described a terminal lake and their economical importance
    • Goal:
      • explores how foam-based FPVcan be used in lake evaporation mitigation
      • Example case of Walker Lake
      • Estimated evaporation and energy generation
      • Economic implications
  2. Methods
    • Data collection and cleaning from Walker Lake
    • Water evaporation model description -> Penmane Monteith with equations
    • PV System
      • Module: mono-cSi / SPR-E-Flex /23%
      • Temperature model -> adpated from Kamuyu
      • Energy calculaiton equations provided and explained
    • Economic implication evaluation explained using local cost of water and energy
    • Lake coverage varied between 10 - 50%
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Annual water evaporation rate -> 1156 mm
    • Energy production
      • 10% coverage -> 4TWh
      • 50% coverage -> 20TWh
    • Water savings
      • 10% coverage -> 10 millions m³
      • 50% coverage -> 52 millions m³
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Mentioned in Intro
    • CO2 emisisons offset
  • Water evaporation savings
    • Calculated -> Penman Monteith
    • 10 - 52 millions m³/year
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency Comments
10km² 50km² mono-cSi Walker Lake, Nevada, USA 1 year analysis 4TWh/year 20TWh/year 20.34% Efficiency is the product of PV efficiency and various losses

Optimal Power Scheduling of Hydropower with Co-Located Floating Solar and Wind Generation Using Stochastic Weight Tradeoff Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization[29][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

The increased use of solar and wind power generation worldwide has elevated the frequency and voltage regulation concerns due to their intermittent nature. Installing floating solar PV panels (FPV) and wind (WT) farms, at the same location as hydroelectric power plants (HPPs), should present a much cheaper option than using a battery storage. However, the operating strategy for the new co-located power plant needs to be revised from the conventional HPP operation. Hence, a novel optimal power scheduling strategy for co-located FPV-WT-HPP power plant using stochastic weight tradeoff chaotic particle swarm optimization (SWTC-PSO) is proposed in this paper. The objective is to either maximize the upper reservoir water or minimize the spill water. Test results obtained on the system with five major HPPs, two thermal, and one combined-cycle power plants ascertain that the proposed method can generate a significant amount of reservoir water saving up to 30%, which can later be used in the high demand period. The solar and wind energy penetration can be increased by up to 28% without disturbing frequency and voltage regulation using the co-located approach. Finally, the proposed modified HPP controller that uses the feedback signals from FPV and WT, can smooth out the combined co-located plant power output, leading to a dispatchable and firm power generation solution.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Present hydropower plants (hpp) as alternative for battery stroage in PV and wintd turbines (WT)
    • Mentioned advantages of combining PV, WT, and HPP
    • Reviewed studies in optimiation of HPP-PV and HPP-PV-WT systems
    • Goal:
      • analysis of HPP-PV-WT system in Thailand
      • Use of Stochastic Weight Tradeoff Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization (SWTC-PSO) for dispatch
      • Proposed a revised HPP controller design
  2. Methods
    • Optimization problem formulation -> equations provided
      • reservoir water maximization
      • spill water minimization
    • Description of SWTC-PSO -> equation provided for the current problem
    • Step-by-step procedure provided
    • Gave a table with different types of systems at different locations
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Provided performance results of optimizaiton using different optimizers
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Metioned in Intro
    • Water evaporation reduction
    • land occupation reduction
  • Does not clearly estimate any additional benefits
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
Thailand

Assessment of the potential of floating solar photovoltaic panels in bodies of water in mainland Spain[30][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

This article presents the potential of floating photovoltaic solar energy in Spain, a country with a high solar energy resource and a large water surface area for its deployment, for the first time. Geodata for natural, artificial, and highly modified bodies of freshwater, along with environmental geospatial datasets, were used to calculate electricity generation, taking into account the positive water-cooling effect. The results revealed that Spain could meet about 31% of its electricity demand by covering only 10% of the available water surface area. Deployment of the country's full floating photovoltaic potential could reduce non-renewable electricity generation by 81% and greenhouse gas emissions by 6%, thereby helping to meet the European Union 2030 target. Spanish regions could benefit from this renewable energy, not only by reducing their dependence on non-renewable resources, but also by balancing their electricity generation and demand. The potential of this renewable energy technology is higher in southern regions and particularly in Extremadura, where the electricity generation potential is three times the electricity demand. A detailed analysis of the floating photovoltaic potential in three dam reservoirs, the Borbollón, La Pedrera and Guadalcacín, is also presented for four coverage scenarios. The results highlight the importance of including water depth restrictions on floating photovoltaic module operation and variations in reservoir water level in future assessments, rather than simply applying a fixed percentage of coverage.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Provided stats on European renewable energy goals -> emphasis on Spain
    • Describe FPV -> highlighted inconvenience of when the water body is dry
    • Advantages of FPV
      • water evaporation reduction
      • algae growth reduction
    • Reviewed synergies b/w FPV and other activities:
      • pumped storage
      • compressed air storage
      • wave energy
      • water heating systems
    • LCOE FPV > GPV -> (50.3 - 96.2) VS (35 - 40) €/MWh
    • Offshore FPV still limited
    • Review of past FPV studies
    • Goal:
      • Assessment of national and regional FPV electricity in Spain
      • Varied coverage ration and tilt angle
  2. Methods
    • Geographical description of Spain and iots water bodies
    • Water bodies selection process -> 3 dam reservoirs human-made
    • Described the specs of a suitable reservoir for FPV deployment
      • Coerage ratio highly influenced by water level
    • Electricity generation calculation equations provided
      • Used Kamuyu model for cell temperature
    • PV Specs
      • mono-cSI
      • Efficiency: 19.3%
      • P: 375W
    • Performace metrics: CF, LCOE, Energy yield, GHG reduction
    • Description of data sources
  3. Results and Discussion
    • 10% coverage of water bodies (unclear if it's all or the selected 3)
      • 80TWh/year
      • 6% GHG emisisons reduction
    • Provided detailed on CF, LCOE, and energy yield for different scenarios
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Mentioned in Intro
    • Water evaporation reduction
    • algae growth reduciton
  • CO2 emisison reduction
    • estimation method -> unknown
    • 6%
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
419.4km² mono-cSi Spain (Various locations) 80TWh/year 19.3%

Assessment of floating solar photovoltaic potential in India’s existing hydropower reservoirs[31][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

The hydropower share of the Indian electrical sector has declined significantly over time, and a greater reliance on the complementation of thermoelectric power plants to meet energy demand. This issue has led to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions, which has exacerbated climate change and altered rainfall regimes in numerous sections of the country, as well as increased potential evapotranspiration. Installing floating solar photovoltaic (FSPV) plants in existing hydropower reservoirs would increase the hydropower share and reduce evaporation losses. FSPV is also assisting the country in meeting the net-zero carbon emission target and India's rapidly rising population's current and future energy needs. Using very accurate water surface data from the country's 117 hydroelectric reservoirs, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the potential of FSPV installations in Indian hydropower reservoirs. In addition to electricity generation, CO2 savings and evaporation savings are calculated. The additional hydropower generated, as well as the number of people who could be able to benefit due to these water savings, are also estimated at reservoir level for four different scenarios considering pontoon type of floating structure. The results show that with total coverage of less than 4% area of hydroelectric reservoirs, existing hydropower plants can double their installed power capacity and increase their electricity output by 52%, producing an additional 66.56 TWh per year. In this case, water savings could total 837 million m3/year, resulting in a 1.566 TWh of additional annual hydroelectricity generation.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Stats on India energy productionresources
      • Descrease of hyfro share in India: 46% -> 12% b/w 1966 - 2022
    • description of water cycles and water resources in India
    • Increase demand of energy due to population => conflict b/w PV deployment agriculture land, and shelter
    • Description of FPV and benefits associated -> synergy with hydro plants
    • Reviewed past FPV studies
    • Goal:
      • FPV development with integration to hydro
  2. Methods
    • Selection criteria -> hydro > 25MW => 117 hydroplants selected (total of 11,1221.97 km²)
    • FPV design
      • poly-cSi
      • 330Wp/module
      • 10° tilt angle
    • Metrics -> equations provided:
      • energy generation
      • PR
      • CO2 reducction -> ue of life cycle emisisons for carbon balance calculation
      • water savings -> Penman-Monteith formula
    • Evaluated additional hydro power production
    • Four scenarios
      • 1% coverage
      • 5% coverage
      • 10% coverage
      • PV_cap = Hydro_cap
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Power: 10.9GW - 109.93GW
    • Energy: 17.458 TWh/year - 174.59 TWh/year
    • Evaporation savings: 237.30 mcm - 2324.55mcm
    • CO2 emissions avoided: 13.68 millions tons/year - 137.14 millions tons /year
    • Additional hydro Capacity: 248.13 GWh - 2432.43 GWh -
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Mentioned in Intro
    • avoid land conflict
    • water evaporaton reduciton
    • algae growth redcution -> water quality improvement
  • Evaporation savings
    • Calculation -> Penman Monteith
    • 237.30 - 2324.55 mcm/year
  • CO2 emisisons avoided
    • Calculated -> carbon balance
    • 13.68 - 137.14 millions tons/year
  • Additional Hydro Capacity
    • Calculated
    • 248.13 - 2432.43 GWh
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
10.9GW 109.93GW poly-cSi India (various locations) 17.458 TWh/year 174.59TWh/year

Thermal and electrical performance of solar floating PV system compared to on-ground PV system-an experimental investigation[32][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Floating Photovoltaic (FPV) is a relatively new concept for producing clean green energy. This study presents the results of an experimental investigation of a small-scale FPV system. The goal is to evaluate and compare the thermal and electrical performances of mono and polycrystalline photovoltaic modules used in FPV with those of On Ground PV (OPV) systems with a similar nominal capacity. To accomplish this, a test bench consisting of an FPV and an OPV system has been established. The results show that when the water body is partially covered with a Floating PV system, water evaporation is reduced by 17%. And it is reduced by around 28% when fully covered. It was also found that water bodies provide an adequate cooling effect. Lowering the front temperature of Floating PV modules by 2–4% and the back temperature by 5–11% compared to similar On-ground PV modules. Thermal imaging revealed that at 0 degrees of tilt, the front temperatures of the modules are uniform. Still, as the tilt increases, a temperature gradient is observed between the bottom and middle parts of the modules. In addition, an experimental test was performed to compare the power generation of Floating PV at varying tilt angles. The test results show that the Floating PV system produces the most energy when installed at the annual optimal tilt angle. As a result, for FPV, adjusting the Photovoltaic panels to their optimized tilt angle is also recommended. While Floating PV system produces 20–28% more energy than the on-ground PV system at 0°as compared to the optimal tilt angle.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • PV systems -> high land to energy ratio -> 10,000 m²/MW
    • Reviewed FPV studies + benefits
      • algae growth reduction -> water quality improvement
      • water evaporation reduction
      • higher efficiency
      • low contribution to global warming
    • Compared FPV to GPV
    • Evaporation redcution depends on water surface coverage
    • Hghlights challenges of FPV systems
    • Goal:
      • Propose a test-bench for FPV
      • Evaporation, gunidity, and thermal analysis
      • mono and poly - cSi
  2. Methods
    • Arduino logger for data collection on pond simulator
    • Test bench and targets described
    • mono and poly PV used
    • Data collected: metrological parameters (ambient temperature, relative humidity, water temperature), electrical parameters (current, voltage, and power), PV module temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, ambient temperature, and relative humidity
    • Different tilt angles tested; Different pond coverage tested
    • PVC water basin used as pond simulator
    • Measuring station components lists provided
    • Thermal imaging for hotspots
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Evaporation reduction
      • Initial water qty -> 2605.754 litres
      • Evaporation no cover -> 199.1 litres (base case)
      • evaporation partial coverage: 168 litres (17% savings)
      • evaporation full coverage: 150 litres (28% savings)
    • Reported weather data
    • Provided data on PV temperature and thermal behaviour
      • heat loss coefficient of FPV -> 22W/m²K
    • Power conversion evaluated
      • 8% - 35.9% more enegry compared to GPV depending on tilt angle
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Mentioned in Intro
    • CO2 emisisons reduction
    • algae growth reduction -> water quality improvement
    • water evaporation reduction
  • Water evaporation reduction
    • Measured experimentally
    • 17 - 28% reduction
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
80W mono/poly - cSi Pakistan

Floating solar photovoltaic as virtual battery for reservoir based hydroelectric dams: A solar-hydro nexus for technological transition[33][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

This paper presents a policy approach for the technological transition from hydropower to green energy in developing countries. Conventional electricity generation technologies have proven to be a burden on the economy of a country, as they have to depend on fossil fuels to meet their energy needs, such as diesel and gasoline. Pakistan has been taken as a case study to show the growing electricity demand of a developing country that implores major technological initiation. This serves as the assessment of suitability and resource regarding the installation of floating solar photovoltaic (FSPV) on reservoirs of hydroelectric dams, thus acting as a virtual battery. Generation from FSPV can complement the hydropower generation in the dry period, consequently meeting the peak demand. In real-time, by employing both technologies at the same substation, hydropower covers the intermittency issues of floating PV technology by improving power quality. Seven dams selected for this study have been analyzed based on their percentage surface area of the reservoir for electricity generation, water conservation, and emission reduction. Tarbela dam has been further analyzed for demonstrating the virtual battery effect by improving the electricity generation profile. The proposed approach meets the electricity needs of about 15.5% of the total population and serves the water need of 2.3 million people in the country.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Fill in ...
    • Goal: ...
  2. Methods
    • Fill in ...
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Fill in ...
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Review Paper
  • NOT INCLUDED IN REVIEW
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency

Adoption of floating solar photovoltaics on waste water management system: a unique nexus of water-energy utilization, low-cost clean energy generation and water conservation[34][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Scarcity of land coupled with rising land price is detrimental in developing large-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) power plants. A practical alternative is to develop floating solar photovoltaic (FSPV) systems, where the PV modules are floated on water. Technical assessment and feasibility study of FSPV systems are not well addressed. This paper presents the adoption of FSPV system on waste water treatment systems as large water surfaces are available. An experiment was performed to determine the performance of FSPV system in outdoor conditions, and it revealed that the FSPV module performed with 9.84% higher efficiency than land-based PV (LBPV) module. A feasibility study and techno-economic analysis of 15 MW FSPV system are presented and compared with a similar LBPV system. Results show that the FSPV plant will supply 26,465.7 MWh of energy annually to the grid and operate with performance ratio (PR) of 86.7%. The FSPV system will also save 7,884,000 m3 of water by reducing evaporation and the reduction in CO2 emission will be 518,943.4 tCO2. Financial analysis of the FSPV system reveals that the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) is 0.047 $/kWh which is 7.84% lower than LBPV system. Comparison of the FSPV system and a similar LBPV system reveals that the social and economic performance of the FSPV system is better than the LBPV system. The results will help the policymakers in making conversant decisions toward developing FSPV projects and also help wastewater plants to shift toward sustainable practices.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Reviewed GPV studies and ideal installation conditions -> highlighted limitations
      • high land prices hinders PV deployment
    • Highlights FPV adavantages
      • performance improvement
      • evaporation reduction
      • algae bloom control
    • Reviewed waste water treatments
    • Discusses energy policy in India
    • Goal:
      • Compare FPV performance to GPV
      • Case study -> 15MW FPV on Kolkata wetlands
  2. Methods
    • Explained PV energy modeling + performance metrics
    • Environmental performance with equation provided
    • water evaporation -> Penman-Monteith
    • Economic performance -> LCOE
    • Explained power scenario in India
    • Used small-scale experimental data
      • PV power -> 100W
      • Efficiency -> 14.72%
    • Sites election explained
    • Explained load calculations and electrical design procedure
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Provided data on both FPV and GPV
      • Size 15MW
      • Lifetime -> 25 years
      • Energy FPV -> 26.47 TWh/year
      • Energy GPV -> 14.12 TWh/year
    • Water saving FPV -> 315,360 m³/year
    • Co2 emisisons reduciton
      • FPV -> 24,772 tCO2/year
      • GPV -> 22,665 tCO2/year
    • Economic analysis results explained
    • Policy recommenrs
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Mentione in Intro
    • evaporation reduction
    • algae bloom control
  • Water evaporation reduction
    • calculated -> Penman Monteith
    • 315,360 m³/year
  • CO2 emissions reduction
    • calculated
    • 24,722 tCO2eq/year
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
15MW poly-cSi Kolkata 25 26.47 TWh/year 14.72%

Energy production and water savings from floating solar photovoltaics on global reservoirs[35][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Growing global energy use and the adoption of sustainability goals to limit carbon emissions from fossil fuel burning are increasing the demand for clean energy, including solar. Floating photovoltaic (FPV) systems on reservoirs are advantageous over traditional ground-mounted solar systems in terms of land conservation, efficiency improvement and water loss reduction. Here, based on multiple reservoir databases and a realistic climate-driven photovoltaic system simulation, we estimate the practical potential electricity generation for FPV systems with a 30% coverage on 114,555 global reservoirs is 9,434 ± 29 TWh yr−1. Considering the proximity of most reservoirs to population centres and the potential to develop dedicated local power systems, we find that 6,256 communities and/or cities in 124 countries, including 154 metropolises, could be self-sufficient with local FPV plants. Also beneficial to FPV worldwide is that the reduced annual evaporation could conserve 106 ± 1 km3 of water. Our analysis points to the huge potential of FPV systems on reservoirs, but additional studies are needed to assess the potential long-term consequences of large systems.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Emphasized the need of renewables to curb global warming
    • Highlighted the drawbacks of GPV
      • Large area rewuirement => land conflict
      • routine cleaning => high water requirement
      • heat-induced voltage losses in warmer climates
    • FPV advantages
      • close to dwellings
      • no land use
      • cooling effect
      • evaporation reduction
    • Provided stats on FPV; 1.3GWp in 2018; 4.8 GW expected 2016
    • Reviewed pass location-based FPV studies => no study looked at FPV globally
    • Goal:
      • assess potential of FPV globally under realistic climate conditions
      • energy generation perspective + water conservation perspective
  2. Methods
    • FPV coverage -> 30%
    • Number of water bodies -> 114,555 -> total area: 556,111 km²
    • Water bodies > 0.01 km²
    • Data base used for water bodies
      • GRanD
      • GeoDar
      • OSM
    • PV systems <= 30 km²
    • Environemental database:
      • SYN1deg
      • ERA5-Land
      • data from 2001 - 2020
    • PV performance model -> PV_LIB, Sandia National Lab
    • Evaporation model -> Penma Monteith
  3. Results and Discussion
    • FPV Potential globally:
      • Range: 4,300 - 11,000 TWh/year
      • Mean values -> 9,434 ± 29TWh
    • Some developing countries -> FPV Potential > current electricity demands
    • Evaporation reduction:
      • 46 ± 3% per reservoir
      • qty worldwide -> 106 ± 1 km³/year
    • Hydropower generation improvement -> 3,992 ± 13 TWh/year
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ..

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Mentioned in Intro
    • land use reduction
    • evaporation reducion
  • Evaporation reduction
    • calculated -> Penman Monteith
    • 105 - 107 km³/year (43 - 49% /reservoir)
  • Hydropower generation improvement
    • Quantification method -> unknown
    • 3,992 ± 13 TWh/year
  • Land occupation reduction
    • not quantified
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
556,111 km² Panasonic VBHN 235SA06B Worldwide 4,300 TWh/year 11,000 TWh/year

Benefits of pairing floating solar photovoltaics with hydropower reservoirs in Europe[36][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Achieving carbon-neutrality is increasing the demand of renewable electricity which is raising the competition for land and associated acquisition costs. Installation of floating photovoltaic (FPV) on existing hydropower reservoirs offers one solution to limited land availability while providing solar electricity, leveraging water bodies, and reducing water evaporation losses. This work assesses the potential electricity output of FPVs at regional and national levels on 337 hydropower reservoirs in the EU27 considering four scenarios and two types of floaters. Evaporation, water losses and water savings due to FPVs installation are also estimated using climatic parameters for the year 2018. The reservoirs' total water losses are estimated at 9380 mcm. The installation of FPVs of equal installed capacity as the hydropower plants, has the potential to generate 42.31 TWh covering 2.3% of the total reservoir area. In this case, up to 557 mcm could be saved by installing FPV. The FPVs' multiple benefits and the potential offered by existing hydropower reservoirs are compatible with the EU's goals for net zero emissions and more autonomy from imported fossil fuels and energy transformation.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Reviewed international stats on climate change goals and location-based FPV studies
    • FPV advantages
      • cooling effect
      • land occupation reduction + reduction of associated costs
      • hydropower generation improvement
    • Described FPV potential in Europe
    • Goal:
      • estimate electricity outputfrom FPV in EU 27 hydropower reservoirs + water savings
      • Use of 2 different type of floating structure
      • Regional and national scale
  2. Methods
    • Databases:
      • JRC Database for hydro. Criteria >= 5MW -> 1433 plants
      • Reservoirs -> GRanD. Criteria: outside Natura 2000; mus have Hydro => 337
      • Global surface Water Dataset (GSW)
      • EMO-5
    • Scenarios
      • coverage: 1%, 10%, and 100%
      • capacity PV = Capacity Hydro
    • Software:
      • PVGIS
      • LISVAP + LISFLOOD model -> water evap
    • PV
      • cSi
      • efficiency -> 20%
    • Config
      • horizontal modules
      • Optimal tilt, south facing
      • 10° tilt, south facing
  3. Results and Discussion
    • FPV potential -> 13.5TWh - 1629.3TWh
    • FPV power: 30 - 16087 GW
    • Water savings -> 457 mcm - 9381 mcm
    • Cost comparison performed
    • Highlights limitation of FPVS
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • FPV advantages
    • land occupation reduction + reduction of associated costs
    • hydropower generation improvement
  • Water evaporation reduciton
    • estimated
    • 457 mcm - 9381 mcm/year
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
30 GW 16,087 GW cSi Eu27 13.5TWh/year 1629.3 Twh/year 20%

Benefits of pairing floating solar photovoltaics with hydropower reservoirs in Europe[37][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Achieving carbon-neutrality is increasing the demand of renewable electricity which is raising the competition for land and associated acquisition costs. Installation of floating photovoltaic (FPV) on existing hydropower reservoirs offers one solution to limited land availability while providing solar electricity, leveraging water bodies, and reducing water evaporation losses. This work assesses the potential electricity output of FPVs at regional and national levels on 337 hydropower reservoirs in the EU27 considering four scenarios and two types of floaters. Evaporation, water losses and water savings due to FPVs installation are also estimated using climatic parameters for the year 2018. The reservoirs' total water losses are estimated at 9380 mcm. The installation of FPVs of equal installed capacity as the hydropower plants, has the potential to generate 42.31 TWh covering 2.3% of the total reservoir area. In this case, up to 557 mcm could be saved by installing FPV. The FPVs' multiple benefits and the potential offered by existing hydropower reservoirs are compatible with the EU's goals for net zero emissions and more autonomy from imported fossil fuels and energy transformation.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Fill in ...
    • Goal: ...
  2. Methods
    • Fill in ...
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Fill in ...
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • ALREADY REVIEWED
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency

A sound potential against energy dependency and climate change challenges: Floating photovoltaics on water reservoirs of Turkey[38][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Energy security and climate change are among the top priority challenges for Turkey. High dependency on imported resources jeopardizes the economy, especially with high currency rate and conflicts in neighboring countries from where Turkey imports its energy. Besides, Turkey has already started to experience the impacts of climate change such as increasing temperature along with drought. Floating photovoltaics have proven themselves to be quite efficient in energy production, with evaporation reduction as a positive externality. The purpose of this article is to reveal the possible capacity of floating photovoltaics on constructed water reservoirs of Turkey and draw policy perspectives against existing or anticipated challenges. A total of 4,003 reservoirs were analyzed based on different water surface coverage scenarios. The results of the study proposed 125 TWh electricity generation, slightly above 40% of the nation-wide electricity demand, when 10% of suitable reservoirs were covered. This generation would be highly instrumental in reducing energy dependency and substituting renewables for conventional resource uses. Avoided CO2, thanks to this substitution, was calculated to be 77.1 Mton equivalent. This would obviously be favorable in light of the carbon emission reduction policy of the country and Paris Agreement requirements. Moreover, 1,242.1 hm3 freshwater was assessed to save resources from evaporation loss, which would help to mitigate the climate change pressure on water resources.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • FPV growth rate -> 140% annually worldwide / 2.2GW total in 2019
    • FPV advantages
      • CO2 emisisons reduction
      • water evaporation reduction
      • higher energy efficiency
      • algae growth reduction
      • quick installation
      • synergy with hydro infrastructures
      • possibl erosion prevention
      • transmisison and distribution cost curbing
    • Reviewed studies mentioning each benefit
    • Overviwe of location-based FPV studies => no universally accepted method or regulation for determining country-wide FPV potential
    • Goal:
      • propose model of a functional FPV country-wide
      • Case study -> Turkey
  2. Methods
    • Description of Turkey's geography + energy resources
    • DEscription of legislation and technicla aspects of FPV in Turkey
    • Reservoirs selection criteria explained => 2,755 reservoirs ->
    • Energy generation calculation equations provided
    • Water cooling effect considered -> 15% more power generation
    • Evaporation calculation equation provided
    • CO2 emissions calculation equation shown
    • 6 Scnerarios: 5% - 30% coverage in 5% increment
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Results summarized in Table 3
    • Power -> 34.2 GW - 209.6 GW
    • Energy -> 61,522.5 GWh - 377,239.1 GWh
    • Water Savings -> 621.1 hm³ - 3,591.8 hm³
    • Co2 emissions avoided -> 38.1 Mton - 233.8 Mton
    • Periodicity not specified -> annual considered
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Mentioned in Intro
    • CO2 emisisons reduction
    • water evaporation reduction
    • algae growth reduction
    • synergy with hydro infrastructures
    • possibl erosion prevention
    • transmisison and distribution cost curbing
  • Co2 emissions reduction
    • calculated
    • 38.1Mton/year - 233.8Mton/yesr
  • Water savings
    • calculated
    • 621.1 hm³ - 3,591.8 hm³/year
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
34.2 GW 209.6 GW Turkey - countrywide 62,522 GWh/year 377,239.1 GWh

Reliability of Emergency Water Supply for a Reservoir and Enhancement through Floating Photovoltaics in a Long-Distance Water Diversion Project[39][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

An emergency water supply is occasionally necessary for a reservoir; its reliability should be investigated. The operation schemes of reservoirs mainly consider the long-term normal water supply; the emergency water supply has been less studied. Floating photovoltaics (FPVs) can be set on the open canals of water diversion projects (WDPs) to decrease evaporation loss and save water for the emergency water supply for connected reservoirs, the effects of which must be quantified. Thus, a framework of reliability for the emergency water supply of a reservoir (REWS) is proposed in this study, including stochastic simulation of reservoir operation schemes, a set of objectives for an emergency water supply, and quantification of the REWS. The Danjiangkou reservoir (DR) is considered as a case study; it is the water source of the Han River and middle route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (MRSNWDP). The effects of FPV coverage above the MRSNWDP on water evaporation and the REWS have been reported. The results show that the REWSs are 37.6%, 45.5%, and 56.5%, respectively, for the average, 75% probability, and 95% probability water diversion schemes of the MRSNWDP. After setting the FPV system, the annual evaporation of the MRSNWDP was reduced to 1.15×10^7m³ (−74.7%), increasing the REWS to 49.6% (+12.0%), 53.4% (+7.9%), and 61.3% (+4.8%) for the average, 75% probability, and 95% probability water diversion schemes of the MRSNWDP, respectively. The REWS framework is useful for reservoir operation and water resource planning. FPV coverage is suggested for WDPs with open canals.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Benefits of reservoirs on rivers
      • power generation
      • flood control
      • navigation
      • waters supply
    • Review of optimization method for optimal reservoir operations
    • Increase need of emergy water supply in large reservoirs -> specific case of Danjiangkou
    • Definition of reliability of emergency water supply (REWS) of a reservoir
    • Water diverison projects decrease REWS of a reservoir
    • Review of FPV studies
    • Goal:
      • Use of FPV system for evaporation reduction
  2. Methods
    • Description of REWS framework
    • Method for evaporation calculation -> Penman-Monteith
      • open canal
      • FPV-covered
    • Danjiangkou reservoirs specs provided
    • Description of optimizaiton objectives
  3. Results and Discussion
    • FPV provided evaporation reduction of 74.7% -> 45.74 millions m³ saved annualy
    • water surface coverage unknown
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Used FPV as a dedicated water evaporation prevention tool
  • Water evaporation reduction
    • calculated -> Penman-Monteith
    • 74.7% (45.74 million m³/year)
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
China

Floating photovoltaics systems on water irrigation ponds: Technical potential and multi-benefits analysis[40][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Floating photovoltaic systems (FPV) can be a more sustainable alternative for the energy transition than ground-mounted photovoltaic systems, as they avoid occupying useable land and the power generation is more distributed. This paper presents the first study that calculates the FPV technical potential at the province/municipality level, focusing on water irrigation ponds, which it is a novelty in the literature that usually focuses on large water infrastructures in a national approach. In the province of Jaén (Spain), more than 3000 ponds dedicated to agricultural irrigation have been identified and their surface area and location was obtained. The results, calculated for each pond, reveal that, in a conservative scenario, in which only 25% of their surface area is covered, a minimum of 490 MWp can be installed, which can provide 251% of the province agricultural electricity consumption and 27% of the total electricity needs. This analysis has also been performed at the municipal level, where all possible FPV plants have been aggregated and compared with consumption that would be covered at this scale. Furthermore, this technology brings additional benefits, as it avoids the occupation of 12 km2 of useable land, 8.8·106 m3/year of water evaporated, while creating more than 7000 jobs.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Mentioned the necessity other aspects in energy planning other than techno-econo
    • Land-use conflicts hinders GPV deployment -> specifoc case of Spain
    • Possible solution -> FPV
    • FPV advantages
      • cost-sompetitive
      • absenc eof land aquisition cost
      • watyer evaporation reduciton
      • algae growth reduciton
      • higher yield VS GPV
      • climate change and stratification mitigation for waterbodies
    • Reviewed past studies in FPV
    • Goal:
      • Focused on FPV on irrigation ponds
      • multi-benefit estimation -> land occupation - electrcity demand matching - CO2 emissions reductions - evaporation reducitons - job creation
      • Province of Jaén - Spain
  2. Methods
    • Context of the Jaén province
      • Energy resources and usage
      • Irrigation ponds data
      • Artificial water bodies considered <=> avoding conflict with wildlife and fishing
    • Electrical performance simulation
      • tilt 5°
      • metric -> energy yield
      • Software -> SAM
    • Scenarios: 100% coverage; 50%, and 25%
    • CO2, land, jobs, and evaporation -> calculated by estimation
  3. Results and Discussion
    • 3177 ponds identified -> 16km² total
    • PV Size: 490MWp - 2.1 GWp
    • Energy -. 729GWh/year - 3142 GWh/year
    • FPV energy > (27.16% - 116.11%) of energy needs in the province
    • Land savings -> 12.13 km² - 54.48 km²
    • Avoided CO2 -> 0.29 - 1.14 MtCO2eq/year
    • Evaporation reduciton -> 8.81 - 35.23 m³/year
    • Joobs created -> 370 - 1480 (only jobs in O&M considered)
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Mentioned Intro
    • absence of land aquisition cost
    • water evaporation reduciton
    • algae growth reduciton
    • climate change and stratification mitigation for waterbodies
  • Land Savings
    • estimated
    • 12.13 km² - 54.48 km²
  • Avoided CO2
    • estimated
    • 0.29 - 1.14 MtCO2eq/year
  • Evaporation reduction
    • estimated
    • 0.29 - 1.14 MtCO2eq/year
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
0.49 GWp 2.1 GWp Jaén - Spain 729 GWh/year 3142 GWh/year

System dynamics characterisation and synthesis of floating photovoltaics in terms of energy, environmental and economic parameters with WELF nexus sustainability features[41][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

The invention of floatovoltaic technologies brought new meaning to the theoretical framing of sustainability as the technology delivers extended natural resource conservation benefits. However, planning assessments for this novel sustainable energy technology exposed knowledge gaps jeopardising global financial investments and regulatory approvals. Knowledge and methodological gaps cause inaccurate performance predictions in current geospatial-engineering modelling tools and fail to adequately quantify the diverse range of layered performance qualities and impacts of floating photovoltaics. This paper advances a geo-sensitive system dynamics framework to systemically integrate the energy, environmental and economic domain object functions in characterising the behaviour and sustainability of floating photovoltaic systems theoretically. The framework serves as computer logic in a geospatial digital twin to synthesise floatovoltaic operations to predict the technology’s sustainability impact and offset attributes in balanced scorecard metrics and water–energy–land–food nexus indicators. Experimental evaluations with the proposed framework in a real-world setting demonstrate the value of the holistically integrated framework in analytical floatovoltaic project appraisal and planning support. The results highlight significant advantages when comparing a 1000 m2 floatovoltaic system with a similar-sized conventional photovoltaic alternative, including a 19.3% lifetime energy gain, a carbon emission displacement of CO2e=5168t and a freshwater evaporation benefit of 983 kL. Predictive energy, environmental and economic modelling also offers water–energy–land–food–resource analysis parameters, thus delivering multi-attribute performance profiles that solve many of the current problems with the “technology unknowns” of floatovoltaics that impede energy project commissioning and licensing approvals.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • FPV advantages VS GPV
      • more CO2 savings
      • higher efficiency
      • land conservation
      • resource preservation -> water evaporation mitigation
    • No tool exisitng to design FPV and quantify benefits => confusion in stakeholders
    • need to develop such tools
    • Review of past studies -> design are site specific
    • Goal:
      • introduce new experimental theory and computer logic to quantify and profile FPV sustainability, eprformance and benefits in water-food-energy nexus
  2. Methods
    • Proposed new framework with technical - economical - environmental design
    • Case Study - South Africa
  3. Results and Discussion
    • FPV energy 246.37 GWh over 20 years
    • FPV generated 19.3% > energy than FPV
    • CO2 savings => Carbon tax income ZAR 969,000 / 5.1 ktons CO2 / 2.55tCO2/year
    • farmland preserved -> 1283 m²
    • Water preservation -> 1,320,000 litres -> 66,000 litres/year
    • Energy generation -> 116 MWh/year
    • Food preservation -> 2.1 tons/year
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • CO2 savings
    • estimated using framework
    • 2.55tCO2/year
  • Farland preserved
    • estimated using framework
    • 1283 m²
  • water preservation
    • estimated using framework
    • 66,000 litres/year
  • food preservation
    • estimated using framework
    • 2.1 tons/year
  • VERY USEFUL IN DISCUSSION - READ AGAIN WHEN WRITING
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
South Africa 20 years 116MWh/year

Energy economics and environmental assessment of hybrid hydel-floating solar photovoltaic systems for cost-effective low-carbon clean energy generation[42][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

The simultaneous escalation in energy consumption and greenhouse gases in the environment drives power generation to pursue a more sustainable path. Solar photovoltaic is one of the technologies identified as a possible source of clean, green, and affordable energy in the future. The vast land area occupied by solar photovoltaics to generate electricity suggests that large photovoltaic facilities be built on the water surface, serving the dual purpose of saving land, increasing efficiency and power output. Despite the remarkable geophysical conditions of India, the evaluation of floating solar photovoltaic power plants revealed little involvement in this technology. This research aims to offer a comprehensive technical and sustainable goal-based analysis to provide an efficient hybrid hydel-floating solar photovoltaic system. In this paper, an assessment of a 96 megawatt power plant is done to show the economic and ecological benefits of a floating solar photovoltaic system. A comparison of land-based photovoltaic, floating solar photovoltaic, and hybrid hydel-floating solar photovoltaic is done to check the cost-efficiency and sustainability. The result indicates that the floating solar photovoltaics system produces 81.39 gigawatt-hour excess generation with 2.4% more energy yield compared to the land-based photovoltaic system. The total water saved is 69.4 mcm. The equivalent carbon reduction is 123,454.53 tons of CO2. The levelized cost of energy generation is 3.23 $/W, which is 2.3% less than the current price of electricity. The floating solar photovoltaic help in achieving sustainable development goals along with the protection of the ecological system.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Fossil fuels -> 80% global energy sources, 2019
    • China and India -> major CO2 emissions contributors, 2022
      • 10,668 metric tons -> China
      • 2,442 metric tons -> India
    • Stats on glabal energy consumption
    • Describe solar PV resource in India
    • Reviewed past PV studies => highlighted PV Vs Land conflict
    • Reviewed FPV / FPV + Hydro studies
    • Described India SDG commitment and goals
    • Goal:
      • discusses economic, environmental aspects of installing hydel-FPV hybrid plant in India
      • Performance / economic ferasibility / water savings / CO2 savings / water qualiy
  2. Methods
    • Theory on solar cell PV conversion -> PV energy yield calculation
    • Hydropower generation calculation
    • Explained coordination b/w PV and hydel
    • Economic analysis method explained
      • LCOE used as metric
      • Lifetime -> 25 years
    • Evaporation modeling -> Penman-Monteith
    • Carbon reduction calculation method -> equation provided
    • India power sector overview
    • Site selection
      • Maithon dam reservoir
      • Total area 65 km²
      • Hydel power: 63.5MW -> 2x20 + 23.5
    • FPV
      • Power -> 96 MW
      • coverage -> 1.14%
      • Software -> SAM
      • Module Tech -> Vikram Solar SOMERA VSMH7540005 (maybe mono-cSi)
      • Module efficiency -> 20.01%
      • Inverter efficiency -> 98.4%
    • Ecocomics
      • cost of pontoons ->$0.14/W ->ref provided
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Annual energy -> 150.64 GWh
    • LCOE -> 3.23¢/kWh
    • Water savings -> 1650 litres/m²
    • CO2 savings -> 4938.18 tCO2/year
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Mentioned in Intro
    • water evaporation prevention
  • Water savings
    • calculated -> Penman-Monteith
    • 1650 litres/m²/year
  • CO2 savings
    • calculated
    • 4938.18 tCo2/year
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency Comments
0.741 km² mono-cSi Jharkhand, India 25 year 150.64GWh/year 19.69% Efficiency is product of PV and invertr efficiencies

Assessment of the Potential of Installing Floating Photovoltaic Systems in Existing Water Reservoirs in Greece[43][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Floating photovoltaics consists of a new and fast-growing technology worldwide. Installations of these novel green energy systems have not been developed so far in Greece. The aim of the current work is to investigate the potential of installing floating photovoltaic systems in Greek water bodies. The existing water reservoirs in Greece have been identified while their water surface that allows the installation of solar panels, the nominal power of the floating photovoltaics and the generated solar electricity have been estimated. The nominal power of floating photovoltaics which can be installed in the existing 128 water reservoirs in Greece covering 10% to 30% of their surface varies between 4.77 GWp to 14.31 GWp while the annual generated electricity at 6,435.2 GWh to 19,305.6 GWh corresponding at 12.40% to 37.20% of the total annual electricity consumption in the country. The annual water evaporation savings, due to installation of floating photovoltaics, have been calculated at 71.55 mil. M3 to 214.65 mil. M3 while the increased annual electricity gain at 321.76 GWh to 1,930.56 GWh. The results indicate that significant amounts of electricity can be generated with floating photovoltaics installed in water reservoirs in Greece. They could be useful to policy makers who are developing policies to achieve net zero carbon emissions by 2050 in Greece and to energy companies who are willing to invest in these novel green energy technologies.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Overview of FPV systems
      • More expensive than GPV
    • Reviewed past FPV studies
    • FPV benefits
      • reduce land conflicts
      • water savings
      • higher yield
      • Additional hydro generation
    • Goal:
      • estimaton of FPV potential estimation in Greece
  2. Methods
    • Description of Greek water reservoirs
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Energy generation: 6.435 - 19.305 TWh/year
    • Land savings -> 57.19 - 171.58 km²
    • evaporation savings -> 71.55 - 214.65 millions m³/year
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Mentioned in Intro
    • reduce land conflicts
    • water savings
    • Additional hydro generation
  • Land savings
    • Estimation methods -> unknown
    • 57.19 - 171.58 km²
  • evaporation savings
    • estimation method unknown
    • 71.55 - 214.65 millions m³/year
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
4.77 GWp 14.31GWp Greece 6,435.2 GWh/year 19,305.6 GWh/year

Integration of Floating Solar Photovoltaic Systems with Hydropower Plants in Greece[44][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Floating solar photovoltaics in water bodies is a novel clean energy technology which has been developed rapidly during the last decade. The current work investigates the possibility and the potential of installing floating photovoltaic systems in the existing hydropower plants in Greece. Studies related with the use of floating photovoltaics in water reservoirs in Greece are limited so far. The characteristics of the existing 24 hydropower plants in Greece have been used for the estimation of the solar photovoltaic systems which can be installed in their water reservoirs. It has been found that the nominal power of these solar energy systems which can be installed in their water reservoirs, covering 10% of their water surface, is at 3,861 MWp while the annual generated electricity at 5,212.35 GWh corresponding at 10.04 % of the annual electricity demand in the country. The capacity factor of the integrated solar and hydro power systems is increased by more than 20%. The research indicates that the existing hydropower plants in Greece can host, in their water dams, floating photovoltaic systems generating significant amounts of green electricity while they also result in many environmental benefits. These novel solar energy systems can contribute, together with other benign energy technologies, in the achievement of the national and EU target for net zero carbon emissions by 2050.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Not much study on FPV in Greece
    • Reviewed Hydel-FPV studies
    • FPV benefits
      • land and water conservation
      • Energy imbalance reduction
      • Additinal hydro generation
    • Reviewed FPV and climate change in Greece
    • Goal:
      • estimate FPV potential on Greek hydel plant
  2. Methods
    • Description of eisiting hydel plant in Greece
      • qty -> 24
      • Power: b/w 1MW and 400 MW -> Total: 3.365 GW
      • Total volume -> 386.19 km²
    • FPV
      • Coverage -> 10%
      • Power -> 3.861 GWp
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Energy generation -> 5.212 TWh/year
    • Land savings -> 46.34 km²
    • Water savings -> 57.91 millions m³/year
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Mentined in Intro
    • land conservation
    • water conservation
    • Energy imbalance reduction
    • Additinal hydro generation
  • Land savings
    • Estimation methods -> unknown
    • 46.34 km²
  • evaporation savings
    • estimation method unknown
    • 57.91 millions m³/year
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
3.861 GWp Greece 5,212.35 GWh/year

[Link Title][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Fill in ...
    • Goal: ...
  2. Methods
    • Fill in ...
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Fill in ...
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency

Agrivoltaics[edit | edit source]

[Link Title][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Fill in ...
    • Goal: ...
  2. Methods
    • Fill in ...
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Fill in ...
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

A Case Study of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicon var. Legend) Production and Water Productivity in Agrivoltaic Systems[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: MDPI; Publication: Sustainability; Year: 2021; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: Fixed tilt, south facing; Location: Corvallis, OR, USA; PV Power: 482kW; Energy: ; Efficiency:
  • Water Productivity
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: N/A
    • Unit: kg/m3
    • Quantification Method: Calculated
    • Implication analyzed: Yes
    • Comments: N/A
  • Introduction
    • Solar installations are on the rise - 104% rise in 2018; this may cause land use conflict
    • Agrivoltaics can solve this problem - increase land procuctivity by 60-70% instead
    • Various studies suggested different impacts on agrivoltaics on solar radiation, crop yield, relative humidity, temperature, soil moisture, water consumption etc.
    • Goal: The implications of agrivoltaic system on tomato production and water productivity
  • Methods
    • Location: Corvallis, OR, USA
    • East-west oriented; South-oriented; Tilt: 18 degrees; 0.8m above ground from the lowest height and 2.2m from highest
    • Installed capacity: 482 kW
    • Three different configurations studied; tomatoes grown on 1) control plots, 2) in between rows of PVs and 3) underneath PVs
    • Two different irrigation regimes used - full (watering started when the soil water content (SWC) reached 75% of total available capcity) and deficit (watering started when the soil water contennt reached 40% of total available capacity)
    • Inter-row spacing: 3m
    • Soil mositure sensors, installed 0.15m below the ground, were used to control irrigation
    • Water productivity is the amount of water applied to the crops during a season
    • Dry biomass measurements of tomatoes were performed to compare the yields for different configurations
  • Results and Discussion
    • Distribution Uniformity: 09 treatments below 70% and 04 above 70%; variation due to defects in emitters and tubing
    • Uniformity Coefficient: between 70% and 99.5%
    • Microclimate changes - air temperature, soil temperature and relative humidity was different barring a few configurations; mean volumetric water content was different for all configurations
    • Evapotranspiration: higher in control area than row plot area
    • The two rows for each configuration also showed different results; northern row (named a) showed higher yield, water demand and water use productivity as compared to southern row (named b)
    • Total yield:
      • Control: fully irrigated a, b (47,160 kg/ha, 36,340 kg/ha), and deficit a, b (38,690 kg/ha, 36,440 kg/ha);
      • In-between-the-rows: fully irrigated a, b (29,000 kg/ha, 19,000 kg/ha) and deficit a, b (30,000 kg/ha, 20,000 kg/ha)
      • Underneath the panels: fully irrigated a, b (19,500 kg/ha, 12,000 kg/ha) and deficit a, b (26,000 kg/ha, 22,000 kg/ha)
    • Water Treatment
      • Control: full a and b, deficit a and b, (3.15 m3, 2.94 m3, 2.02 m3, and 1.82 m3)
      • In-between-the-rows: full a and b, deficit a and b, (1.50 m3, 1.40 m3, 0.59 m3, and 0.72 m3)
      • Underneath the panels: full a and b, deficit a and b, (1.55 m3, 1.28 m3, 0.65 m3, and 0.70 m3)
    • Water productivity
      • More in panel full and deficit, and row full and deficit compared to other configurations
      • Control: full a and b, deficit a and b, ( 22 kg/m3, 33 kg/m3, 35 kg/m3, and 39 kg/m3)
      • In-between-the-rows: full a and b, deficit a and b, (40 kg/m3, 25 kg/m3, 93.11 kg/m3, and 48 kg/m3)
      • Underneath the panels: full a and b, deficit a and b, ( 23 kg/m3, 18 kg/m3, 68.90 kg/m3, and 60.31kg/m3)
      • Shading leads to additional water productivity
  • Results and Discussion
    • Water scarce areas can benefit from agrivoltaics as water requirements diminish
    • Economic anlaysis needs to be carried out to ascertain viability
    • Water productivity may further improve if distribution is more uniform
    • Air temperature found highest in control and row configuraiton and lowest underneath the panels
    • Relative humidity found highest in the row followed by control and underneath the panels
    • Soil temperatuer decreased with increased shading
    • Crop yield was highest in control followed by row and then panel - reduced with increased shading
    • Water productivity highest in shading and deficit irrigation schemes

A Cost–Benefit Analysis for Utility-Scale Agrivoltaic Implementation in Italy[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: MDPI; Publication: Energies; Year: 2023; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: ; Location: Italy; PV Power: 1MW; Energy: ; Efficiency:
  • Cost Benefit Anlaysis
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: N/A
    • Unit: N/A
    • Quantification Method: Calculated
    • Implication analyzed: N/A
    • Comments: N/A
  • Introduction
    • One major issue with solar PV - low power-density energy source; hence large area requirements
    • This causes land-use competition; apprehensions for agricultural use
    • Goal: Carry out a cost-benefit analsysis to ascertain if agrivoltaic (AV) plant will be beneficial over ground-mounted PV (GMPV) in Italy
  • Methods
    • Price-performance Ratio (ppr): Evaltes cost-effectiveness of the agrivoltaic's electricity production by comparing the benefits gained throughout its entire operational lifespan; considers the initial capital and ongoing operational expenses, as well as the revenue generated from agricultural activities
    • LCOE: Ratio of the cost for a PV plant and the electrical energy generated in its entir life span
    • Performance Benefit: Yearly revenue acquired from preserving the land through agrivoltaics installation for cropping activity w.r.t the yearly revenue generated from cropping activity compliant with GMPV
    • Net Present Value: Sum of present value of one-yearly cash flows
  • Results & Discussion
    • Occupied area for AV = 2.5 ha; power density for AV = 40 W/m2; Occupied area for GMP = 1.25 ha; power density for GMPV = 80 W/m2
    • Regions with crops Durum Wheat, Common Wheat, Corn, Sunflower, Soybean, and Potato considered
    • Agricultural revenue is not that much to make AV favorable in comparison to ground mounted PV unless incentivized apart from regions of potato where AV can be a possible option
    • Price-performance Ratio comes out to be greater than one for all cases except for potato which too in a few regions only
    • NPV result shows that only 6% of the crops will be profitable for AV w.r.t GMPV
    • AV does not seem advantageous dueto high initial costs unless incentives such as feed-in-tariffs are provided; although it will be helpful in addressing land-abandonment issues and departure from rural areas
    • For high-reveneue cropland such as potatoes, AV can have an economic advantage with value of ppr going below 1 - this is however is higly location dependent
    • AV can be targetted on agricultural land that are abandoned or where crops are grown manually requiring less equipment
  • Conclusion
    • Due to higher installation cost, AV is not economically advantageous when compared to GMPV
    • Financial incentives should be provided for AV diffusion
    • Targetted areas should include land which may be abandoned due to lower-reveneue crops cultivation
    • Only using a few percent of such abandoned lands in Italy will be more than enough to meet the PV targets of the country for the year 2030

A First Investigation of Agriculture Sector Perspectives on the Opportunities and Barriers for Agrivoltaics[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: MDPI; Publication: Agronomy; Year: 2020; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: ; Location: ; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:
  • Perception of the Technology
    • Quantified: N/A
    • Low or High: N/A
    • Unit: N/A
    • Quantification Method: N/A
    • Implication analyzed: N/A
    • Comments: N/A
  • Introduction
    • The increase in solar PV farms have resulted in issues for land-use competition - agriculture vs energy generation
    • Diffusion of agrivoltaics will be based on economics and enivronmental factors
    • Goal: Use diffusion of innovations theory to refine agrivoltaic technology so that it becomes socially accepted which will promote its diffusion - also, what are the potential opportunities and barriers
  • Methods
    • Interviews to ascertain the perception of agriculturists for the oppportunities and barriers of agrivoltaics
    • Emails floated to introduce agrivoltaics followed by online discussions (10 interviews with 11 people)
    • Excercise continued unless saturation in data was observed i.e., no new points were highlighted by the individuals
  • Results and Discusssion
    • Main challenge is the long term viability of the land i.e., its quality being affected due to agrivotlaics employment and land productivity
      • Land-use plan or long-term plan (especially between farmers and solar industry) would be helpful in ensuring land viability and addressing this concern
    • Market uncertainty, uncertainty in productivity and security of investment is the second concern
      • Flexibility and adaptation to changing market conditions can help address this challenge
    • Just compensation when engaging agrivoltaics project is also required
    • If the benefits of the technology are visible, the participants were found willing to adopt it - observability
    • Relative advantage of the technology was deemed worthwhile
    • An opportunity for the farmers was that the technology could be integrated with current practices of farming - integration and evolution of the technology must take care of that
    • Other barrires: Life cycle impact from solar infrastructure, solar installations disrupting farming operations and hindering agricultural production, uncertainties surrounding operational procedures and planning
    • Future work should focus on the changes in perception of the technology based on geography and occupations, increased education and outreach, practical demonstrations and experiments, market perceptions, policies
  • Conclusion
    • Benefits of agrivoltaics are largely acknowledged
    • Main barriers included long-term productivity of land, market potential, financial compensation and system flexibility for integration with farming operations
    • These apprehensions can be used as opportunities to improve the technology to ensure its wide-scale adoption

A sustainable development pattern integrating data centers and pasture-based agrivoltaic systems for ecologically fragile areas[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: Elsevier; Publication: Resources, Conservation & Recycling; Year: 2022; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: ; Location: Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (Hainan), Qinghai Province, China; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:
  • Supplement Data Centers from electricity generated via AV
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: 1.362×10E7
    • Unit: kWh
    • Quantification Method: Calculated
    • Implication analyzed: Yes
    • Comments: The same amount of energy was translated to determine equivalent CO2 reduction
  • Reduction in GHGs
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: 10,965.4 tCO2e
    • Unit: tons of CO2 equivalent
    • Quantification Method: Calculated
    • Implication analyzed: N/A
    • Comments: N/A
  • C-stock
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: 139.66 tons
    • Unit: tons
    • Quantification Method: Calculated
    • Implication analyzed: Yes
    • Comments: number was translated to CO2 equivalent reduction
  • Introduction
    • Increased use of data centers in today's world seeks new avenues for electricity supply, especially from renewable sources
    • Goal: To provide a model incorporating large-scale PV plant to power DC industries in environmentally challenged locations, thus supporting the economy and benefitting the ecology
    • Pastureland in Gobi is selected for developing the model; wlectricity from which is used to supplement the energy reqiurement for DCs
  • Methods
    • Step 1: Develop a model incorporating large unused land where pasture is grown, large PV plants, and data centers and interlink them
    • Step 2: Cost benefit analysis is also performed to identify parameters to ensure a positive NPV
      • Improved carbon performance and cost implications from dedesertification are also ascertained in financial terms
    • Step 3: Based on step 2, identify locations in China suitable for the system and run analysis for the environmental and socioeconomic potential
    • Power consumption of the DC is calcuated based on energy requirements of servers which in turn is used to calculated the capacity and locations of PV systems as well as the coverage area
    • Environmental benefits are three-fold
      • GHG reduction due to reduced cooling requirement in cold areas
      • GHG reduction as PV-based electricity replaces fossil-fuel based electricity
      • C-stock by the pastureland
    • Revenue model included the benefits to environment in monetary terms for the agrivoltaic-DC coupling
    • Input/output model used to ascertain secondary benefits of AV-DC coupling
  • Results & Disussion
    • Electricity generated by PV: 1.362×10E7 kWh; Area coverage of PV panel: 38,418 m2; Using land-use factor of 0.45; total area of PV system: 85,374 m2
    • CO2 reduction due to electricity substitution from renewable source: 10,965.4 tCO2e per annum
    • PV panel coverage was used to calculate c-stock; 1-hm2 increment in PVs can enhance C stock by 35.94 tons; for this study 139.66 tons of c-stock was increased meaning 512 tonnes of CO2 equivalent can be alleviated through pasture/grass growth
    • Technical, environmental and economic parameters that made NPV 0 were identified - these parameters indicate what are the feasible conditions for AV-DC coupling
      • Environmental revenue from pasture: 83,231.2 yuan
      • Economics of DCs depend more on rent and server utilization than the cost
      • PAsture-based PV reduced the risks of PV due to additional benefits
      • Electricity pricing, solar potential and PV tech also impacted the economics of AV
    • Minimum electricity price=0.3719 yuan/kWh, this is lower than the average electricity price for industrial uses in the region
    • Economics for AV system were rn with different scenarios such as subsidies, land use cost etc.
    • Areas with solar irradiation of more than 6000 MJ/(m2y) are feasible for AV-DC coupling systems
      • 5 regions identified
    • The Data Centers in the 5 locations can save 398,676 MWh electricity; 10,036 tons of carbon stock (36,798 tCO2e) from grassland, 9.8 million yuan of desertification control cost and alleviate 797,028 tCO2e carbon emissions per annum
    • Based on the planned DCs in the near future, 600,000 MWh of electrical energy can be saved, more than 1140 hectares of Gobi can be transformed to pastureland, 150,262 tCO2e carbon stock can be increased that can be translated to 7.5 million yuan by selling the grassland carbon sink, more than 39 million yuan can be saved through desert management and 3252,935 tCO2e emissions can be reduced through electricity substitution
  • Conclusion
    • Development of data centers in cold climate with good solar potential is feasible to address its energy requirements and impact on GHG
    • The paper proposes copuling DC with AV installation on grassland and reviews its economical, environmental and climatic condition
    • Installation of such system in areas with good solar outlook and weak environmental conditions is proven to be beneficial - both economically and environmentally
      • The price of electricity generated through AV is still high - hence, policies required to improve it

A Validated Model, Scalability, and Plant Growth Results for an Agrivoltaic Greenhouse[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: MDPI; Publication: Sustainability; Year: 2022; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: Greenhouse PV; Location: ; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:
  • Growing Kale during Winter Season
    • Quantified: No
    • Low or High:
      • Unit: Nil
    • Quantification Method:None
    • Implication analyzed: Yes
    • Comments:
  • Introduction
    • With increased amount of solar PV plant, there are apprehensions that farmers may start leasing the agricultural land to solar companies as it is a reliable source of income - agrivoltaics can avoid this
    • PV topologies for agrivotlaics can either be interspersed, greenhouse mounted or stilt mounted
    • The model does not consider CO2 concentration, however, considers transient heat conduction in the ground
    • Heat is trapped inside the greenhouse (referred to as test cell) due to convection and radiation
    • The inside temperatures remain above the ambient due to greenhouse effect allowing extended growing season with the requriement of external heating
  • Methods
    • Panels facing east and west; tilt: 35.5 degree
    • An 8-inch PC window on the top, placed between the two panels, allows sunlight in and helps plant grow
    • The other walls are sealed by plywood along with R-10 insulation
    • The test cell is also provided with concrete which adds thermal mass to the system
    • Pyranometers, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction sensors were installed on the system
    • Plant tested: Kale
    • Total leaf area of the palnt from the test cell and control configuration was calculated using leaf length, width measurements
    • Plant dry mass was also calculated for a normal greenhouse, test cell and control configurations
  • Results
    • Validation
      • Thermal model - daily max temp differed by 1.9oC while daily min temp differed by 1.5oC
      • Moisture transport model - relative humidity did not provide good results
      • Shadowing model - excellent synergy except late in the day when the model over-predicted
    • Experimental
      • Daytime temperatures was greater than ambient most of the time while the opposite was true for night
      • Plant growth was slow in winter in the greenhouse but better in control - however, later the plants in the greenhouse caught up
    • Numerical
      • Increasing the north-south dimension of greenhouse increased heating during the day
      • Increasing the area of PC window increased daily maximum temperatures
      • Internal maximum temperatures reduces when a load is powered from the PV
      • Removing the concrete block reduced the max temp and increased min temp - might be helpful in maintaining the avg temp of the cell
    • The center area under the PV window was found to be the most suitable for Kale - areas close to east-west received low sunlight
    • In control configuration, the temperatures remained near the ideal temperature required for Kale more than the test cell; test cell has less below 0oC hours than control
    • Shadow Model
      • The transmitted solar radiation for stilt mounted systems - 1.67m apart - 82%; 0.71m apart - 65%; test cell - 5.2%
  • Discussion
    • Plants underneath the underneath the glazing grew well but not so much adjacent to it
    • Kale remained alive during the winter
    • Growing season of plants can be increased as the temperature in the greenhouse was found higher than the ambient
    • Further shade tolerant crops can be investigated
    • Heat transport model can be improved to provide good results for relative humidity
  • Conclusion
    • Light levels can be increased in the greenhouse by widening the glazing area
    • 36% reduction in time spent below 0oC inside greenhouses when compared with outdoor conditions
    • Using electrical energy from PV will help keep the inside temperature of greenhouse to optimum - 20oC for Kale
    • Stilt mounted system allow more sunlight to pass but cannot enhance growing period

Advancement in Agriculture Approaches with Agrivoltaics Natural Cooling in Large Scale Solar PV Farms[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: MDPI; Publication: Agriculture; Year: 2023; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: ; Location: Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia; PV Power: 2MWp; Energy: ; Efficiency:
  • Increased Efficiency of Solar Cells
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: 3%
      • Unit: Percentage/kWh
    • Quantification Method: Calculated
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments:
  • Introduction
    • Large scale conventional solar farms can cause localized heating - heat island effect
    • Solar panels degrade with increased heating; also reduces lifetime - several studies performed to achieve cooling of solar PVs which can enhance their efficiency
      • Active or Passive cooling systems
    • Cooling system have a cost attributed to them which is a concern - agrivoltaics could be the solution though
    • Previous studies have shown that the temperatures of panels reduce in an agrivoltaic system
    • Goal: Ascertain impact of agrivoltaic on DC energy
  • Methodology
    • Location: Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia; Capacity: 2MWp; Area: 5 acres; No. of modules: 8064; Crop: Misai Kucing
    • Statistical approaches (ANOVA tests) used for the analysis
  • Results
    • Ambient temp in the middle of conventional solar farm and agrivoltaic is the same
    • Wind profile for both the locations is the same
    • Relative humidity for agrivoltaic setting is 5% higher
    • On average, 2.28% energy increase observed for agrivolaic plots; highest being 3.73%
  • Conclusion
    • Energy increase of 3% on average was recorded due to agrivoltaic cooling effect

Agrivoltaic System and Modelling Simulation: A Case Study of Soybean (Glycine max L.) in Italy[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: MDPI; Publication: Horticulture; Year: 2022; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: Full-sun tracking; Location: Monticelli d’Ongina, Italy; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:
  • Growing soybeans underneath the panels
    • Quantified:
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Introduction
    • With increased renewable energy share, issues related to land requirement may occur
    • Especially agricultural land may be targetted which adversely impacts food production - AV is the answer
    • Goal: To study the plant characteristics for soybean when grown under different shading intensities and also use field measurements to validate a crop model
  • Methodology
    • Four different shading treatments compared with full-sun conditions AV1 27%, AV2 16%, AV3 9% and AV4 18%
    • Crop height, chlorophyll content, Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Specific Leaf Area (SLA) as well as crop yield were the parameters that were to be measured
    • Simulations were performed using crop growth model GERCOS and other alogorithms to validate it from field measurements
  • Results & Discussion
    • Plant height was 98.25cm which is higher than full sun condition plants i.e., 87.8cm
    • No large differences observed in chlorophyll content of either treatments
    • LAI under shade was slightly higher in a few instances - largely the same
    • Average reduction in pod number due to shading was approximately 13%, while grain yield reduction was 8%, 4.6%, 11.8% for AV1, AV3 and AV4 while AV2 observed slight increase 4.4%
    • Crop yield ascertained from simulations underestimated the experimental values - but it can offer satisfactory predictions (error was between 7% and 16.5%)
    • The experiment showed that the soybean is impacted by shading; but is shade tolerant
    • The reduction in grain yield was less than the standard in Germany - 66% reference yield is necessary
    • The reduction in grain yield was also less than that reported in previousl literatures
    • Thus it is necessary to run multiple long term studies
  • Conclusion
    • Soybean crop adapts itself to shading conditions by changing the morpohological and physiological traits
    • Height of the crop, leaf area index and specific leaf area were all found to increase under AV system
    • Grain yield of soybean was slightly reduced (8%) on average under AV
    • Crop model simulated the crop yield satisfactorily with some error, however, it underestimates the yields with increased shading

Agrivoltaic system impacts on microclimate and yield of different crops within an organic crop rotation in a temperate climate[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: Springer; Publication: Agronomy for Sustainable Development; Year: 2021; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: ; Location: near Lake Constance - Upper Swabia, Germany; PV Power: 194 kWp; Energy: 246MWh/year; Efficiency:
  • Growing celeriac, winter wheat, grass clover and potatoes underneath the panels
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Calculated
    • Implication analyzed: Yes
    • Comments:
  • Introduction
    • Most studies on agrivoltaics based on simulations and modelling; shading performed using netting which do not perfectly replicate AV conditions
    • 3.2m row spacing resulted in 30% reduction of sunlight
    • Previous studies showed 20% decrease in rice yield due to 20% shading, increased maize grain in non-irrigated conditions but decreased when irrigated
    • Goal: To ascertain the implication of micro environment on crops (celeriac, winter wheat, grass clover and potatoes) for an agrivoltaic setup
  • Methodology
    • Location: Lake Constance-Upper Swabia; Area: 0.3 ha; power: 194 kWp; south-west oriented bifacial solar panels; tilt: 20o; row distance: 6.3m; clearance height: 5m
    • Crops selected for study: celeriac, winter wheat, grass clover and potatoes
    • Air humidity and temperature, soil moisture and temperature as well as PAR were measured
  • Results
    • PAR was found 30% less in both the years for AV system
    • Soil moisture was signifiantly decreased under AV - surprising
    • Mean daily soil temperature was 1.2oC lower under AV in 2017 and 1.4oC in 2018
    • Daily mean air temperature 1.1oC lower under AV for both years
    • Air humidity higher under AV
    • Canopy height/LAI of winter wheat/potato/grass clover found higher
    • Grain yield of winter wheat 18.7% lower in 2017 and 2.7% higher in 2018 (hot conditions)
    • Potato tuber yields 18.2% lower in 2017, 11% higher in 2018 (hot conditions) - however almost similar to national average
    • Grass clover yields 5.3% lower in 2017, 7.8% lower in 2018
    • 2 year average - grass clover 6.5% decrease; potato 7.2% and winter wheat 8%
    • 246MWh of energy produced by AV in first cropping year
  • Conclusion
  • Microclimate have impact on crops
  • Plant height/LAI of all crops increased under AV - dry matter production did not see an increase though
  • Crop yield decreased under AV but it is beneficial in hot and dry weather - most beneficial weather for AV

Agrivoltaic systems have the potential to meet energy demands of electric vehicles in rural Oregon, US[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: Nature; Publication: Scientific reports; Year: 2022; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: ; Location: Oregon, US; PV Power: 194 kWp; Energy: 246MWh/year; Efficiency:
  • Meeting demands of Electric Vehicles (EVs)
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: 673,915
      • Unit: Number
    • Quantification Method: Calculated
    • Implication analyzed: Yes
    • Comments:
  • Reduction in CO2 emission
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: 3.1 mil MTCO2
      • Unit: mil MTCO2
    • Quantification Method: Calculated
    • Implication analyzed: Yes
    • Comments:
  • 25% global CO2 emission due to fossil fuels come from transport sector
  • EVs are potential sustainable substitutes - market share for EVs is however still low
  • Major concern with EV adoption is range anxiety - agrivoltaics is possible solution
  • Electric Vehicle Charging Stations (EVCSs) infrastructure can be improved with AV without any land use issues
  • Results
    • Land suitable for AV is identified i.e., farmland within 5 miles highway access points
    • 231 access points out of the total 270 had sufficient area for AV that can serve as EVCSs
    • The total area required is 5 kha
    • 95% of the 231 access points have a distance of less than 27km in between them - mean distance 8.9 km
    • Preferred mean distance are 4.1 km for people living in metropolis and 10.6 km for people living in towns
    • 3.1` mil MTCO2 reduction is possible in Oregon through this approach
  • Conclusion and Discussion
    • Supplementing EV charging through AV supported EVCS is feasible - needs only 3% of the land for 86% of highways access points
    • With more EVCSs, the issue range anxiety might get addressed translating into more people moving towards EVs
    • Reduction in CO2 emissions will be possible as well
  • Methods
    • Evaluation of qty of land available to meet rural AVS supplemeted EVCS station (supply), amount of land required to meet the AVs-driven EVCS demand (demand), highway access points where energy required EVCS can be addressed through AV and finally the total power produced
    • Supply criteria: within 8 km of access pts, designated farmland etc.
    • Demand: Conservative analysis considering winter solar radiations; determined using 20-year average daily traffic, average EV eff and avg. AV eff.
    • Comparison of supply area vs demand area performed to see if the access is valid or invalid to be employed with AV

Agrivoltaic systems to optimise land use for electric energy production[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: Elsevier; Publication: Applied Energy; Year: 2018; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: Stilt mounted two axis solar tracking; Location: North Italy, Emila Romagna Region, PC; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:
  • Reduced soil temperatrue, evapotranspiration and water balance
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: 1 degree, 442mm, -10.3mm
      • Unit: degrees and mm
    • Quantification Method: Calculated
    • Implication analyzed: Yes
    • Comments:
  • Higher dry mass
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: From graph
      • Unit: g/m2
    • Quantification Method: Calculated
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments:
  • LER
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: Different values for 4 scenarios
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Calculated
    • Implication analyzed: Yes
    • Comments:
  • Introduction
    • Solar PV is rapidly increasing - but land use is an issue; agrivoltaics can address the concern
    • Combination of food production and PVs is normally seen in greenhouses; not much open-field applications
    • Advantages of AV include protection of crops from excessive heat, soil temperature mitigation, carbon-free electricity
    • Goal: 1) Simulate production of maize under different types of AVs; 2) Compare energy and yield for different types of AVs
  • Methodology
    • Stilt mounted solar tracking system - two axis
    • Crop growth simulator GERCOS used in combination with a radiation and shading model
      • Software developed by coupling them on Scilab
    • Portion of soil receiving sunlight or shade with panels above is developed
    • PV area was to used to calculate electricity generated over the total area of the study - 0.14 effi considered to convert solar power incident on PVs to electricity
    • LER used toa ascertain productivity of land
    • GERCOS predicts biomass of plant based on weather data, radiation intensity, soil water and nitrogen content
      • Photosynthesis and transpiration are the main features
      • Both sun/shade model
  • Results and Discussion
    • Solar radiation reduction - more impact of panel density than tracking
    • 1 degree reduced soil temperature, evapotranspiration lower 442 mm vs 477mm, water balance better -10.3mm vs -46mm
    • Crop yield
      • Fixed panel beneficial compared to tracking
      • Panel area influence crop yield only in case of tracking
      • Average dry mass for the four agrivoltaic scenario higher than full light
    • Reduced radiation and corp yield
      • Full irrigation
        • Higher yield with higher solar radiaiton for full light conditions
      • Rainfed conditions
        • In rainfed conditions; dry year; better yield under agrivoltaics
        • In rainfed conditions; not dry year - rainfall satisfied corp req.; better yield under full sun condition and yield reduced for agrivoltaic as radiation reduced
    • Land equivalent ratio - above 1 for agrivoltaic systems; higher for solar tracking panels
    • Simulations were performed for five scenarios - ST1 (0.135 panel area to lan ratio), ST2 (0.36); F1, F2; FL
    • Standard PV considered same as ST2
    • Radiation reduced in the range between 12 to 32% - may be due to increased height of panels (4.85m in te study) and panel density
    • Mean evaporation saving 46mm due to AV
    • Transpiration is higher under AV than FL - probably due to higher availability of water
    • Shading provided a positive influence under high radiation levels for rainfed conditions
    • Under rainfed conditions, AV yield higher; also more stable yield under AV each year - yield stability
    • When water is scarce, AV is advantageous
    • AV improves land productivity - consequence analyzed
  • Conclusion
  • Simulation-based study anlaysing different types of agrivoltaic systems (based on tracking and panel density) with maize crop and comparing with control system
  • Average grain yield higher under agrivoltaic in water stress conditions and rainfed conditions; lower when water is sufficiently available
  • Economic and environmental analysis needs to be performed for different AVs
  • Land equivalent ratio (LER) suggests agrivoltaics improves land productivity

Agrivoltaics Align with Green New Deal Goals While Supporting Investment in the US’ Rural Economy[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: MDPI; Publication: Sustainability; Year: 2021; Lifetime: 25 years; PV Technology: ; PV Power: 457.1 GW; Energy: ; Efficiency:
  • Meeting electricity needs through agrivoltaics
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High:457.1
      • Unit: GWh
    • Quantification Method:Calculation
    • Implication analyzed:Yes
    • Comments:
  • Reducing CO2
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: 330,470
      • Unit: metric tonnes of CO2
    • Quantification Method: Calculation
    • Implication analyzed:Yes (71,000 cars removal)
    • Comments:
  • Job creation
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: 2.34 million
      • Unit: person-years
    • Quantification Method: Calculation
    • Implication analyzed:Yes (117,000 people employed for 20 years)
    • Comments:
  • More food, more energy, lower water demand, lower carbon emissions and more prosperous rural community
    • Quantified: No/Qualified
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments:
  • Introduction
    • AV align well with The Green New Deal resolution (GND) - GND set objectives to keep temperatures below 1.5 and create jobs in US
    • Land occupation issues associated with solar farms - especially farmland conversion
    • Goal: Cost of widescale AV adoption in US (Upper bound estimate)
  • Methodology
    • Array cost
      • 20% of 2019 electricity generated in US to come from AV
      • Panel life: 25 years, degradation: 0.5%, installation period: 10 years
      • $2/W for AV installation; $19/kWh/yr O&M cost; $1.25/W traditional PV cost
      • Using mathematical equation, total cost is determined
    • Required Land
      • Avg. total area required for PV installation as per NREL was doubled - more spacing in AV
    • Emissions Reduction
      • Difference between CO2 produced from grid and emissions from large scale PV as per Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
    • Job Creation
      • Based on employment factors developed from Renewable Energy Focused Input-Output model
      • Calculations only related to PV - no employment for agriculture considered
    • Lithium Ion Storage cost
      • NREL provides cost of 60 MW batteries for different time periods
      • Using no. of batteries and the costs, total battery cost is ascertained
      • Assuming inverters and batteries are replaced in 10 years
  • Results
    • Total cost for 20% of US elec generation (451.7GW) - 1.12 trillion USD; total revenue 2.04 trillion USD; Payback period 17 years; difference between AV and PV for 35 years period 338.8 billion USD
    • Land required: 34000 km2
    • CO2 emission reduction: 330,470 metric tonnes CO2
    • Job Creation: 2.34 million person-years - does not include addtional employment in agriculture
  • Discussion
    • Funding for AV may take other forms - not entirely from government
    • Water demand may be reduced due to AV
    • More land and cost will be required for AV when compared to PV - but AV has better land use efficiency
    • AV supports Just Transition of economy - low-carbon and climate resilient future
    • 11 million acres of farmland transitioned to other uses in US - AV will protect farmland
    • Electricity use for agricultural operation may also use clean energy from AV, further reducing CO2

Agrivoltaics analysis in a techno-economic framework: Understanding why agrivoltaics on rice will always be profitable[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: Elsevier; Publication: Applied Energy; Year: 2022; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: Bifacial PV modules; Location: An Giang(Vietnam), Dhaka (Bangladesh), Jiangsu (China), Damietta (Egypt), Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), and Haryana (India).; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:
  • Rice production
    • Quantified:
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Introduction
    • PV is more prevalent due to cheaper costs now - bifacial is the future
    • Food requirements to increase - will cause land-use conflict; hence, agrivoltaics
    • Previous studies performed anlayzed vegetable and microclimate; very limited on major crops which generally showed reduced yield; economic gains for AV
    • Gaps in previous literature: No extensive work on major crops; LER may not be a viable parameter to see the AVs feasibility
    • Goal: Investigation of rice-based AV and its financial feasibility
    • Location specific AV modelling framework developed
    • Sunlight incident on panels and land is ascertained for different PV panel configuraiton (mono/bi,tilt, orientation etc.)
    • Agricultural Production System Simulator (APSIM) used to determine rice production; irradiance and electrical model used for electricity output (tilted N/S, vertical E/W, hor. E/W)
    • Parametric analysis to ascertain optimal row spacing for desired rice production
    • Economic anlaysis performed - PV density depends on rice production
    • Hor E-W is the best for all locations; net profit higher for PV; no optimum array pitch for AV; PV-only always have more profits
    • Hence, minimum yield requirements should be set
  • Numerical Model
    • Considers irradiance model, light on panel and the ground, panel eff. and elec. output model and rice yield model - combine together for AV model
    • Economic model determines revenue for each location - can be used for system optimization
  • Conventional Farm Output
    • Energy production from N-S optimized PV ascertained on a monthly basid
    • Rice productioon ascertained in open conditions for all location using APSIM
  • AV Farm Analysis
    • Power Output of AV vs PV
      • N/S tilted highest; ver close to hor E/W
      • Lower pitches - ver. E/W performanceaffected due to shading
    • Crop Output for AV
      • Most location - 4m row pitch gives 90% yield
      • Optimized N-S gives worst results
      • Vertical E-W gives advantage for ease of agricultural operation
    • Crop production
      • N-S conf: crop yield significantly reduces
      • h E-W: more crops in the middle
      • v E-W: more crops directly underneath
  • AV Farm Output
    • LER
      • Cases in the study found with LER>1
      • AV optimization based on LER is not appropriate
    • Economic Output
      • FIT dictates economics; energy production and revenue follow similar trend
      • h E-W and N-S better revenure; v E-W low due to lower energy yield even though higher crop productivity
      • Low pitch results in higher revenure , not true for v E-W though
      • Policies imp as they impact pricing; also min crop yields should be set
      • Optimal pitch depends on AV conf. and region
      • With 80 or 90% crop yield, h E-W gives most benefit; v E-W least
      • With 90% production, profits with AV 22-115 times that of farming
      • Although bifacial installation cost higher, they are advantageous over monos
    • Sensitivity Analysis
      • h E-W considered only - more economically viable
      • AV likely to be beneficial with changing economic factors
  • Summary and Conclusions
    • Using AV in areas of high solar radiation more beneficial
    • Energy output of h E-W and N-S similar, lowest for E-W vert. but it has highest rice yield
    • Financial weight of rice and electricity is different - LER does not take into account it - hence, may be an inappropriate parameter
    • AV 22 to 115 times more profitable than rice farming only
    • Using bifacial modules - 18 to 35% more profit for AV vs monos
    • Eco. output largely dependent on energy than rice production; therefore, policy guidelines important to ensure min rice productivity

Agrivoltaics and weather risk: A diversification strategy for landowners[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: Elsevier; Publication: Applied Energy; Year: 2021; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: ; Location: North Carolina and Oregon, US; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:
    • Quantified:
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Introduction
    • Solar energy is the fastest growing renewable energy technology
    • Issues related to land use competition arise
    • Revenue stream of solar if more stable when compared to farms
    • Goal: To determine if AV can stabilize revenue stream for farm especially considering weather
    • AV can improve soil moisture; reduced evaporation; less risks of drought
    • Crops: Alfafa, Soybeans and Strawberries
  • Methodology
    • Location: North Carolina and Oregon; Area: 218 acres; PV capacity: 50 MW
    • Weather conditions are determined stochastically - used as input to solar electricity generation model and crop yield model
    • Solar power generation is simulated using a thermodynamic model - degradation considered 0.7%
    • For AV on soybeans and alfalfa, 25% less land is considered available for panel installation to ensure farm operation
    • A generalized statistical crop model used for yield prediction - can be applied for any location and crop
    • Strawberries - 33% yield reduction; alfalfa and soybeans: 50% less acreage available for plantation
  • Results and Discussion
    • Profitability
      • High value crops like strawberries better but volatile
      • For AV with PPA, electricity revenues more stable and crop revenues cause changes in profitability
      • For solar only, low installation cost and high prices make it favorable
    • Scenario Comparison
      • AV increase net revenue when compared to farm only condition
      • Soybeans and Alfalfa : Narrow net revenue distribution when compared to solar only due to low prices and yield; Alfalfa NPV higher than strawberries
      • Strawberries: AV improve net revenues and reduces variability - mitigates risk; better NPV for AV than in farm only or solar only sondition
      • AV may be financially feasible for solar developers as well if they want to add a crop to increase revenue
      • Panel degraation have negative impact on net revenue when solar PV added to a farm
    • Financial Risk
      • AV increase profitability as well as risk mitigation by improving lowest 5th percentile of net revenue
      • For highly profitable byt volatile crop, AV stabilizes net revenue; for solar developer AV provide risk managemetnt by reducing volatility of net revenues and landuse competition
    • Risk Management of AV vs Federal Crop Insurance
      • With AV, impact of crop insurance is neglegible as solar addition increases revenue and no premium is to be paid yearly
    • Sensitivity analysis performed for different crops
    • There are crop and location combinations for which the advatamges of AV not only boost expected revenues and stabilizes net revenues for farmers
    • Decreasing PPA prices reduce virability of solar projects - AV can help solar developers as they can plant low maintenance crop to supplement financial benefits
    • AV also reduces financial risk for most scenarios (Crops and locations)
    • Incentivizing AV instead of subsidizing crop insurance increases revenue - may act as a substitute for insurance
    • Other benefits: Pollinator habitat can be planted which improves biodiversity; powering carbon-free farms and reducing emissions; less water requirement; protecting wildlife habitat
  • Conclusion
    • AV may increase net revenue by up tp 5000%
    • AV improves risk management such as substitute to crop insurance; increase 5th percentile net revenues of 48-53%; land-use competition; reduced fossil fuel use

Agrivoltaics provide mutual benefits across the food–energy–water nexus in drylands[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: Nature; Publication: Sustainability; Year: 2019; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: ; Location: Tucson , Arizona, USA; PV Power: 200kW; Energy: ; Efficiency:
  • More crop yield
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: 3 times more chiltepin pepper, 2 time for tomato and same for jalapeno
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Calculation
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments:
  • Water use efficiency
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: 157% in jalapeno, 65% inn tomato
        • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Calculation
    • Implication analyzed: Yes
    • Comments:
  • Water conservation
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: 15% imore soil moisture when irrigated after every 2d; 5% when daily
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Calculation
    • Implication analyzed: Yes
    • Comments:
  • HTC, extended growing season
    • Quantified: Qualified
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Higher electricity
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: 377MWh vs 373 MWH per annum
      • Unit: MWh/yr
    • Quantification Method: Calculation
    • Implication analyzed: Yes
    • Comments:
  • Introduction
    • An approach needed to address the issues related to food, water and energy
    • Climate changes is affecting agricultural land use as farmers seek other use of land instead of farming
    • Water scarcity is a major issue agricultural sector is facing
    • Hydro and thermal power plants also affected by climate change - PV and wind might be the solution
    • PV adoption is on the rise in US
    • As temperature negatively affects PV performance, agricultural land underneath can improve it
    • Agrivoltaics can improve food - water - energy nexus
    • Goal: Hypothesis: Increased water efficiency, improved food production and PV efficiency due to agrivoltaics
    • Crops: chiltepin pepper, jalapeno and cherry tomato
    • PV array height from lowest end: 3.3m ; tilt: 32 degrees; parameters measured: light, air temp, relative humidity (RH), soil temp and moisture; two configurations - one with daily irrigation and one with irrigation every 2 days
  • Results
    • 1.2+0.3oC lower temperatures in day, 0.5+04oC higher temp in night
    • Vapor pressure deficit lower in AV - 0.52+0.15kPa lower
    • Impact of food production
      • Higher (3 times) more production of chiltepin pepper, almost similar for jalapeno, twice for tomato
    • Potential impacts for water savings
      • 15% imore soil moisture when irrigated after every 2d; 5% when daily
      • For 2d irrigation schedule, soil moisture remained above the driest point for 1d irrigation schedule in open conditions
    • Potential impacts for energy generation
      • PVs 8.9+0.2oC cooler in the day
      • 3% increase in elec. from May-Jul; 1% increase yearly
  • Discussion
    • The idea that land can either be used for farms or for energy generation should be abandoned; instead it can have positive influence
    • Plants received less light in AV but reduced soil moisture; also improved panel efficiency
    • Tests should be perfomed with more crops and Pv design
    • No studies performed for issues associated with AV for farm labour; human thermal comfort (HTC) assessment can done - may be better
    • Microclimate under AV could extend growing season
    • AV may provide reduced vulnerability to climate change for food and energy
    • The technology has its challenges - more cost and farming operation/machinery adaptation
  • Methods
    • Location: Tucson , Arizona, USA; PV array height from lowest end: 3.3m; tilt: 32 degrees; Area for control and AV conf: 9.1m2 x 18.2m2
    • Equal amounts of irrigation water ensured - drip iirrigation
    • 42 replicates of the three specie plants cultivated
    • 200 kW plant simulated; 377 MWh energy under AB for a year; 373 MWh for PV

Agrivoltaics: The Environmental Impacts of Combining Food Crop Cultivation and Solar Energy Generation[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: MDPI; Publication: Agronomy; Year: 2023; Lifetime: 25 years; PV Technology: ; Location: APV RESOLA Project, near Lake Constance, Germany; PV Power: ; Energy: 713.4MWh/ha-yr; Efficiency:
  • Reduction in CO2
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: 572.94 t CO2-eq.
      • Unit:t CO2-eq.
    • Quantification Method: Consequential Life Cycle Analysis
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Reduction in fresh water eutrophication
    • Quantified:
    • Low or High: 524.22 kg P eq. per ha
      • Unit: kg P eq. per ha
    • Quantification Method: Consequential Life Cycle Analysis
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Reduction in Fossils
    • Quantified:
    • Low or High: 6745GJ
      • Unit: GJ
    • Quantification Method: Consequential Life Cycle Analysis
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Introduction
    • Fossil fuels dominate global electricity generation; renewables share need to increase
    • That causes issue of land use - especially as food requirements also augment; hence, agrivoltaics (AV)
    • Two main types of AVs; closed and open system
      • Closed can be further divided as inter-space or overhead (2-7m)
    • In addition to reduced light, less amount of area is available for cropping (2% to 8%)
    • Goal: A CLCA to be performed to anlayse the environmental implications of shifting from single-use agriculture to AV
  • Materials & Methods
    • Evaluation of environmental impact of changing 1 ha single-use agriculture to overhead AV
    • Crops: winter wheat, celery, potatoes and grass–clover mixture
    • Crop yield reduces as the area of cultivation reduces due to AV structure installation
    • Functional units considered: amount of crop and generation of electrical enerygy
    • ISO standards 14040 and 14044 used and applied
    • 16 impact categories assessed - results presented as a single
    • Impact categories contirbuting 80% to the total score - most important
    • openLCA 1.10.3 used for analysis
    • Major environmental impacts of AV installation included in the study including variation in crop yield
    • 0.15 ha more area will be required for AV to produce reference crop yield
    • Hypothesis: More land becomes available as the combination of farming and electricity will improve land poductivity
    • Crop yield considered for AV are lower than reference - shaiding and area losses; the amount of crop yield must be compensated from elsewhere
    • Material required frorthe mounting structure is used for the anlaysis
    • 713.4MWh/ha-yr electrical output
  • Results
    • Considerable environmental benefits when 1 ha of land is transformed AV - climate change, freshwater eutrophication and fossil resource use most benefitted
    • Resource use (minerals and metals) show negative impact due to resources required for PV manufacturing and installation
    • 572.94 t CO2-eq. can be reduced (climate change impact category) due to electricity substitution based on fossil fuel
    • 524.22 kg P eq. per ha reduction in fresh water eutrophication due to electricity substitution based on fossil fuel
    • Electricity subsititution reduces 6745GJ of fossils resource use
    • Minerals and metal resource use increases 3.118 kg Sb eq.
  • Discussion
    • Environmental Performance
      • 15 out of 16 impact categories showed beneficial consequences of AV
      • Positive impact of dual land use outperform the negatives of additional land required for same crop yield
        • Land no longer required for electricity production can be used as additional land for crops
      • Important to maintain how much agricultural yield reduction is allowed under AV; which crops could benefit
      • One study indicated similar environmental performance of AV to PV plant but better than biogas plant - only wind has better perofrmance
      • Impact on biodiversity or soil quality not assessed in this study
  • Conclusion
    • Environmental impact of converting agricultural land on AV is positive - 15 our 16 impacts showed benefits
    • Loss of farmland needs to be minimized and crop yield maintained to ensure enhanced renewable energy generation without compromising food production - shade tolertant crops can be used
    • Legislation ensuring minimum food productivity shall be set in place to ensure no misuse

An carbon neutrality industrial chain of “desert-photovoltaic power generationecological agriculture”: Practice from the Ulan Buh Desert, Dengkou, Inner Mongolia[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: Sciencedirect; Publication: China Geology; Year: 2022; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: mono and polycrystalline; Location: Ulan Boh Desert, Dengkou County, Inner Mongolia, China; PV Power: 50 MW (30 mono; 20 poly); Energy: 72.2591×106 kWh per annum; Efficiency: .
  • Sand Control
    • Quantified: Qualified
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:.
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Vegetation Growth
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: 75% increase
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Calculation
    • Implication analyzed: Yes; economic benefits, PV benefit, greenery, dedesertification
    • Comments:
  • Ease of water transportation over long distances, big agricultural sites and animal husbandries
    • Quantified: Qualitative
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Dederstification/increased forest cover
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: From 0.04 to 20.2% forestry increase
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Calculation
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Biodiversity
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: More than 200 types of birds available in the region
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Calculation
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Emission Reduction
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: 25.37×103 t of coal and reducing 93023 t CO2 emissions every year
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Calculation
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Eco-tourism
    • Quantified: Qualified
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Major achievements
    • PV power generation and saving coal
    • Development of desert - land expansion
    • Utilizing water passing by the desert
    • Improvement of environment and elimination of poverty
  • Location: Ulan Boh Desert, Dengkou County, Inner Mongolia, China
  • Good solar resource and water body (Yellow River) nearby - PV power and agricultural potential
  • Goal: Using PV control desertification and water efficient agriculture to provide economic and ecological benefits
  • Sand control observed from 2nd year after installation - PVs restrict sand dunes movement
  • Alfalfa and Artemisia found suitable for growth under AV
  • Plantation increased from 5% before PV installation to 80% after AV
  • Benefits of long distance water transportation due to electricity availability and setting up farms and animal husbandries
  • 330 greenhouses setup - high quality Cucumis melo L. were produced
  • Fertilizer processing plant and organic pasture sites also built
  • Grape, Cistanche deserticola, a Chinese medicinal plant, and rice were successfully harvested
  • Dedesertification - increased forestry from 0.04% to 20.2%; more than 200 bird species availiable
  • 25.37×103 t of coal and reducing 93023 t CO2 emissions every year
  • 130 sand control sites, 23 businessess engaged in Cistanche, 19 in grapes, 72 in agriculture and anima husbandry, 7 in desert ecotourism, 6 PV plants and 3 professional seedling at the site
  • Site transformed into industrial chain

Balancing crop production and energy harvesting in organic solar-powered greenhouses[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: Cell Press; Publication: Cell Reports Physical Science; Year: 2021; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: Organic Solar Cells; Location: Sacramento, California, US; PV Power: ; Energy: discuss with Koami; Efficiency: .
  • Growing red lettuce (crop)
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: similar yield as compared to control greenhouse
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Calculation
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Reducing energy demand of greenhouse
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: 67
      • Unit: percent reduction in heating demand when compared to non OSC shading; also reduced heating load
    • Quantification Method: Calculation
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Introduction
    • Greenhouses improve crop productivity, water requirement and pesticide use compared to conventional farming
    • Thermal management of a greenhouse required sometimes which increases electrical load
    • Integrating PVs/solar cells can meet this demand and result in energy savings
    • Semitransparent organic solar cells (ST-OSCs) of particular interest as they provide flexible spectral management suitable for plant growth - also highly efficient >18%
    • Crop yield needs to be maintained for ensuring the OSC's integration viable
    • Evaluation of red lettuce for three different OSC filters under controlled environment
    • Lettuce grown under different regimes was very much similar im terms of fresh weight
    • Impact of reduced light intensity on lettuce yield minimal - increased leaf area and number observed
    • Chlorophyll content for the plants also similar
    • Hence, plants can be grown under ST-OSCs
    • Future design aspects for OSCs also studied incuding using distributed bragg reflectors (DBRs) to manage light and power distribution as well as using an active layer that improves chlorophyll absorption
    • DBRs 5-6% improved power conversion efficiency
    • DBRs also manage NIR and can be advantageous in hot weather
    • Using low emissivity DBR coatings to manage low-wavelength IR (LWIR) can reduce heating load in cold weather
  • Results and Discussion
    • Plant Growth Experiments
      • Lettuce grown inside growth boxes covered with reflective surfaces at the side and top by OSC within growth chamber using artificial lights to imitate sunlight
      • Average transmittance of PAR from OSC filters: 29%, 31% and 38%
      • Experiments for lettuce growth peformed twice at 800 and once 1000 micromol/m2-s PPFD values - three replicates each with three different filters
    • Crop Growth and Physiology
      • Comparable lettuce yield (fresh and dry weights) for greenhouse and contorl produces
      • Difference in production between three replicates
      • Higher photosynthesis rate in control than in OSC filters
    • Underlying drivers for plant development
      • With reduced photosynthesis rate, increased leaf area compensates for it, provides similar yield in shaded environment
      • Lettuce adapted to change light conditions because of OSCs to ensure similar yield
      • Spectral differences between OSCs were insignificant - no major differences in corp development
      • Crop contined more nutritionally favorable parameters under control but it can be improved with higher light intensities; also, there are strategies to tackle it
    • OSC design outlook
      • Different plants have different spectral requirements
      • Active layers used in OSCAs can be tailored with to manage PAR spectral needs of plants
      • Latest materials used in manufacturing of OSCs may also help
      • DBRs can be used to optimze light in visible and NIR regions
        • Experiments showed 5-6% increase in short circuit current
        • Thermal management of greenhouse can be performed by optimizing IR and NIR
        • DBR for summers improved the temperature management significantly; not much in winters instead they may lead to greater heating demand
        • Adding NIR-relective DBR coating improved power generation by 10%
        • Using DBR coatings depend on location, types of crop and the requirements of greenhouse
      • LWIR is managed through low emissivity thin metal or metal oxide films
      • OSC provide inherent LWIR managment; reduce heating demand for winters (67%)
      • OSC integration into greenhouses can benefit in several ways; power generation, lowering energy demands
      • There may be a tradeoff for power generation, crop productivity and thermal load - detailed evaluation required
    • Red lettuce seems suitable for cultivation under OSC-shaded greenhouse; no significant impact on crop yield or quality
      • Photosynthetic rate reduces under OSC but is compensated by increased leaf area thus managing the biomass to similar levels as control
      • Different OSC did not impact lettuce yield much - similar productivity
      • Different crops will require different spectral characteristics; OSC material can be optimized to the changing needs
      • DBRs can be used to increase electrical output and reduce overheating in greenhouse (from 282h to 82 in a year)
      • OSC electrodes can also be used to reduce heating load of the house

Bilayer Luminescent Solar Concentrators with Enhanced Absorption and Efficiency for Agrivoltaic Applications[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: American Chemical Society; Publication: Applied Energy Materials; Year: 2021; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: Luminescent Solar Concentrators; Location: ; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency: .
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: similar yield as compared to control greenhouse
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Calculation
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Introduction
    • Luminiscent Solar Concentrators (LSCs) can cater the energy requirements for greenhouse while also allowing crop growth
    • By spectral tuning, plants can benefit - LSCs provide that; absorbs blue sunlight and tramsits red
    • Experiment: Form bilayer LSC with two different luminophores to manage transmission and improving electricity
  • Conclusion
    • LSC manufacturing can be optimized with different materials increasing absorption and tuning transmission for spectral quality
    • The proposed LSC can be used for agrivoltaic application as it allows control of transmission

NOT RELATED TO THE SCOPE OF OUR PAPER

Characterization of Agrivoltaic Crop Environment Conditions Using Opaque and Thin-Film Semi-Transparent Modules[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: MDPI; Publication: Applied Energies; Year: 2023; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: Opaque silicon, opaque thin-film CdTe, semitransparent thin-film CdTe (40% transparency); Location: northern Colorado, USA; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:
  • Reduce water use rate and drought stress for food crops
    • Quantified: No
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Greater food production and reduced PV temperature
    • Quantified: No
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Reduce air temperature
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: 1.3
      • Unit: oC
    • Quantification Method: Measurement
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Reduce soil temperature
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: 3
      • Unit: oC
    • Quantification Method: Measurement
    • Implication analyzed: Benficial for temperate crops
    • Comments
  • Introduction
    • Economics suggest that using solar PV to achieve climate neutrality by 2050 is the most financially feasible option
    • AV combines use of solar PV and agricultural production - land use concerns are addressed
    • Goal: Study crop growth at two different site with four types of AV; ST thin-film CdTe PV comparison with opaque thin-film CdTe PV and crytalline Si PV
    • Rooftop APV
      • Shade plants in high temperature; reduces water use rate and drought stress
    • Agrivoltaic Deployment
      • Greater food production and reduced PV temperature
  • APV Experiments
    • Manual variable tile system; but jept fixed at 35 degrees for experiment
    • Two Sites: ARDEC - o-Si and STPV | Pole-mounted; Foothills - o-CdTe and STPV (Rooftop simulation) | Ground-mounted
    • Crops: ARDEC - Peppers, summer squash, lettuce; Foothills - lettuce, bush beans, and cilantro (also experimented peppers, tomatoes, lettuce and yellow summer squash
  • Results & Discussion
    • Spectroradiometer used to measure PPFD - reduction observed as compared to full sun condition but the pattern remained same (all wavelengths passed)
    • As compared to opaque, STPV allowed thrice the amount of radiation to pass through
    • 1.3oC less air temp below panels at the hottest time - no temp difference between STPV or opaque
    • 3oC lesser soild temperature under ARDEC STPV; not much difference at Foothills under rooftop simulation which might be due to the use of green roof substrate

Co-Generation of Solar Electricity and Agriculture Produce by Photovoltaic and Photosynthesis—Dual Model by Abellon, India[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: ASME; Publication: Journal of Solar Energy Engineering; Year: 2019; Lifetime: 25 years ; PV Technology: Crystalline; Location: Gujarat, India; PV Power: 3 MW; Energy: 4.663 X 106 kWh/annum; Efficiency:
  • Improved finances
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: 158,978.61
      • Unit: USD/hectare/year
    • Quantification Method: Calculation
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments:
  • Employment opportunities
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: 215
      • Unit: no.
    • Quantification Method: Calculated
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments
  • Crop residue as animal feed
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: 52
      • Unit: tonnes
    • Quantification Method: Calculated
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments
  • Reduced migration
    • Quantified: Qualified
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • CO2 emission reduction due to panels
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 4000
      • Unit: MT/annum
    • Quantification Method: Calculated
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments
  • CO2 capture by vegetation
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 250
      • Unit: tons/year
    • Quantification Method: Calculated
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments
  • Water conservation due to reuse
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 78
      • Unit: lakhs liter/ year
    • Quantification Method: Calculated
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments
  • Top soil protection from wind and rain
    • Quantified: Qualified
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Combining PV and agricculture - Improved land utilization, no conflict between energy and food production, more climate resiliant system
    • Quantified: Qualified
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Increased value of farm
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 30
      • Unit: %
    • Quantification Method: Inferred (from other study)
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Improved water efficiency due to reduced soil water evaporation under PVs
    • Quantified: Qualified
    • Low or High: Inferred (from other study)
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Inferred (from other study)
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Introduction
    • India has immense solar potential - leading International Solar Alliance
    • Growth of solar is high - 30-40% among other renewable fields
    • Hypohthesis: Improved food security by farming shade tolerant crops, reduced panel temperature to improve efficiency, better water use efficiency as water to clean the panels could be used for irrigation, CO2 emission reduction, soild health improvement as farmed crops circumvent top soil washing, zero discharge process by using the harvest residue for cattle feed, increased employment and dust prevention by planting creeper vegetation on the boundary as a wall - serve as wind break
  • Project Execution Methodology
    • 3MW plant, crystalline technology, Gujarat - India, 10,715 modules with 280W peak capacity, 7.08 hecates of area
    • Crops: bottle gourd, lady finger, turmeric, ginger & chilli
    • Water used for cleaning panels used for irrigation
    • Post harvest crop residues used as animal feed
    • Henna and ivy guard planted on the fence which also served as wind break - fence installed to keep animals away
  • Results
    • Economic Impact
      • Improved finances due to dual use of land - total revenue: 158,978.61 USD/heactare/year
    • Social Impact
      • 215 people got employed
      • Migration to find sesonal jobs reduced
      • 52 tonnes of crop residue available as aimal feed
    • Environmental Impact
      • 4000 MT/annum CO2 sequestration due to panel installation
      • 250 ton/year CO2 capture due to vegetation
      • 78 lakh litre of water (used for cleaning panels) reused for irrigation
      • Farming under panels protects top soil wash off due to rain or wind
  • Discussion
    • Combining PV and agricculture - Improved land utilization, no conflict between energy and food production, more climate resiliant system
    • Although there mare instances of reduced yield under PV, overall productivity still increases
    • Study shows 30% enhanced value of farms with AV
    • Reduction in PV efficiency - 1.1% when temperature incrase 1oC above 42oC; AV can have positive impact
    • Conducive policies required for technology dissemination - only non-agricultural land is allocated to PV in India
    • 1059.64 MW solar plant on 2501.45 hectares in India - sequester 1,600,000 MT CO2 and 10000 MT of crop
    • Globally 4000 hectares occupied by solar; 143000 MT CO2/annum reduction and 100000 MT of produce

Combined land use of solar infrastructure and agriculture for socioeconomic and environmental co-benefits in the tropics[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: Elsevier; Publication: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews; Year: 2021; Lifetime: 30 years; PV Technology: Multi-crystalline; Location: Indonesia; PV Power: 1) full density - 400kWp/ha, 2) half density 200 kWp/ha ; Energy: 1376 kWh/kWp; Efficiency:
  • GHG emission offset
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High:372.2 and 630.9
      • Unit: Mg/hayr
    • Quantification Method: LCA
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Financial feasibility when compared to diesel electricity - reduced cost
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High:-12,257 vs -14702
      • Unit: million IDR
    • Quantification Method: Calculated - NPC (net present cost)
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Economic stability and less varaition of income
    • Quantified: Qualified
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Inferred
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Reduce deforestation
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 0.459 million hectares loss with AV vs 1.4 million hecatres loss with conventional PV
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Calculated
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Introduction
    • Solar PV increasing adoption - cost decrease and policy support key driving factors
    • Adopting solar PV on agricultural land provides several benefits - improved eff, water eff, improved yields etc
    • Non-electrified rural locations in Indonesia present unique opportunity for Agrivoltaics (AV) as they are away from grid and have sufficient sunlight
    • Patchouli seems a suitable crop for AV as it is shade tolerant, requires low maintenance, length is approx. 1m, 2-3 years of crop cycle, no machinery requirement, high price etc.
    • Objective: To perform LCA for a hectare of each: full density PV, half density PV, cultivation and processing of patchouli and hypothetical colocation in context of land use, energy and emissions
  • Materials and Methods
    • Four scenarios of 1ha land use: 1) full density 400kWp/ha; 2) cultivation of patchouli and yardlong with patchouli oil being extracted; 3) agrivoltaic with full density (400kWp/ha) and 4) agrivoltaic with half density (200kWp/ha)
  • LCA of PV
    • Multicrystalline tech as it is beneficial in tropical climates
    • 1660 modules in half density conf. per hectare while 3333 in full density - each module 0.120 kWp
    • 1376 kWh/kWp annual output of PV
    • Emission factor 79.7 g CO2-eq. /kWh
    • Various inputs/outputs considered for LCA
    • LCA of Patchouli Cultivation & Oil Extraction
      • 15 crop cycles for 30 years considered
      • 624 kg CO2 eq / ha emission factor introduced for yard-long beans which were introduced in the land for crop rotation purposes
  • Results and Discussion
    • Lifetime energy flux and GHG emissions
      • Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) of PAtchouli land use - mean 45.8 GJ/ha
      • CED of stand alone PV - mean 389.9 GJ/ha; same annual energy output for 400kWp AV
      • Annual GHG emission/ ha for standalone PV 39.1 MG/hayr; patchouli land use 63.2 Mg/hayr
      • PV land use resulted in 1907.5 GJ/hayr electricity - results in 630.9 Mg/hayr of GHG emission offset against diesel elec. generation and 372.2 Mg/hayr against grid emission
    • Sensitivity Analysis
      • GHG emission from PV alone - 39.1 Mg CO2eq /hayr
    • NPV
      • Standalone PV: - 20,730 million IDR
      • 200kWp AV: - 8,404 million IDR
      • PV electricity generation not profitable at wholesale rates
      • If wholesale not considered, net present cost (NPC) of 200kWp is -12,257 million IDR; less than diesel generation which is -14,702 million
      • Economic stability and less variation in income of famers
    • Land Use
      • Indonesion deforestion rate - highest among all nations
      • Agrivotlaics could reduce deforestation

Combining food and energy production: Design of an agrivoltaic system applied in arable and vegetable farming in Germany[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: Elsevier; Publication: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews; Year: 2021; Lifetime: 30 years; PV Technology: Fixed tilt 20 degree; Location: south east of Basen-Wurttemberg, Germany ; PV Power: 194.4 kWp; Energy: 236 MWh/annum; Efficiency:
  • Higher crop yield (potato, celeriac and winter wheat)
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: 12%, 11% and 3%
      • Unit: %
    • Quantification Method: Calculated
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments
  • Higher land equivalent ratio (productivity)
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: 1.56 to 1.87
      • Unit: Unitless
    • Quantification Method: Calculated
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments
  • Introduction
    • Land use conflict increasing with growing needs of population and PV diffusion
    • AV provides a solution - also beneficial in other regards (water conservation, plant protection etc.)
    • Objective: To ascertain technical feasibility of agrivoltaic plant, understand its design based on light simulation with Radiance software and determine the productivity of crops (potato, celeriac, winter wheat and clover grass)
    • Height of panels: 5m (vertical clearance); inter-rwo spacing 19m (width clearance)
  • Theoretic Background and Simulations for Design APV System
    • Crop Classification
      • Light availability - the only parameter considered for crops
      • Germany's crops divided into three classifications based on yield when under shade; +ve impact (Category PLUS); -ve impact (Category MINUS) and no impact (Category ZERO)
    • Simulations as a basis for design of APV
      • Light simulations performed via Radiance
      • Electrical output ascertained via ZENIT for APV configuration
        • Radiation distribution underneath PV - 20 degree tilt, height of panels 5m, simulations performed for different azimuth (0, 15, 30 and 45) and inter-row spacings
        • Biomass and electrical yield with regards to row spacing - normal row spacing (d) in Germany is 2.2 times the width of Pv for GMPV; for APV it was analysed considering the trade-off between agricultural and electricity demands
    • Biomass Yield
      • d varied from 2.2 to 7m and implications on crop yield ascertained based on available PAR when compared to no shade condition; azimuths also changed (0 and 45 degrees)
    • Electrical Yield
      • Determined as a function of row distance
    • Measuring benefits of APV: LER
      • Mounting structure took 0.23% of land but real losses were 8.3%
      • LER used for ascertained land productivity
  • Simulation Results
    • Orientation
      • More equal distribution of light when orientation changed from pure south to either of east/west directions (not much difference in distribution when changed from 30 degree to 45 degree)
    • Row Distance
      • Available radiation increases with row distance - different in different months
      • Biomass increases with increased row (as more PAR available)
      • PLUS crops have more than 100% crop yield at lowest d (2.8 or 3)
      • ZERO showed above 95% yield with higher d (changed with orientation as well, for instance, S d>4.7 and SW d>5.5)
      • MINUS required even higher row distances for 90% yield
      • In summers not much difference between S and SW facing, in winters 5% higher elec. yield for S
      • 80% of reference crop yield targetted - consideration for row distancing
      • Row distance best for APV for SW - 2.8 times the width of the panel
    • Electrical yield prediction
      • 94.4% performance ratio for APV system
  • Practical implementation and results of the case study
    • Engineering and installation of the APV system
      • Orientation: SW for homogenous irradiance
      • Ancjoring rods used as foundation - not concrete; quick installation, easy dismantling, no adverse impact on ground
      • Bifacial PVs used
    • Electrical yield in first year of operation
      • 246 MWh of electricity during first yr of operation - conventional PV would produce 295.4 MWH i.e., 17% higher (with monofacial PVs)
      • 2017 - reduction in yield: clover grass 5%, celeriac 18%, potato 19%, winter wheat (not mentioned)
      • 2018 -- yiled reduction in clover grass 8%, increased yield: winter wheat 3%, potato 11% and celeriac 12%
    • Land use efficiency
      • Between 1.56 and 1.7 in 2017 and 1.67 and 1.87 in 2018
      • Higher in 2018 due to weatehr - warmer
  • Discussion
    • Row distance, tradeoff between agricultural and electrical yield, type of crop are some questions going forward
    • Shading considered the only parameter affecting crop, there are other factors as well
    • 1700 GW of APV potentially feasible in Germany

Comparative analysis of photovoltaic configurations for agrivoltaic systems in Europe[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: Wiley; Publication: ; Year: 2021; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: Mono-crystalline; Location: ; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:
  • Introduction
    • Covering 0.3% of land by PV will address the current demands of electricity of the world
    • Agricultural land accounts for 9.6% of total world land
    • With AV, shadowing can help plants - up to 20% less irrigation needs in drier climates
    • Objective: Ascertain potential of AV across Europe using three different configurations (single axis tracking, vertical bifacial and fixed tilt)
    • Vertical and tracking manifests even distribution of light as compared to fixed tilt
  • Investigated Agrivoltaic Configurations
    • Optimal tilted
      • South facing, monofacial fixed tilt
    • Hori single-axis tracking (SAT)
      • N-S oriented and movement along east-west, monofacial
    • Vertical bifacial
      • N-S oriented facing east-west
  • Methods/Experimental Procedures
    • Spacing between rows 2 m for fixed tilt and 1 m for SAT and vert. bifacial
    • Height of PV modules - 1m, 2m or 3m; inter-row spacing 3m, 4.5m, 6m, 7.5m, 9m and 12m
    • Direct, diffuse and albedo solar radiation reach the panels
    • Comparison of different types of systems is carried out by electrical output
    • Under a standard solar spectrum; PAR = 4.56micromol/m2s
    • Three crop categories considered: requiring low, medium and high radiation
  • Results and Discussion
    • System evaluation for Northern location with low irradiance
      • SAT highest el. output followed by fixed tilt and verticals
      • As panels height increase, more electricity is produced
      • As row spacing increases, elec. output decreases
      • In winter, fixed tilt produces more energy than the other two systems
      • Verticals have better price weighted ele. yield in Denmark as there is a dip in el. price during mid day
      • 56% irradiation reaches ground for fixed tilt systems
      • Min. irradiance levels for verticals is 77.6%
      • With SAT, min irradiance received is 78%
      • For low and mid radiation crop, high el. yields can be achieved while 80% land is maintained for crops
      • For high radiation crops, high el. yield will be at the cost of cropland
      • SAT provides better combination of el. yield and crops but has higher expense
      • To maintain 80% land suitable for corpoping, verticals and fixed tilt provide el. yield of 30 kWh/m2
    • Extension of the anlaysis to Europe
      • With decrease in latitude, el. yield increases for all three config SAT>fixed>verticals
      • Price weighted el. yield is better for fixed and vertical - may differ depending on the country
      • Agricultural Land suitable for AV - arable land, permanent crops and pasture
      • Verticals potential in Mdtjylland - 215 TWh/year
      • Southern and eastern parts of Europe more suitable
      • Vertical bifacials can produce 71,500 TWh elec. in Europe

Computational fluid dynamics modelling of microclimate for a vertical agrivoltaic system[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: Elsevier; Publication: Energy Nexus; Year: 2023; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: monocrystalline Si,Vertical bifacials; Location: Vasteras, Sweden; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:
  • Water savings
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 14 - 29
      • Unit: %
    • Quantification Method: Calculation (quoted from other study)
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Introduction
    • Growth in human population and economy will increase energy demands significantly
    • PV most promising sourc erenewable el. generation
    • Farming accounts for 70 % of fresh water usage world-wide
    • AV can tackle both the issues
    • Light intensity is considered the most important parameter for plant growth, especially shade intolerant crops
    • Daily light integral between 0.69 to 3.71 negatively impacted plant growth
    • AV beneficial for water conservation in water scarce areas
    • Irrigation savings between 14 to 29
    • CFD simulations have been used to predict the microclimate in literature - very limited work though on AV configuration
    • Objective: To analyse and predict the microclimate of vertical AV using CFD
  • Method
    • Vertical bifacial facing east west located in Vasteras, Sweden with 10m row spacing
    • Solidworks used to perform the simulations, Navier Stokes equation used for solving fluid region
    • Height of PV panel/structure 2.8m
    • Validation of model performed from data obtained using a weather station
    • Parameters used in CFD model as inputs: Global hor irr., ambient temp., diffuse hor irradiance, wind speed and direction
  • Results and Discussion
    • Model validation
      • Solar irradiance variation between model and measurement 10-20 W/m2; model underestimates
      • Shaded areas received 38% less solar radiation
      • 0-2oC module temperature difference between model and measurements of thermal camera
      • Ground temp error<1oC between model and measurement
    • Microclimatic variation within an agrivoltaic system
      • Wind speed decreased at 0-0.5m height
      • Highest air temperature observed at PV modules from the model (0.3oC higher)

Conceptual Design and Rationale for a New Agrivoltaics Concept: Pasture-Raised Rabbits and Solar Farming[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: Elsevier; Publication: Journal of Cleaner Production; Year: 2021; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: Crystalline silicon; Location: Pennsylvania and Wisconsin, US; PV Power: 314kW; Energy: 381 MWh and 433 MWh; Efficiency:
  • Reduced carbon dioxide emissions
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 16 to 40 gCO2/kWh from PV compared to 909 gCO2/kWh from coal
      • Unit: gCO2/kWh
    • Quantification Method: LCA
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • More efficient use of land for climate neutral energy production comapred to combining coal and carbon capture/sequestration
    • Quantified: Qualified
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Animal welfare and quality of life
    • Quantified: Qualified
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • No requirement of tree removals for PV installation
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 36
      • Unit:gCO2/kWh
    • Quantification Method: Calculated (Adopted from other study)
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Reduction in carbon emissino by synergizing PV and rabbit-raising
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 36
      • Unit:gCO2/kWh
    • Quantification Method: Calculated (Adopted from other study)
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Introduction
    • PV is the cheapest source of power in the world
    • Large use of land may create conflict; issue of food security also exists
    • Agrivoltaics - dual use of land - can address these issues
    • Objective: Investigate pasture-fed rabbit based agrivoltaics
  • Methods
    • Grazing density of Rabbits
      • Basline for yield of rabbits adopted from DeForest, Wisconsin
      • Forage (Alfalfa) available for rabbits determined
      • No. of rabbits based on available pasture are determined - conservative analysis
    • Conceptual design for rabbit-based agrivoltaics
      • Based on 1 hectare
      • Fence 1.1m high and 0.46m below ground
      • Fixed tilt, 30 degree, rows 5m apart, 1048 300W modules, 314kW peak capacity
      • Movable fences provided to graze different areas of farm
    • Economic analysis
      • Herbicide spray and mowing are normally used ways for contorlling unwanted vegetation - not required in PV farm when rabbits are grazing there
      • Revenue of PV based on average PPA pricing from previous literature 0 SAM used for elec. output calculations
      • Revenue from rabbit - selling meat and fur
    • Sustainability/carbon benefits of PV + Rabbits
      • CO2 emission gets reduced by employing PVs
      • Also, rabbits are better environmentally than cows
  • Results and discussion
    • 381 MWh and 433 MWh energy output in Pennsylvania and Wisconsin, US
    • 6-15 and 15-33 rabbits can be raised in PA and WI on agrivoltaic plants
    • 1-8% increase in revenue due to reduciton in O&M cost caused by grazing rabbits
    • Renting the PV array could be financially feasible
    • People experiencing renewables are more supportive of the tech. -AV could be used for outreach
    • Quality of life of rabbits under AV better than industry standards
    • No requirement of tree removal for solar installation reduces carbon footprint (36gCO2/kWh)
    • CO2 emissions from rabbits 3.6kgCO2eq/kg live weight is less than cows

Crop-Specific Optimization of Bifacial PV Arrays for Agrivoltaic Food-Energy Production: The Light-Productivity-Factor Approach[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: IEEE; Publication: ; Year: 2022; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: crystalline Silicon; Location: Lahore, Pakistan; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:
    • Quantified:
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Introduction
    • Agrivoltaics can address issues of land-use conflict associated with PV, water conservation, climate change etc.
    • To reduce shading, 4-7m height of PV in AV and with lower density, but recently, more dense systems have been installed as well
    • Amount of light available to panels and PAR available for crops could be one of the parameters to design AV plant
    • Objective: To present a crop-specific parameter that could predict the AV plant performance considering the PV design adopted; uses availability of useful PAR at crop level compared to control conditions; idenitfy farm productivity for bifacial vertial E/W and fixed tilt N/S; farm productivity of different SAT, variation in farm productivity for fixed and variable tilt systems
  • Modelling Approach
    • Integrated Model for PV Energy Yield and PAR
      • 2D model considered - PV generated due to solar radiation intercepted and PAR transmitted under the panels
      • PV energy and incident PAR are ascertained using view factor approach which determines the sunlight intercepted
    • PV Array Configurations
      • Full density - GCR 0.5 and half density - GCR 0.25
      • Fixed tilt N-S mono, vertical bifacials, single axis tracking for E-W facing bifacials considered
        • Trackings considered: Standard tracking (ST), reverse tracking (RT) and control tracking (CT)
    • Useful PAR Yield and Light Productivity Factor
      • Above a threashold PAR, the photosynthesis rate for crops is negatively impacted
      • Based on ratio of intergated PAR (400nm to 700nm) to integrated global standard sunlight spectrum, amount of irradiance received under control condition and on the panel, and the difference of it, the PAR for AV system available for crop is determined
      • Threshold PAR for lettuce, turnip and corn are 213, 469 and 685 W/m2 resp.
      • Yield ratio for daily useful PAR = Y(PAR) = PARuseful,AV/PARuseful,open
      • PV energy yield ratio = Y(PV) = PV energy for AV/PV for standard solar farm
      • LPF = Y(PV) + Y(PAR)
      • LER uses crop yield either from simulation or field measurement - LPF uses PAR which is a good representation (dir. proportional) of crop yield
  • Results
    • Fixed Tilt Agrivoltaic Bifacial Farms (vertical E-W vs standard N-S)
      • PAR reduces as density increases for both config.
      • E-W; PAR reduces more during morning and evening, N-S; PAR reduces more during mid-day
      • Considering threshold PAR, for low density arrays, for corn E/W system better, for lettuce N-S
    • Tracking Agrivoltaic Bifacial Farms
      • ST has reduced PAR as compared to RT - noticable difference for full density confi in morning and evening
      • For half density configu, not much difference btw three strategies
      • ST provide less than 60% Y(PAR) for full density configuration except for lettuce
      • RT increase Y(PAR) to 80% for all crops except during hot months (only for corn)
      • For half density, ST shows Y(PAR) above 80% for all crops in all seasons
      • Y(PV) lowest for RT and highest for ST - vice versa true for Y(PAR)
      • For half density conf, disparity between Y(PV), Y(PAR)
      • Max. LPF 1.6 for half density and 1.9 for full density arrays
    • Model Comparison with Experimental Data
      • Comparison performed using published data in Germany for winter and potato
      • PAR for potato 1000 micromol/m2-s and 504 micromol/m2-s
      • Potato yield lies within the range of YPAR while for winter wheat, it exceelds
    • AV Farm Design Under Y(PAR) Constraint
      • Y(PAR) may not be acceptable for crop yield; a min value can be fixed (e.g. 80%)
      • For shade tolerant lettuce, LPF=1.9 can be achieved for full arrray density for verticals and fixed tilts; with ST implementation LPF =1.8 and 2 for half and 1.4-1.9 full array densities
      • For moderate shade tolerant crop; LPF 1.5-1.9 for N-S with 3/4 array density in winters and full array density in spring; LPF 1.4-1.5 for E-W for winters and springs
      • For shade intolerant crops; LPF =1.3 for all seasons for half and 3/4 array density; with ST, half density is fine but requires RT for full density (though ST is better amongst the two)
      • For turnip, CT is better while ST fails due to lower Y(PAR)

Design of agrivoltaic system to optimize land use for clean energy‑food production: a socio‑economic and environmental assessment[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: Springer; Publication: Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy; Year: 2022; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: Polycrystalline; Location: Odisha, India; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:
  • Increased economic value of farmland
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: LER: 1.42, benefit/cost (B/C) ratio: 1.86; PPR: 0.75
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Calculation
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments
  • Water efficiency
    • Quantified: Qualified
    • Low or High: LER:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Introduction
    • 0.012 billion hectares of land is lost every year to drought/desertification
    • Major sources of GHGs - electricity and heat contribute 31% and agriculture 12%
    • Solar can reduce carbon footprint by 0.82 kg/kWh
    • Agrivotlaics is increasingly being adopted - various advantages
    • Solar PV is expanding in India - 55GW installations in 2021 and about 100 GW expected in 2022
    • Objective: Present three different designing techniques for AV using SOLIDWORKS
    • A double-row 6kW installation is best suited in terms of economics when turmeric is grown
  • Materials and Method
    • Location: Odisha, India
    • Design of agrivoltaics system
      • Conventional PV - 1MW per 3-4 acres for crystalline panels and 4-6 acres for thin-film PVs
      • Three configurations: Single row PV with continuous panels; singe row PV with gap b/w panels and double row PV with continuous panels in lowe row and gaps b/w panels in upper row
      • Different gaps to understand light utility for farming and power production
      • 75W panels used, polycrystalline technology
    • Energy production from AV
      • 6kW double row system installed on 14m2 area
    • Food production from AVS
      • Turmeric assessed in the study
    • Combined energy and food production
      • Most solar cells use UV and IR for electricity generation
      • Ddouble row designs is better for crop production and revenue
      • Price performance ratio = annual extra cost fror maintaining farmland/production value; less than 1 for AV to be beneficial
    • Environmental risk and sensitivity assessment
      • 40-60% shading seems appropriate in terms of crop productivity
      • Sensitivity analysis performed based on incident irradiation and energy output of AV
  • Results and discussion
    • Fixed tilt system; optimum tilt = latitude or 10 degrees less than latitude
    • 1-3oC less temperature of panels - higher efficiency
    • Annual revenue 2121.6 USD when turmeric is grown on 40.47m2 land with 6kWp solar
    • Turmeric shows highest returns while potatoes the lowest; other crops considered gingers and vegetables
    • Annual maximum revenue for turmeric, gingerm potato and vegetable 67.57, 144.49, 112.38, and 160.54 USD resp.
    • PV revenue: 1, 100, and 1000 kW is 81.88, 8210.42, and 77,528.7 USD
    • LER: 1.42, benefit/cost (B/C) ratio: 1.86; PPR: 0.75 and PBP: 7-8 years with turmeric

Discussion: Avoid severe (future) soil erosion from agrivoltaics[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: Elsevier; Publication: Science of the Total Environment; Year: 2022; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: ; Location: ; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:
  • Plant-use water efficiency and water conservation
    • Quantified: Qualified (adopted from other study)
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Reduced soil erosion by reducing rainsplash
    • Quantified: Qualified
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Risk of soil erosion and requirement of biochar-based farming solutions discussed
  • Regions with highest PV potential are the most risked in terms of soil erosion
  • Rainfall intensity is expected to increase this century - more soil erosion (30-66%)
  • Improvements in soil sponge function imperative
    • can be done by increasing organic content of soil or cover cropping
    • Traditional elements for increasing organic content take a lot of time; biochar can do it in single application

Economic Potential for Rainfed Agrivoltaics in Groundwater- Stressed Regions[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: ACS; Publication: Environmental Science and Technology Letters; Year: 2020; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: ; Location: ; PV Power: 1MW; Energy: ; Efficiency:
  • Reduced ground water depletion
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 150
      • Unit: km3
    • Quantification Method: Calculations
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments
  • Avoiding CO2 costs
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 75-200
      • Unit: USD/tCO2
    • Quantification Method: Calculations
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments
  • Introduction
    • Restructing ground water use may affect farming
    • AV - can colocate rainfed crops and PV generation
    • Objective: What are the financial implications of leaving irrigated farming in favor of rainfed agrivoltaics in ground-water stressed locations
  • Materials and Methods
    • Global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB is used to identify ground-water stressed regions; regions where non-renewable groundwater extraction is employed
    • PV and wind data at groundwater stressed regions is generated based MERRA-2 reanalysis of satellite measurements - comparison b/w solar and wind performed
    • LCOE of agrivoltaic energy at groundwater stressed location is determined - loss of agricultural land when switching to rainfed option is also considered
    • Eight crops considered: wheat, rice, maize, pulses, cotton, sugar cane, fruit, and vegetables - Global Agro-Ecological Zones (GAEZ) model used for crop yield determination
    • CO2 emission implications assessed using United Nations’ ACM0002 baseline methodology for CDM projects
  • Results and Discussion
    • AV global potential on groundwater stressed lands - 11.2-37.6 PWh/yr
    • 150 km3 of groundwater depletion could be displaced if rainfed farming is adopted
    • 50-100USD/MWh levelized cost of agrivoltaic
    • 75-200 USD/tCO2 CO2 cost avoided
    • Solar PV potential outperforms wind potential - with typical AV configuration, PV has higher power per unit area as compared to wind
    • Yield losses are minimal when transforming to rainfed agrivotlaic farming practice

Effects of different photovoltaic shading levels on kiwifruit growth, yield and water productivity under “agrivoltaic” system in Southwest China[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: Elsevier; Publication: Agricultural Water Management; Year: 2022; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: Thin film amporphous silicon; Location: Chengdu Plains, China; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:
  • Reduced evapotranspiration; reduced irrigation
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: in 2019 CKL 500.4, T1 416.5, T2 359.1, T3 347.1; in 2020 CKL 517.9, T1 471.9, T2 383.1, T3 365.4
      • Unit: mmol/m2s
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Water productivity
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: T1 8.2% and T2 5.8% compared to CKL while for T3 reduced 9.8%
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Measurement
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Higher Relative Humidity (RH)
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 6.5% higher in T3 compared to CKL
      • Unit: %
    • Quantification Method: Measurement
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Increased Leaf Area Index
    • Quantified: In the form of plot
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Higher Light Use Efficiency under shading
    • Quantified: In the form of plot for selected data
    • Low or High:
      • Unit: micromol/micromol
    • Quantification Method: Calculated
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Protect crops from excessive light
    • Quantified: Qualified - adopted from another study
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Potential increase in crop yield and water conservation as PV electricity can power drip irrigation
    • Quantified: Qualified - in Discussion
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Reduction in CO2
    • Quantified: Qualified - adopted from other study
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Introduction
    • PV panels impact the microclimate in AV configuration - subsequent impact on plant morphology, also impacts water requirements as well as photosynthesis
    • 9.8% PV roof coverage did not significantly impact tomoatoes yield; higher coverage can be detrimental though
    • Kiwifruit - shade tolerant hence, chosen for study
    • Objective: To ascertain if microclimate changes under PV, whether kiwifruit growth can adapt to PV shading and also, the impact of shading on crop yield
  • Materials and Methods
    • Location: Changdu Plain, China; Panels mounted on roof 3.0m above the ground, Fixed tilt 16o south oriented included alternate panels and hollow PC sheets, while north oriented were PC sheets only tilt 28o
    • Panels: Thin-film amorphous silicon abosrbing blue and green spectrum and transmitting red; transmission rate of panels: 19%
    • Four config: Full sun (CKL), 19% coverage (T1), 30.4% coverage (T2), and 38% coverage (T3)
    • Irrigation qty and freq same for all the four config
    • Air temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation measured through weather station for outside environment and inside the AV setup through individual instrumentation
    • Leaf area index, chlorophyll content, transpiration rate, photosynthetic rate, sap flux density, daily soil evaporation were also measured
    • Kiwifruit shape parameters, growth rate and total were also determined
    • Statistical analysis was also performed to understand the impact of PV shading on microclimate, kiwifruit yield and water content
  • Results
    • Microclimate
      • Radiation reduction for T1, T2 and T3: 43.8 ± 0.6%, 50.5 ± 0.6%, and 55.0 ± 0.5% resp.
      • PAR reduction for T1, T2 and T3: 54.3%, 70.8% and 78.7% resp.
    • Effects of different PV coverage ratios on leaf water/light use efficiency
      • Evaporation rate, transpiration rate and photosynthetic rate decreases with increased shading
      • Light use efficiency increased with shading
    • Effects of different PV coverage ratio on kiwifruit volume
      • Highest volume of kiwifruit in 2018 in T1; in 2019 and 2020 in CKL
      • Yield reduction in 2018: 2.6%, 20.4% and 39.4%; in 2019 6.5%, 25.0% and 26.8%; in 2020 5.1%, 27.7% and 37.1%
  • Discussion
    • Effect of PV shading on Microclimate
      • No significant impact on temperature but RH 6.5% higher in T3 compared to CKL
    • Performance of kiwifruit morphology under PV shading
      • Leaf chlorophyll ocntent not impacted by shading significantly
      • Increased leaf area index, hence, better light interception compensating shading
    • Leaf photosynthesis and water use of kiwifruit under PV shading
      • Transpirate rate and photosynthesis rate decreases with increased shading; both closely related to PAR
      • Water use efficiency more impacted by photosynthetic rate than transpiration rate, hence lower
      • Protection of corps from excessive radiation
      • Reduced evapotranspiration might result in reduced irrigation requirements (some studies showed higher transpiration due to increased vegetative growth) - here as well as T2 was slightly higher than T3
    • Performance of kiwifruit volume and yield under PV shading
      • Yield reduced with shading - PAR reduction impacts yield
    • Previous studies suggest 30% coverage, latest 20%
  • Conclusion
    • 19% shading recommended

Effects of shade and deficit irrigation on maize growth and development in fixed and dynamic AgriVoltaic systems[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: Elsevier; Publication: Agricultural Water Management; Year: 2023; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: Monocrystalline; Location: Montpellier, France; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:
  • Protection of crops from excessive light
    • Quantified: Adopted from another study
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Water savings from reduced irrigation need
    • Quantified: Adopted from another study
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Reduced Evapotranspiration
    • Quantified: Quanitfied
    • Low or High: DI: water inputs lower than ETo, by 21–44% in control, by 6–23% in SAT and by 9–10% in AVhalf; NI: 51-53% lower water inputs in control but 6-17% in AVfull
    • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Slower soil drying
    • Quantified: Quanitfied (trend analysis)
    • Low or High:
    • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Calculations
    • Implication analyzed: reduced irrigation and better soil water conservation
    • Comments
  • Reduced irrigation requirements with shading
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: SAT and AVhalf b/w 19-35%; AVful 47%
    • Unit: %
    • Quantification Method: Calculations
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments
  • Improved water productivity of irrigation
    • Quantified: Yes
    • Low or High: Different for different conditions
    • Unit: kg/m3
    • Quantification Method: Calculations
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments
  • Introduction
    • Climate change to -vely impact food production, water availability etc.; impact on maize
    • Without irrigation supply, global cereal production expected to reduce 47%
    • AV can protect crops by intecepting excessive radiation; reduce irrigation needs
    • AV can also -vely impact crop charateristics (yield, morphology etc.)
    • Objective: Understand implications of radiation, crop development and irrigation for maize with different AV configuration
  • Materials and Methods
    • Location: Montpellier, France;
    • Air temperature (Tair), Relative Humidity of the air (RH), Incident Global Radiation (Rg), Reference Evapotranspiration (ETo), Rainfall (R), Total global radiation, wind speed and soil water potential - measured parameters
      • Reference evapotranspiration calculated with equation
      • relative humidity, air temperature and wind speed considered same as full sun considering height of PVs
    • PV panels held 4m above the ground; AVfull/AVhalf two fixed tilt configutaion at 25o using monocrystalline panels; AV half has one row removed from conventional solar plant called AVfull here
    • AVfull cause 50% irradiation reduction; AVhalf 30%
    • Two single-axis tracking systems use monocrystalline panels; maximize solar interception by PV; shading 35%
    • Three different irrigation treatments: Fully irrigated (FI), Deficit Irrigated (DI), and Not Irrigated (NI)
    • Daily Growing Degree-days = Tmean-Tbase used for evaluating relationship with leaf number
    • Plant gas exchange also monitored to understand implication of PAR on photosynthesis and stomatal conductance
  • Results
    • Impact of solar panels on agrometeorological variables
      • RH and wind not considered due to marginal differences, air temperature and radiation anlaysed
      • Shading rate: SAT: 29-38%, AVhalf 30-35% and AVfull 54-56%
      • DI: water inputs lower than ETo, by 21–44% in control, by 6–23% in SAT and by 9–10% in AVhalf
      • NI: 51-53% lower water inputs in control but 6-17% in AVfull
      • Temperature reduction under the panels b/w 0-1.5oC on average; daily variation higher between -5 and 3oC
      • Homogenous irradiation distribution in SAT as compared to fixed tilts
      • More scatterred irradiation in AVhalf atha nAVfull
    • Soil water dynamics
      • Slower soil drying results in better water conservation and reduced irrigation
      • Different in inter panels and under panels for AVhalf as compared to SAT; soil drying slower in inter-panels
    • Phenology and vegetative growth
      • Delay under AV for all configuration to reach flowering and emergence compared to control
      • No. of leaves highest in FI control plot; highly depend on shading/non-shading
      • Lead Area Index decresed with decreased irradiation or water limitation
    • Stomatal response to shade
      • In non-limiting conditions, PAR, leaf temp, net assimilation rate and stomatal conductance increases till mid day and then decrease; same for AV configuration with intermittent shading instances
      • Impact of PAR evident on net assimilation rate and stomatal conductance
    • Crop production
      • Total dry matter (TDM) and dry grain yield (DGY) reduce with reduced irrigation and radiation
      • Shading reduces irrigation requirement - SAT and AVhalf b/w 19-35%; AVful 47%
      • Yields in SAT/AVhalf under FI almost equal to control under DI
      • Water productivity of irrrigation higher in AV
  • Discussion
    • Phenological and growth responses of maize to radiative and water stresses
      • Delay in plant emergence due to shading observed
      • Radiation (and not only thermal time) impacts the time interval between sequential emergence of leaves; can be a good measure for determining the same in AV
      • TDM, GT, LAI reduced with reduced irradiation
    • Intermittent sahding in AV as a way to manage water scarcity
      • Shading strategies can be devised for better crop development

Effects on Crop Development, Yields and Chemical Composition of Celeriac (Apium graveolens L. var. rapaceum) Cultivated Underneath an Agrivoltaic System[edit | edit source]

  • Publisher: MDPI; Publication: Agronomy; Year: 2021; Lifetime:; PV Technology: ; Location: ; PV Power: ; Energy: 246MWh; Efficiency:
  • Increase yield and improve water use eff.
    • Quantified: Qualified (adopted from other study)
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Higher soil moisture
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 1.9% higher in 2017, 3.1% lower in 2018
      • Unit: %
    • Quantification Method: Calculations
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments
  • Higher plant height
    • Quantified
    • Low or High: 14% higher in 2017 and 30.6% higher in 2018
      • Unit: %
    • Quantification Method: Calculations
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments
  • Higher yield
    • Quantified
    • Low or High: Dry matter above ground biomass 48% higher in 2017 and 31.9% in 2018; Bulb yield 18.9% lower in 2017 and 11.8% higher in 2018
      • Unit: %, ton/ha
    • Quantification Method: Calculations
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments
  • Soil temperature reduction
    • Quantified
    • Low or High: 1.2oC in 2017 and 1.4oC in 2018
      • Unit: %, oC
    • Quantification Method: Calculations
    • Implication analyzed: Increased yield in 2018; diminishes adverse impact of excessive radiation
    • Comments
  • Introduction
    • Yield reductions of upto 20% can occur under AV
    • Under water scarcity, AV beneficial and can increase yield, imporve water use eff.
    • 4 crops considered: Celeriac, winter wheat, grass-clover and potato
    • Crop yields decreased in 2017:18.7% (wheat), 18.2% (potatoes) and 5.3% (grassclover); in creased in 2018: 2.7% (wheat) 11% (potatoes); grass-clover yields by 7.8%
    • 246MWh of energy produced - 83% of conventional solar plant
    • Objective: To study impact of AV on celeriac including quality/chemical composition
  • Material & Methods
    • Various instrumentation to monitor microclimate installed; PAR as well
    • Crop development measured every two weeks
  • Results & Discussion
    • PAR reduced 29.5%
    • Soil temperature reduced 1.2oC in 2017 and 1.4oC in 2018
    • Soil moisture 1.9% higher in 2017, 3.1% lower in 2018
    • Air humidity 2.8% higher in AV compared to control
    • No difference in yearly mean air temperature
    • Higher plant height in AV; 14% higher in 2017 and 30.6% higher in 2018
    • Dry matter above ground biomass 48% higher in 2017 and 31.9% in 2018
    • Bulb yield 18.9% lower in 2017 and 11.8% higher in 2018; shading helped celeriac in 2018
    • Dry weather conditions rendered lower results for control and AV when compared with national average
    • Higher above ground biomass resulted in higher bulb yield
    • Chemical composition - not much affected by treatements but only by year; Cpncentration of C, Ni and Mn decreased, rest only affected by year

Efficiency Improvement of Ground-Mounted Solar Power Generation in Agrivoltaic System by Cultivation of Bok Choy (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis L.) Under the Panels[edit | edit source]

Publisher: CBIROE; Publication: International Journal of Renewable Energy Development; Year: 2021; Lifetime:; PV Technology: Amorphous; Location: Chiang Mai Rajabhat University, Thailand; PV Power: 25kW system; 2.28kW of power generation; Energy: ; Efficiency:

  • Introduction
    • By 2036, Thailand intend to increase solar PV installatios to 6000MW
    • Increase in solar can cause land use issues - can be addressed through AV
    • Objective: To ascertain efficiency improvement of solar PV when installed above cultivated land
  • Materials and Methods
    • Location: Chiang Mai Rajabhat University, Thailand; 5 arrays; 25kWp total installed capacity; amorphous PV modules; Crop: Bok Choy
    • Solar radiation, temperatuer of modules, voltage and current measurements recorded
    • Plant characteristics such as height, number of leaves etc. measured every 7 days; crop yield also measured
  • Results and Discussion
    • 0.18oC lower solar panel temperature
    • Higher power generation than control configuration; 2.28 and 2.12 kW vs 2.06kW in control
    • No significant difference in height of plans, although, thinner/smaller stems; no. of leaves lower as well as leaf size and weights also lower
    • Shading could cause 64% solar intensity reduction 1200 micromol/m-s to 74 micromol/m-s
    • Increase in power generation - approx. 0.09%

Not our scope

Emergent molecular traits of lettuce and tomato grown under wavelength-selective solar cells[edit | edit source]

Publisher: Frontiers; Publication: Frontiers in Plant Science; Year: 2023; Lifetime:; PV Technology: Organic Solar Cell (OSC) ; Location: ; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:

  • Improved photosynthesis
    • Quantified: Quantified - from figures/graphs
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Calculation
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Increased anthoyacin content
    • Quantified: Quantified - from figures/graphs
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Calculation
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Abstract
    • Semitransparent OSC effect electricity output as well as crop growth
    • Three different OSC filters used; lettuce and tomato grown
    • Lettuce yield not affected by AV; instead benefitted in terms of nutrient content and nitrogen utilization
  • Introduction
    • 70% increase in food demand until 2050
    • Greenhouse more productive for crop growth, less water requirements, less pesticide/fertilizer use, provide shelter to plants from drought/heat/flood
    • Field crops damage due to weather in US in 2021 - 8 billion USD
    • Greenhouses are energy intensive, carbon footprint negative when compared to conventional crop if fossil fuels used in greenhouses
    • OSCs impact light spectrum as well as intensity
    • Blue and red light spectrum more efficiency used by plants for photosynthesis
    • Objective: To determine the impact of OSC on shade tolerant lettuce and shade intolerant tomato under simulated OSC greenhouse condition
    • No adverse impact on biomass
  • Results
    • Light use: similar spectra as natural light
    • Biomass remained unaffected by different OSC filter
    • Photosynthesis improved in OSC when compared to control for lettuce, tomato same but transpiration rate decreased
    • Anthocyanin content for OSC in lettuce increased
  • Discussion
    • The physiology of the plants changed with variation in light quality under different OSC filters

All related to Plant Sciences

Energy Policy for Agrivoltaics in Alberta Canada[edit | edit source]

Publisher: MDPI; Publication: Energies; Year: 2022; Lifetime:; PV Technology: ; Location: ; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:

  • Reduced GHGs, climate change, improved health, increased crop yield, increased land use efficiency, changed microclimate beneficial for crops, increased land productivity, water conservation, maintaining agricultural employment, on farm production of ammonia/hydrogen, charge EVs etc.
    • Quantified: Adopted from other studies
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Introduction
    • AV can address land-use conflicts
    • Objective: To anlayze policies impacting AV in Alberta, Canada
  • AV Background
    • AV benefits - Reduced GHGs, climate change, improved health, increased crop yield, increased land use efficiency, changed microclimate beneficial for crops, increased land productivity, water conservation, maintaining agricultural employment, on farm production of ammonia etc.
    • Canada is behind other nations of the world in AV technology
    • Land-use policies could play a vital role in its diffusion/deterrence
  • Alberta
    • Solar potential of Alberta higher than Tokyo, Paris etc. - 1276 kWh/kW
    • 30% of electricity to come from renewable until 2030 - aim
    • Solar PV regulations in Alberta - micro, small scale, utility scale, based on installed MW
    • Ample opportunities for AV in Alberta in context of AFA, climate smart agriculture etc.
  • Policies Review for Agrivoltaics in Alberta
    • Land Use Framework
    • Alberta Land Stewarship Act
    • Municipal Government Act
    • Agricultural Operation Practices Act (AOPA)
    • Soil Conservation Act
    • Bill 22
    • Special Area Disposition Regulation
    • Electricity from AV can be used to charge EV cars or produce hydrogen as transportation fuel

Evaluation of solar photovoltaic systems to shade cows in a pasture-based dairy herd[edit | edit source]

Publisher: Elsevier; Publication: Journal of Dairy Science;Year: 2021; Lifetime: 25 to 30 years; PV Technology: ; Location: Minnesota, US; PV Power: 30kW; Energy: ; Efficiency:

  • Lower respiration rate
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 66.4 breaths/min vs 78.3 breaths/min)
      • Unit: breathes/min
    • Quantification Method: Measurement/calculation
    • Implication analyzed: Increase well-being, reduced heat stress
    • Comments
  • Lower body temp
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 39.0 vs 39.2°C & 39.3 vs39.4°C,
      • Unit: oC
    • Quantification Method:Measurement/calculation
    • Implication analyzed: Increased well-being, reduced heat stress
    • Comments
  • Introduction
    • Climate change to cause increase in average temperatures
    • Above 25oC - cows can develop heat stress; 900 million $ of production losses in dairy sector in US caused by heat stress
    • Temp-humidity index - measure to estimate implication of heat stress in terms of milk production etc.; 68 to 72 in cows means heat stress and reduced milk output/fertility
    • Objective: Implication of PV shading on the production, health, and behavior of cows
  • Materials and Methods
    • Morris, Minnesota, US; 30-kW facility; 35o facing south panels, 2.4 to 3m above ground
    • 24 cows divided into 4 groups of 6 each; pasture/forage fed; divided into shaded or non-shaded treatments
    • 4 periods of grazing; first 7-day long and remaining 5-days considering availability of pasture
    • Weather data acquird from weather stations
    • Fly count, fly avoidance behaviorm respiration, hygiene score, daily milk production was monitored; ear flicks, tail swishes, foot stomps, head tosses and skin twitches also noted
    • Sensors used to monitor body temperature, cow activity etc.
    • Use of shade was noted; observation of cows if they were utilizing the shade
    • Statistical analysis performed with PROC GLIMMIX, PROC MIXED - SAS
  • Results and Discussion
    • THI values b/w 73.3 and 77.4; cows experience mild heat stress
    • Shaded cows had more ear flicks (11.4 ear flicks/30 s) than no-shade cows (8.6 ear flicks/30 s); dirtier bellies and lower legs (2.2 and 3.2, resp) than no-shade cows (1.9 and 2.9, resp) as well
    • In the afternoon, shade cows showed lower respiration rates (66.4 breaths/min) than no-shade cows (78.3 breaths/min); similar in morning
      • Less than 60 breathes/min indicative of no heat stress in cows
    • From 1200 to 1800 h and 1800 to 0000 h, shade cows had lower body temperature (39.0 and 39.2°C, resp) than no-shade cows (39.3 and 39.4°C, resp)
    • B/w milking times (0800 and 1600 h), shaded cows had lower body temperature (38.9°C) than no-shade cows (39.1°C)
    • No difference in fly intensity; milk, fat and protein production b/w shaded and non-shaded cows; similar drinking bout, hourly activity, eating etc.
    • Cows spent 38% to 44% of time in shade

Greener sheep: Life cycle analysis of integrated sheep agrivoltaic systems[edit | edit source]

Publisher: Elsevier; Publication: Cleaner energy systems;Year: 2022; Lifetime: 30 years; PV Technology: silicon; Location: New York, Texas and Wyoming, US ; PV Power: 6.67 MW; Energy: ; Efficiency:

  • Higher land use eff, water use eff, increaed crop yield, improved microclimate, animal well being, 69.3% less GHGs for rabbit AV, crop protection from heat
    • Quantified: Adopted from other studies
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Less greenhouse gas emissions
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 4
      • Unit: %
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Global warmming potential improvement
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 280 - 894% compared to conventional grid
      • Unit: %
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Introduction
    • AV can address land-use conflicts; 1% of land address 20% of US electricity requirements
    • Benefits: Higher land use eff, water use eff, increaed crop yield, improved microclimate, animal well being, 69.3% less GHGs for rabbit AV, crop protection from heat
    • Objective: LCA for sheep based AV - follows ISO standard
  • Methods
    • 30 acres, 30 years AV plant, 200 sheep annually could be grazed, 6.67 MW, Location: New York, Texas and Wyoming, US
    • Sheep meat and electricity - main products
    • Electricity in functional unit can come from grid, conventional solar plant or AV whereas sheep protein service can come from AV based sheep or conventionally grazed sheept
    • Ecoinvent version 3 used for modelling
    • Sheep fed with pasture (20% feed is supplemented though), water is pumped and fertilizer is also added, external fencing, while internal fencing for rotational grazing
    • Conventional: 6.67 MW plant, ground mounted, silicon, 30 years, mowing equipment for grass removal, weed treatment
    • Grid: Grid profile available in Ecoinvent used
    • AV: 6.67 MW PV, 200 sheep, external and internal fence, no mowing or herbicide, sheep only graze on pasture, water and fertilizer req. same as conventional PV
    • LCA modelling perofrmed in SimaPro version
  • Results and Discussion
    • Solar PV 10 times less impactful than grid electricity
    • AV sheep 25% better than conventional sheep
    • 4% improvement in GHG emission for AV when compared to separated PV and sheep grazing
    • 280 - 894% global warming potential improvement over conventional grid
    • 70,000kg CO2 eq savings from grass management
    • Ecological impact of electricity generation more promienent than meat production
    • 75% reduction in ecotoxicity transitioning from conventional to AV based sheep production
    • 5.73e8 kg of CO2 eq could be offset by raising sheep in US under AV
    • Anlaysis did not consider end of life impact
    • AV superior to ground mounted PV; improves chances of social acceptance; perfectly in line with sustainable development goals

Green-Light Wavelength-Selective Organic Solar Cells Based on Poly(3-hexylthiophene) and Naphthobisthiadiazole-Containing Acceptors toward Agrivoltaics[edit | edit source]

Publisher: American Chemical Society; Publication: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering;Year: 2023; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: ; Location: ; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency

  • Introduction
    • OSCs are being increasingly researched to improve power conversion efficiency (PCE)
    • OSCs can tune wavelength for electricity generation
    • Greenlight wavelength selective OSCs - only absorb photons from green, transmit other wavelengths
    • Objective: Two new materials tested for OSCs
  • Results and Discussion
    • Greenlight wavelength selectivity of proposed materials better when compared to high performance OSC
    • Photosynthesis evaluation under OSC performed for strawberry plants
      • Improved photosynthetic rate when compared to conventional OSC

Does not mention any comparison with not using PVs

Ground-Mounted Photovoltaic and Crop Cultivation: A Comparative Analysis[edit | edit source]

Publisher: MDPI; Publication: Sustainability;Year: 2022; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: ; Location: Mykolaiv, Poland and Opole, Ukraine; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:

  • Reduction in CO2
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 601 (Opole), 286tCO2/ha (Mykolaiv)
      • Unit: tCO2/ha
    • Quantification Method: Calculation
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Introduction
    • PV will encompass 25% of world's electricity by 2050
    • PV conversion into electricity more efficiency than photosynthesis
    • PV causes land use conflict
    • Electricity prices, global conflicts also support the need for renewable energy (solar PV) adoption
    • Objective - Economic efficiency of PV vs farming
  • Materials and Methods
    • Location: Mykolaiv, Poland and Opole, Ukraine
    • Net present value and profitability index for farming project ascertained; coefficient of variation also calculated for two variables
    • r.green.solar model used to compare economics of farming vs PV plant
    • NPV = revenues - cost; PI = revenues/cost
    • CO2 reduction calculated using emission factors of 318kgCO2/MWh for Ukrain and 934kgCO/MWh for Polant
  • Results and Discussion
    • PV projects have higher NPV, but lower PI compared to farming
    • Avg NPV in Mykolaiv=771,829EUR/ha and 71,938 EUR/ha in Opole
    • Avg NPV for farming in Mykolaiv=7111.59EUR/ha, PI 6.465 for farming vs 2.057 for PV
    • Avg NPV for farming in Opole=8300EUR/ha, PI 6.37 for farming vs 1.10 for PV
    • CO2 reduction in Opole = 601 tCO2/ha; In Mykolaiv=286tCO2/ha

Not Agrivoltaics; replacing agriculture with PV

Herbage Yield, Lamb Growth and Foraging Behavior in Agrivoltaic Production System[edit | edit source]

Publisher: Frontiers; Publication: Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems;Year: 2022; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: ; Location: Oregon, US; PV Power: 1.4MW; Energy: ; Efficiency:

  • Reduced water consumption by lamb in late spring season
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 0.72 less
      • Unit: L/head-d
    • Quantification Method: Calculation
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Higher forage quality
    • Quantified: Qualified
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Inferred based on equal sheep production with smaller yield qty; also chemical composition (nothing specifically mentioned though which chemical contributes)
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Increased land productivity
    • Quantified: Qualified
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Generate less GHGs, 30% more economic value, increased crop yield, ecosystem benefits
    • Quantified: Adopted from other study
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Higher soil moisture
    • Quantified: Qualified
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed: increase in late season biomass
    • Comments
  • Cool climate for grazing/shelter from heat,wind
    • Quantified: Qualified
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed: Reduce sheltering requirements and hence, capital cost
    • Comments
  • High growth rate
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 120g/head-day solar lambs; 119 g/head-day open lambs
      • Unit:g/head-day
    • Quantification Method: Calculated
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Live weight
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: solar lambs (1.5 kg/ha-d) and open lambs (1.3 kg/ha-d)
      • Unit:kg/ha-d
    • Quantification Method: Calculated
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Higher land equivalent ratio
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 1.68 to 2.04
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Calculated
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Introduction
    • Large solar farms cause land use conflicts; AV can address the issue and provide several other benefits including generation of less GHGs, 30% more economic value, increased crop yield, ecosystem benefits
    • Raising livestock under shade is beneficial - extended grazing time due to lower evapotranspiration, higher nutrient of forage and lower environmental pollution
    • Objective: To analyse pasture/lamb growth, grazing behavior, quality of forage under control and AV config.
  • Materials and Methods
    • Oregon, US; 1.4MW power plant; 2.4 ha, fixed tilt facing south at 18o 1.1m above ground; inter row spacing 6m
    • AV consisted 50% shading and 50% non-shading as 6m space was segregared as 3m fully shaded and 3m partial
    • 09 lambs in each treatment; free access to fresh water
    • Forage dry matter, livestock weight, lamb behavior (idling, grazing or ruminating) was observed; LER calculated; statistical analysis also performed
  • Results
    • Mean air and soild temperatures similar in patially shaded AV and open field;
    • Fully shaded - air temperature lower in spring and summer soil temp greater in spring and lower insummer
    • Soild moisture - similar in control and partial AV; greater in spring and summer in fully shaded
    • Similar pasture for partial and control; for fully AV pasture yield lower; 9-33% lower pasture in AV than open
    • Higher herbage mass in open than AV
    • Differences observed in nutrient contents between open and AV-based pasture
    • Growth:120g/head-day solar lambs; 119 g/head-day open lambs
    • Liveweight production between grazing: solar (1.5 kg/ha-d) and open (1.3 kg/ha-d) [confusing]
    • Lamb behaviors (grazing, ruminating, drinking) were similar for both treatments
    • In late spring, lambs under solar consumed 0.72 L less water per day than control
    • LER - 1.68 to 2.04
  • Discussion
    • Shading and animal trampling lessened pasture production in fully shaded regions
    • No affect on lamb production even with lower available pasture in AV
    • Lambs spend more time under shade and had similar or less water needs when compared to control
    • Higher land use efficiency

Implications of spatial-temporal shading in agrivoltaics under fixed tilt & tracking bifacial photovoltaic panels[edit | edit source]

Publisher: Elsevier; Publication: Renewable Energy;Year: 2022; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: ; Location: Lahore, Pakistan; Corvallis, US; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:

    • Quantified:
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Introduction
    • From 1961 to 2016, cropland reduction 46%
    • AV - addresses land use conflict amongst other benefits
    • PAR impacts the crop yield and quality
    • Objective: To model variation in sunlight based on PV config and esimate implications on crop yield
  • Methodology
    • Factor-based approach used to determine shading pattern underneath PV
    • Four config - N/S faced 30o fixed tilt, E-W verticals, N-S SAT and E-W SAT
    • Useful PAR ratio is the PARu,AV divided by PARu,open; Y,PAR = PARu,AV/PARu,open
    • Normalized PAR = PAR/PARth
  • Results and Discussion
    • Half density = inter row spacing twice the normal heigh and half = four times the normal height; normal height 1m
    • PAR th = 213W/m2 for lettuce and tomato = 596W/m2
    • Fixed tilt - N/S vs E/W
      • E/W verticals have homogenous irradiation, higher PAR
      • N/S fixed tilts hetrogenous, lower PAR underneat panels compared to open space b/w modules
    • SAT - N/S vs E/W
      • Similar PAR pattern E-W vertical and E-W SAT
      • For both SAT - seasonal variation evident - higher in underneath panels in winters and lower in summers
      • Normalized PAR vary significantly under N-S SAT
    • Daily cummulative spatial useful PAR yield
      • 30% less useful PAR in winter and 10% in summer - NS fixed tilts, lettuce
      • 40-50% less useful PAR below PV modules, none in b/w spaces - NS fixed tilts, tomato
      • Tomato yield not less than 20% for E/W vertical - homogenous YPAR
    • Comparison with field experiment
      • Corvallis, US; N-S fixed tilt
      • YPAR from experiment = 0.46 and from simulation = 0.51
    • Intercropping for half density solar array
      • Based on threshold PAR (<80% for tomato), areas defined based on the pitch for cropping tomato and lettuce
      • Different for different configurations
      • E/W tracking - pitch can be segregated into 3 segments
      • N/S fixed - tomatoes to be farmed near north and lettuce south; uniform YPAR along the pitch during summer but not in winters
      • E/W verticals - YPAR more than 80%, hence no need for intercropping
      • Intercropping increases land productivity in general
    • Intercropping for full density solar array
      • N/S fixed - tomato and lettuce planted alternately
      • E/W vertical - same intercropping pattern as half density
      • E/W vertical provide highest YPAR for tomato, lowerst E/W SAt
      • 30% less radiation in full-density vs half-density
      • YPAR higher in half density than full density
    • Daily cummulative temporal useful PAR
      • N/S fixed tilt or tracking provide useful irradiation in mornings/evenings in summers; may be more useful for lettuce (shade tolerants)
      • In winters, useful radiation same for different configuations
    • Solar power output analysis
      • E/W tracking highest prodcution, N/S fixed tilt and tracking similar, E/W vertical the least
      • E/W provides highest useful PAR though

No additional benefit of PV discussed

Increasing the comprehensive economic benefits offarmland with Even-lighting Agrivoltaic Systems[edit | edit source]

Publisher: Public Library of Science; Publication: PLOS ONE;Year: 2021; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: ; Location: Fuyang & Hefei, Anhui, China; PV Power: 35 kW in Fuyang ; Energy: ; Efficiency:

  • Reduce drought stress, maintain higher soil moisture and imporved biomass
    • Quantified: Adopted from other study
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Increased yield for Jerusalem artichoke
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 23
      • Unit: %
    • Quantification Method: Calculations
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments
  • LER increased
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 1.64
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Calculations
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments
  • Higher vit C and nitrate content in T3 vs T1 (Lettuce)
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 13.30 and 33.59
      • Unit: %
    • Quantification Method: Calculations
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments
  • Increased farmers income
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 5.14 times
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Calculations
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments
  • Introduction
    • Inter-row distance in AV - thrice the height of panels
    • In dry climates, AV have shown to reduce drought stress, maintain higher soil moisture and imporved biomass
    • In suitable climates, reduction in crop yield and quality observed under AV
    • Objective: Propose Even-lighting Agrivoltaic System (EAS) for high yield/quality and eff. electrical output
  • Materials and methods
    • From PV panel area, 1/3 area replaced with grooved glass plate; so area of glass plate is 1/3 the light receiving area of the system
    • PV density remains the same as conventional PV
    • Glass plate scatters the sunlight thus providing irradiation uniformly
    • Tilt considered 23o; height of PVs = 2.5m; model of glass developed in Solidworks and coupled with Zemax 12 to give the light patter/illimination
    • Two experiments:
      • smaller and semi-natural in Hefei; lettuce; four config: Control T1, Conventional AV T2, EAS T3 and EAS with additional lighting T4
      • larger in Fuyang; broccoli, shallot, garlic sprouts, garlic, broad bean, Jerusalem, rape; two config: control and EAS
    • PAR, crop growth, yield, LER, comprehensive eco benefits of EAS were measured
  • Results
    • 47.38% improved irradiation with grooved glass as compared to conventional AV; crops growth rate similar to control
    • 5% yield reduction for all crops except broccoli and rape while Jerusalem artichoke increased 23%
    • EAS increases farmer income by 5.14 times and LER was 1.64
    • Uniform light scattering under grooved glass
    • Under conv AV, PPFD was v less when compared to control or EAS
    • 3.87% more irradiation received on panels than on ground; compared to control EAS received 40.87% less irradiation while conv AV 88.25% less
    • Lettuce: Similar fresh and dry weight in T1, T3 and T4; 53.5% and 60.5% reduction in T2
    • Large Scale Experiment: Reduction in broccoli 9%, rape 11%, shallot 2%, garlic sprouts 6%, garlic 4%, broad bean 6% and Jerusalem artichoke increased 23%
    • Protein content similar in 4 treatments, higher nitrate in T2 and T3 than T1 and T4
    • soluble sugar content in lettuce was T2> T4> T1>T3; for vitamin C, it was T2> T3> T1> T4; for nitrate content, it was T1 = T4 < T3 =T2
    • Farmer's income increased by 5.14 times for EAS
    • LER always greater than 1 - average 1.64

Innovative agrivoltaic systems to produce sustainable energy: An economic and environmental assessment[edit | edit source]

Publisher: Elsevier; Publication: Applied Energy;Year: 2021; Lifetime: 25 years; PV Technology: silicon cells; Location: Po Valley, Northern Italy; PV Power: 6.7MW; Energy: ST, 1A and 2A (1100000, 1320000 and 1500000 kWh/y); Efficiency:

    • Reduced evaportranspiration, crops potection from heat, reduced soil temp, higher maize yield under water-stressed conditions, improved water productivity
    • Quantified: Adopted from other study
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Gobal Warming Potential
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 1A (19.4), 2A (20.2) vs 22.6 and 21.3 for GMPV and rooftops
      • Unit: gCO2eq/MJ
    • Quantification Method: LCA
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments
  • Freshwater Eutrophication
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 0.010 1A and 2A vs 0.020 for rooftop and 0.014 for GMPV
      • Unit: g P eq.
    • Quantification Method: LCA
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments
  • Acidification
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 0.13 1A and 2A vs 0.17 for rooftop and 0.15 for GMPV
      • Unit: mmole of H + eq.
    • Quantification Method: LCA
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments
  • Photochemical ozone formation
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 0.069 and 0.072 vs 0.080 for GMPV/rooftops
      • Unit: kg NMVOC eq.
    • Quantification Method: LCA
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments
  • Minerals and metals use
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 0.467 (1A), 0.486 (2A), 0.778 (roof) and 0.589 (GMPV)
      • Unit: mm Sb eq.
    • Quantification Method: LCA
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments
  • Energy carriers use
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 0.26 (1A and 2A), 0.29 (roof) and 0.30 (GMPV)
      • Unit: MJ
    • Quantification Method: LCA
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments
  • Better land utilization, reduce impact on natural ecosystem, stability of crop production, food security, positive effect on water availability and water quality
    • Quantified: Qualified
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Introduction
    • Conflict and climate change - two main factors affect people (hunger, displacement, water access etc.)
    • More than 33% of world's power generation installation are renewables - land occupation issue associated though
    • AV provides several benefits: reduced evaportranspiration, crops potection from heat, reduced soil temp, higher maize yield under water-stressed conditions, improved water productivity
    • Objective: Ascertain Agrivoltaico's environmental performance using LCA as well as economics
  • Materials and Methods
    • Three different config tested - 1A (single axis), 2A (double axis) and ST (fixed - low and high density); compared with traditional PV (ground and roof mounted), wind turbines, coal/gas power plants, biogas (maize and sorghum) and Italian electricity mix
    • Functional unit is 1MJ electricity delivered to grid
    • GABI software used
    • 500kW/hectare for 1A, 2A, HD ST while 200 kW/hectare for LD ST
    • LCOE used as economic indicator; no end of life costs/revenues considered
    • Feasibilty of project ascertained from NPV, IRR and payback periods
    • Economic performance largely unaffected by crops underneath as orders of magnitude quite different for electr. sales
  • Results
    • Global Warming Potential
      • Major contribution for GHG comes from modules and support structure
      • 1A/2A 20gCO2eq/MJ for AV vs 22.6 and 21.3gCO2eq/MJ for GMPV and rooftops
    • Acidification and eutrophication
      • Marine eutrophication similar for 1A and 2A as compared to ground mounts and rooftops; freshwater lower for 1A and 2A
      • Acidification lower for 1A/2A - 0.13 mmole of H+ eq
    • Similar respiratory organics impact for 1A/2A and other PV systems
    • Photochemical ozone formation
      • AV better; 0.069 and 0.072 kg NMVOC eq. vs 0.080 for GMPV/rooftops
    • Resources Depletion
      • AV better; mineral and metals; 0.467 (1A), 0.486 (2A), 0.778 (roof) and 0.589 (GMPV) mm Sb eq.
      • AV better; energy carriers; 0.26 (1A and 2A), 0.29 (roof) and 0.30 (GMPV) MJ
    • Economic Performance
      • GMPV 33% cheaper than AV - reduced installation and infrastructures cost
      • Roof mounts even cheaper than GMPVs
      • 1/3 cost of AV are for installation. BOP and supporting infrastructure; 1/5 for panels
      • LCOE 89.5 euro/MWH for 1A, 88.9 for 2A - GMPV 5 euros and rooftops 15 euros lower though
      • IRR: AV 13%, GMPV 14% and rooftops above 17%
      • Payback time: 9 years AV, 8 and 6 years for GMPV and rooftops
  • Discussion
    • Environmental performance for AV (except fixed tilts) similat to GMPVs and rooftops
    • Better land utilization, reduce impact on natural ecosystem, stability of crop production, food security are other advantages of AV
    • 20-70 times less energy production for biogas when compared to PV
    • 50% higher CAPEX for AV than GMPV - additional electricity pays it off
    • AV have no negative impact on sustainable development goals suggested by UN

Integration of bifacial photovoltaics in agrivoltaic systems: A synergistic design approach[edit | edit source]

Publisher: Elsevier; Publication: Applied Energy;Year: 2021; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: bifacial; Location: Boston, USA; ; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:

  • Decreased soil temperaure
    • Quantified: Adopted from other study
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed: decrease in soil evaporation which increases yield for Maize under non-irrigated conditions
    • Comments
  • Reduced evapotranspiration and cooler plants beneficial for plants
    • Quantified: Adopted from other study
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Introduction
    • Land use issues can be addressed with AV
    • Objective: Coin a modelling framework to ascertain optimal topology for AV system using bifacial modules
    • Location: Boston, USA
  • Literature Review
    • Plant Productivity and growth
      • Under water stressed conditions, plants photosynthesis process is adversely impacted
      • PAR is the useful spectrum of light used for photosynthesis
      • C3 require lower PAR - suitable for AV than C4
    • Diffuse light
      • Can penetrate deeper and be beneficial
      • Different ways to increase diffuse light; greenhouse or diffusion film
    • Influence of PV array
      • Mean daily air temp remains same under AV, soil temp reduces, increases yield (Maize)
      • Cooler crops as well as reduced evapotranspiration beneficial for plants
    • Bifacial PV optimization
      • Bifacials improve LCOE as compared to monos
      • Bifacial gain 15-25% for small setups while it is 5-15% for large farms
      • With stilt mounted AV systems, the bifacials offer great synergy (more rear irradiance due to increased height, low density)
    • Ground albedo
    • Ray tracing validity
      • Ray tracing (RT) model was adopted - software: Radiance and Daysim
  • Modelling
    • Three stages of modelling - geometric, irradiance and yield
    • Geometric modelling through CAD and Grasshopper
    • Coupling of geomteric and irradiance modelling performed via DIVA
    • Using irradiation values, electrical yield and corp yield determined
    • Mathematical equations used to determine the electrical yield
    • LER also ascertained; crop yield determined using CO2 assimilation rate for shaded and unshaded conditions
    • Coeff. of variation used to ascertain light inhomogeneity
  • Results
    • Higher electrical yield vs monos for all three config - S-N facing (39%), E-W wings (18%) and E-W vertical (13%)
    • E-W vertical better for permanent crops, S-N facing better for shade tolerant crops during summer and E-W wings improves light distribution as well as provides shade in noon (best config)
    • Increased row spacing impacted light transmittance less in E-W config than S-N facing arrays
    • Higher tilts benefits more with increasing the row spacing
    • Low density PV increases light availability for both PV and crops; decreases electrical output
    • N-S facing arrays have higher electrical output than E-W vertical;; but E-W vertical have better light distribution
    • E-W wings topology shall be used for crops requiring shading mid-day as E-W verticals do not provide shade in the afternoon
    • For blueberry growth, E-W wings topology with customized bifacials were tested - land productivity increased 50% while electrical output reduced 33% compared to conventional
    • To keep yield reduction to 17%, module transparency of 38% was used for E-W wings topology

Life cycle assessment of pasture-based agrivoltaic systems: Emissions and energy use of integrated rabbit production[edit | edit source]

Publisher: Elsevier; Publication: Cleaner and Responsible Consumption;Year: 2021; Lifetime: 30 years; PV Technology: multi-crystalline Si; Location: Texas, USA; PV Power: 1.57MW; Energy: 412596 MWh; Efficiency:

  • Additional yield, improved land use efficiency, land use conflict, reduced water consumption between 14-29% and financials, beneficial for environment
    • Quantified: Adopted from other study
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Less emissions and fossil energy demand vs separate PV based elec generation
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: (3883000 vs 12667000) 69.3% and (46037000 vs 269234000)82.9%
      • Unit: kg CO2 eq and MJ
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Introduction
    • Traditional PV farms cause land use conflict between energy and food production - AV provides the solution
    • Additional benefits of putting solar on farmland: additional yield, improved land use efficiency, land use conflicts and financials, reduced water requirement between 14-29% for farming, beneficial for environment
    • Objective: Ascertain the environmental performance of rabbit-based agrivoltaic systems against traditional practices
    • Three scenarios studied: rabbit agrivoltaics, separate rabbit farming and PV electricity generation; and separate conventional electricity generation and rabbit farming
  • Methodology
    • LCA performed according to ISO 14040 (ISO, 2006a) and ISO 14044 (ISO, 2006b)
    • Energy generation potential for all 3 scenarios: 1.57MW (412596MWh); rabbit meat based on 2ha productive capacity of pasture (7200 rabbits); lifetime 30 years; location: Texas, USA
    • Cradle to gate approach - no end of life processes considered (nelegible impact on GHG and fossil energy demand)
    • Additional internal fencing considered for AV scenario to determine the environmental impact
    • For conventional PV plant, vegetative maintenance required since no rabbits are available
    • Conventional rabbit farming included feeding methods as well as housing/shelter
    • Impact assessment methods ascertained using SimaPro (PCC 2013 Global Warming Potential (GWP) 100a V1.03 and cumulative energy dem (CED) V1.11)
    • Cumulative energy demand and GHG emissions - major parameters being looked
  • Results & Discussion
    • Rabbit AV environmentally superior - least GHG emission and fossil energy demand (69.3% and 82.9%)
      • Reason; no requirement of vegetative maintenance for PV and feed input for rabbit

Modeling of large-scale integration of agrivoltaic systems: Impact on the Japanese power grid[edit | edit source]

Publisher: Elsevier; Publication: Journal of Cleaner Production;Year: 2022; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: ; Location: ; PV Power: ; Energy: 35TWh other crops and 24 TWH for rice land; Efficiency:

  • Land use conflict, increased income
    • Quantified: Adopted from other study
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Reduced CO2 emissions
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 8.14% for rice paddies
      • Unit: %
    • Quantification Method: Calculation
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Introduction
    • With PV grid stability is a problem as well as land use conflict; AV tackles it and can help decarbonize Japan's elec. grid
    • For food security reasons, yield in AV config should be at least 80% of normal farming
    • Objective: Identify the impact of large scale AV installation in Japan's grid using rice farmland and eq amount of farmland for other crops
  • Methodology
    • Rice paddies account for 35% of farmlandland in Japan; hence "35%" of total cultivated land used for comparison
    • Maximum agrivoltaic application on rice land - 28% to achieve 80% of yield; sensitivity performed for half this percentage
    • Scenario 1: No batteries or expanded transmission lines; Scenario 2: With expanded transmmission lines; Scenarios 3 & 4: With battery storage only (differing costs); Scenarios 5 and 6: With both transmission lines and batteries
    • CO2 emission ascertained uding the CO2 emission rate anf fuel used for generation
  • Results
    • Installing AV on rice land more beneficial tham on similar acreage on other cropland since rice paddies are situated in high load requirement regions
    • Without battery and expanded transmission line, generator/output suppression will occur as PV will produce more energy than required
    • More suppression occurred in other cropland than rice land due to distributed allocation of rice paddies and closeness to high load centers
    • Adding transmission lines reduced the output suppression but not much - with batteries (even alone) it is considerable, although together it is higher

Modeling of Stochastic Temperature and Heat Stress Directly Underneath Agrivoltaic Conditions with Orthosiphon Stamineus Crop Cultivation[edit | edit source]

Publisher: MDPI; Publication: Agronomy;Year: 2022; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: ; Location: University Putra, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:

  • Improved impact on environment, light usage and space for dual purpose, increased crop yield
    • Quantified:
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Introduction
    • Malaysia aims to increase its renewable share to 20% by 2025
    • For PV based elec. output, temperature plays a key role - 1oC increase in temp reduces eff by 0.5%
    • Heat stress/temperature can play an important role in plant's growth
    • Orthosiphon stamineus used for study; drip fertigation employed
    • Vapor pressure deficit and transpration aimpact plant health/growth
    • Objective: Measure the temperature profile and impact of heat stress for AV system growing Orthosiphon stamineus
  • Methodology
    • Location: University Putra, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; height of PV: 1 -1 .5m; temp, RH and wind speed measured; VPD calculated, thermal camera used for recording temperature profile
    • Increased VPD increases transpiration which reduces photosynthesis
  • Results
    • VPD for AV - avg: 1.072 kPa; for greenhouse conditions: 0.85 kPa
    • At 4 ft height, in the afternoon, highest heat stress occurrence (23%) - reason being high temp at the back of PVs (heat stress condition considered when temp got 10-15oC above ambient)
    • The heat stress model could provide min and max temp based on PV panel and 4ft high temp

Not our scope

Module Technology for Agrivoltaics: Vertical Bifacial Versus Tilted Monofacial Farms[edit | edit source]

Publisher: IEEE; Publication: Journal of Photovoltaics;Year: 2021; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: ; Location: Lahore, Pakistan; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:

  • Reduced water requirements, improved crop yield, farmland conservation and socioeconomic advantages to farmers, land-use conflict, protection from extreme weather
    • Quantified: Adopted from another study
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Introduction
    • AV addresses land-use conflict with several benefits
    • Full density PV arry: row to row distance twice the height of PV array and half density - four times
    • South facing 30o tilt arrays; total global radiation 60% for half density and 80% for quarter density compared to open field
    • Objective: Comparing vertical E-W bifacials vs tilted monos and bifacials with N-S orientation w.r.t PAR and elec. yield
  • Methodology
    • Solar irradiation, shadow lengths, electrical yield, transmitted PAR are analytically determined
    • LPF ascertained, uses PAR and electrical yield as matrix
    • Soiling loss 4-7% higher for mono N-S vs bifacials; however, not considered in the analysis
  • Results and Discussion
    • N-S tilted and E-W verticals compared for half (p/h=4), full (p/h=2) and double (p/h=1) density config
    • Verticals produce same elec. yield and PAR comapred to half density tilted N-S facing arrays
    • Verticals beneficial due to min land coverage, ease of farm machinery operation, reduced soiling losses etc.
    • With increased panel density more than half density, shading becomes evident for verticals, hence, elec. yield reduces but PAR increases
    • PAR higher for vertical vs N-S for all density config
    • LPF alsmost similar for for half density config for both N-S and vertical E-W; as panel density increases LPF improves for N-S when compared to E-W verticals
    • Tilt angle impacts crop yield as PAR gets affected - can be used to adjust PAR and PV energy yield
    • For all three schemes: for 80% PAR, p/h=4; for 80% elec. yield, p/h = 2.6 for N/S and p/h=2 for bi E-W, however, PAR in this scenario reduces to 60-70%

Not our scope

Performance and Hydroponic Tomato Crop Quality Characteristics in a Novel Greenhouse Using Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Technology for Covering Material[edit | edit source]

Publisher: MDPI; Publication: horticulture; Year: 2019; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: ; Location: Macedonia, Greece; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:

  • Quality of fruit
    • Quantified: Qualified
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Lower transpiration rate for MST
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 6 for conventional and 5 for DSSC
      • Unit: H2O m-2 sec-1
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Higher lycopene for ChT in DSSC
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 42.2 vs 35 for conventional
      • Unit: microg/g
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Higher Beta-carotene for ChT in DSSC
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 12 vs 10 for conventional
      • Unit: microg/g
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Higher total Cartenoids
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 55 vs 40 for ChT and 40 vs 36 for MST (values ascertained from graph)
      • Unit: microg/g
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Higher antioxidant capacity
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: ABTS: 37 vs 32 for MST and 67 vs 61 for ChT; DPPH: 41 vs 39 for ChT (values ascertained from graph)
      • Unit: mg TE/100gfw
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments
  • Introduction
    • Greenhouses are increasingly adopting renewable sources for energizing
    • Integration of solar modules on greenhouses may cause reduced production unless the sunlight excess sunlight is harvested
    • Objective: To ascertain the implication of using DSSC solar panel in a greenhouse application - crop yield and crop quality and compare with normal greenhouse
  • Materials and Methods
    • Location: Thermi, Macedonia, Greece; medium-sized tomato (MST) and cherry tomato (ChT) experimented; solar radiation, air termp and humidity were measured; plant's yield, morphological, physiological, physiochemical, antioxidants and qualitative characteristics were measured
    • PAR 576 +- 100 and 387 +- 100 micro mol (photon) m–2 s–1 for conventional and DSSC greenhouse
  • Results and Discussion
    • Microclimate
      • Solar radiation, air temp, humidity, concentration of CO2 measured - data used for calculating photosynthesis/chlorophyll content
      • Same air temp, 20% less illumination in DSSC greenhouse
    • Yield and mean weight of early and total fruit production
      • MST yield reduced 40% and ChT 31% in DSSC greenhouse
      • Average fruit weight similar for ChT but 7.5% less in DSSC
    • Physiological Parameters of Plants
      • Chlorophyll content index (CCI) 37% lower for MST and 38% lower for ChT in DSSC
      • 18% lower transpiration rate for MST in DSSC - same for ChT; 6 H2O m-2 sec-1 vs 5 H2O m-2 sec-1
      • Stomatal conductance higher in conventional greenhouse (74% MST and 76% ChT)
      • Lower photosynthetic rate (55% for MST and 40% for ChT) in DSSC
    • Fruit Quality Parameters and Bioactive Compounds
      • Similar citric acid, dry matter %, total sugar content for normal and DSSC based products
      • Higher lycopene 42.4 microg/g for ChT in DSSC vs approx. 35 (acquired from graph) for conventional
      • Beta-carotene 13% higher in DSSC greenhouse for ChT 12 vs 10 microg/g (both values taken from graph)
      • Total cartenoids higher (26%) for both fruits in DSSC
      • Antioxidant capacity - ABTS 10% and DPPH 5% higher in DSSC greenhouse

Recent progress in organic luminescent solar concentrators for agrivoltaics: Opportunities for rare-earth complexes[edit | edit source]

Publisher: Elsevier; Publication: Solar Energy;Year: 2022; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: ; Location: ; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:

  • Providing optimum plant conditions such as CO2 concentration, temp, humidity and incident radiation
    • Quantified: Qualified
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Same tomato production while positive influence on other crops
    • Quantified: Adopted from other study
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Introduction
    • PAR is used for photossynthesis - other spectrum (IR and UV) can be converted to electrical output
    • Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs)
    • Objective: Present organic LSC as a future AV technology
  • Conclusion
    • LSC can be used to harness non PAR spectrum for electricity and the remaining for plant growth
    • LSCs doped with rare earth complexes are transparent as compared to organic dyes

Unsure whether it makes our scope or not

Remarkable agrivoltaic influence on soil moisture, micrometeorology and water-use efficiency[edit | edit source]

Publisher: PLOS; Publication: PLOS ONE;Year: 2018; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: ; Location: Corvallis, Oregon, US; PV Power: 1435 kW; Energy: ; Efficiency:

  • Land use conflicts get addressed with AV, land productivity increases, lower soil water potential under PVs, increased final fresh weight
    • Quantified: Adopted from another study
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Higher soil moisture
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: No numbers - graphs available though
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Calculation/measurement
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments:
  • Dry biomass
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: Under SFC 126 % and 90 % compared to SFO and control
      • Unit: grams
    • Quantification Method: Calculation
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments:
  • Water efficiency
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: Under SFC 328 %
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Calculation
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments:
  • Biomass productivity
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: Under SFC 50 vs 9 and 12 fir SFO and control
      • Unit: kg/m3 of water
    • Quantification Method: Calculation
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments:
  • Introduction
    • Land use conflicts get addressed with AV; land productivity increases, lower soil water potential under PVs, increased final fresh weight
    • Objective: To determined the effect of agrivoltaic on microclimate, soil moisture and pasture production
  • Materials and Methods
    • Location: Corvallis, Oregon, US; south-facing at 18o, 1.1m above ground, inter row spacing of 6, installed capacity 1435 kW, non-irrigated
    • Three configurations - Sky full open (SFO), Solar partially open (between panels) (SPO) and solar fully covered (under panels) (SFC); shadow length varies from 1.1m to 1.4m
    • Air temp, RH, wind speed and directions, radiation, soil moisture, biomass were measured
  • Results and Discussion
    • Wind direction is oriented from south to north, perpendicular to panels, reason being increased temp near the panels causing a buoyant force
    • SFO soil moisture depletion higher than control; SFC remained moist the most among all configs - interesting result; may be result of long wave radiation and view factor
    • Soil moisture: SFC>SPO>control>SFO
    • Dry biomass: 126% more in SFC compared to SFO and 90% more in SFC compared to control
    • 328% more water efficiency and higher biomass productivity (under SFC 50 vs 9 and 12 kg/m3 of water for SFO and control)

Shading apple trees with an agrivoltaic system: Impact on water relations, leaf morphophysiological characteristics and yield determinants[edit | edit source]

Publisher: Elsevier; Publication: Scientia Horticulturae;Year: 2022; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: ; Location: La Pugere, France; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:

  • Lower air temperature
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 3.8 less
      • Unit: oC
    • Quantification Method: Calculation (measurement)
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments:
  • Increased RH
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 14
      • Unit: %
    • Quantification Method: Calculation/measurement
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments:
  • Reduced irrigation requirement
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 6 - 31
      • Unit: % (MPa - Water potential unit)
    • Quantification Method: Calculation/measurement
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments:
  • Higher no. of fruit bearing trees and no. of fuits per tree
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 31 & 44
      • Unit: %
    • Quantification Method: Calculation/measurement
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments:
  • Increased surface leaf area
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 18.4-18.3-17.31 for AV leaves compared to 13.8-14.2-13-49 for control leaves in 2019-2020-2021.
      • Unit: m2/kg
    • Quantification Method: Calculation/measurement
    • Implication analyzed: No
    • Comments:
  • Introduction
    • Climate change will impact the crops
    • To maintain apple production, tree shading is one of the strategies employed; however, it can affect the yield
    • Agrivoltaics can provide shade to apple trees
    • Objective: To ascertain the implication of solar tracking on microclimate, water requirements, carbon assimilation, plant morphology and yield determinants
  • Materials and methods
    • Location: La Pugere, France; panel height of 5m (1.5m above apple trees), solar tracking employed until Jul 2021 (after raining light interception from PV was minimal for drying while in case of frost the panels were oriented horizontally), after Jul 2021 tracking only happened when irradiation exceeded 870 W/m2 and 30 oC
    • Air temp, RH, water potential, photosynthetic light responses, leaf area, floribundity, fruit drop, starch concentration and yield was measured
  • Results
    • Mean shadinf due to AV 40-50%
    • Air temperature under AV 3.8oC less while RH 14% higher
    • Irrigation requirements decreased between 6 - 31%
    • Leaf area increased while photosynthetic capacity reduced; under low radiation, photosynthetic activity higher for AV (check with Koami)
    • 7% lower starch accumulation, 31% lower flower intensity at shoot
    • 31% higher no. of trees bearing fruit and 44% more no. of fruits in a fruit bearing tree
    • Size of fruit reduced between 17% in 2019, but remained same in 2020 and 21
    • 24% less dry matter under AV
    • Density of flowere reduced under shading
    • Higher large fruit drop less under shaded configuration than under control
    • Fresh and dry mass of fruit less under shading; less yield at plot scale as well
    • Reduced starch content for AV

Solar Sharing for Both Food and Clean Energy Production: Performance of Agrivoltaic Systems for Corn, A Typical Shade-Intolerant Crop[edit | edit source]

Publisher: MDPI; Publication: Environments; Year: 2019; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: ; Location: Ichihara City, Chiba Prefecture, Japan; PV Power: 4.5 kW; Energy: ; Efficiency:

  • Land use competition can be catered
    • Quantified: Qualified
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Similar yield of lettuce, increased land productivity, reduced soil temp, daily air temp and VPD remains constance, reduced soil erosion by reducting mositure evaporation
    • Quantified: Adopted from other study
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Higher fresh weight
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 393g LD vs 372.2g in control
      • Unit: grams
    • Quantification Method: Calculation/measurement
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Higher average biomass (dry basis)
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 1.71kg/m2 LD vs 1.63kg/m2 in control
      • Unit: kg/m2
    • Quantification Method: Calculation/measurement
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Higher yield
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 3.54kg/m2 LD vs 3.35kg/m2 in control
      • Unit: kg/m2
    • Quantification Method: Calculation/measurement
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Reduced water evaporation
    • Quantified: Qualified
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Introduction
    • Land use competition can be catered with AV
    • Objective: To find a PV system that reduced land use competition
  • Materials and methods
    • Location: Ichihara City, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, area 100 m2, 2.7m high modules at a tilt of 30o
    • Three config: High density (HD): 0.71m row spacing, Low Density (LD): 1.67m and Control, crop: Corn
  • Results
    • Corn yield
      • Measured in terms of fresh weight adn biomass
      • Higher corn fresh weight for LD config than control and HD; 393g LD vs 372.2g in control
      • Higher average biomass for LD vs control and HD; 1.71 vs 1.63 kg/m2
      • Higher corn yield per square meter; 3.35 kg/m2 for control while 3.54 kg/m2 for LD
    • Electrical performance
      • Double electrical energy for HD when compared to LD
    • Crop Revenues
      • HD (8.3 times) highest revenue followed by LD (4.3 times) and control

Spectral-splitting concentrator agrivoltaics for higher hybrid solar energy conversion efficiency[edit | edit source]

Publisher: Elsevier; Publication: Energy Conversion & Management;Year: 2022; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: Spectral splitting concentrator mono crystalline silicon solar cells; Location: Fuyang, China; PV Power: ; Energy: 80kWh/m2-year; Efficiency:

  • Improve microclimate and cater land use competition
    • Quantified: Adopted from other study
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Increased crop productivity, improved microclimate and decreased plant heat dissipation/photoinhibition
    • Quantified: Qualified
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Increased aboved ground biomass
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 45 vs 40 grams for potato and 15 vs 13 grams for lettuce (from graph)
      • Unit: grams
    • Quantification Method: Calculation/measurement
    • Implication analyzed: yes
    • Comments: Better biomass production in hot climates
  • Lower non-photochemical quenching
    • Quantified: Quantified (measured)
    • Low or High: A cont graph for a day, cannot be quantified - no avg mentioned as well
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Calculation/measurement
    • Implication analyzed: yes
    • Comments: Lower heat dissipation
  • Higher chlorophyll fluorescence
    • Quantified: Quantified (measured)
    • Low or High: A cont graph for a day, cannot be quantified - no avg mentioned as well
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Calculation/measurement
    • Implication analyzed: yes
    • Comments: Better photosynthetic eff; reduced photoinhibition
  • Improved microclimate
    • Quantified: Quantified (measured); reduced temp and humidity
    • Low or High: A cont graph, cannot be quantified - no avg mentioned as well
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method: Calculation/measurement
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Lower soil temperature
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 26.81 vs 28.77 at 5cm and 26.74 vs 28.27 at 10cm
      • Unit: oC
    • Quantification Method: Calculation/measurement
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • High soil humidity
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 21.58 vs 16.16 at 5cm and 26.14 vs 21.71 at 10cm
      • Unit: %
    • Quantification Method: Calculation/measurement
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Introduction
    • Photosynthetic eff. is 4.6% for C3 and 6% for C4 plant theoretically - generally less than 1%
    • Plant generally absorb blue, red and far-red spectrum; generally excess energy is dissipated (more than 50%)
    • Opaque cells in AV cause shading - wavelength selective solar cells are being explored
    • Objective: Understand optical properties and PV and photosynthetic eff. of SCAPV
  • Materials and methods
    • SCAPV using parabolic trough concentrator, multilayer polymer film and silicon cell was used
    • Transmittance 87% for 397-492nm abd 604-852nm range; reflectance of other bands greater than 90%
    • Location: Fuyang, China; dual axis tracking PTA, mono crystalline silicon based solar panel
    • PV efficiency calculations were performed - experimental evaluation also done using I-V curves tracers
    • Potato tested in open SCAPV and lettuce under greenhouse; compared with control
    • Chlorophyll fluorescence, outdoor air temp, humidity, water evaporation, solar radiation, soil temp and moisture as well as CO2 concentration was measured
  • Results and discussion
    • SCAPV spectrum falls in line with plant requirements; better than other wavelength selective tech
    • Ultimate efficiency: 17%, ideal efficiency: 10.35%, experimemtal: 9.9%
    • Increased aboved ground biomass by 13%
    • Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) lower in SCAPV than control; improved chlorophyll
    • Lower soil temperature and higher soil humidity
    • Combined eff of SCAPV - 9.05%; higher than photosynthetic eff.
    • LCOE=0.033$/kWh

The Agrivoltaic Potential of Canada[edit | edit source]

Publisher: MDPI; Publication: Sustainability;Year: 2023; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: bifacial mono c Si; Location: Canada; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:

  • Land use conflict, reduced GHG, reduced climate change, water conservation, increased yield, protection of crops from inclement weather and excess solar energy, soil erosion mitigation, reversing desertification, maintaining agriclutural employment, improved heath, increased revenue, onfarm fertilizer production and renewable fuels
    • Quantified: Adopted from other studies
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Offset fossil-fuel based electricity generation
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Decarbonize transport sector, heating sector, power computer servers and export electricity to fossil fuel dependent US
    • Quantified: Qualified
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Introduction
    • Benefits of AV: Land use conflict, reduced GHG, reduced climate change, water conservation, increased yield, protection of crops from inclement weather and excess solar energy, soil erosion mitigation, reversing desertification, maintaining agriclutural employment, improved heath, increased revenue, onfarm fertilizer production and renewable fuels
    • Canada is lacking in AV tech - Asia, Europe and US quite ahead
    • Objective: To determine the AV potential of Canada on 1% agricultural land
  • Materials and methods
    • Two configurations: Vertical south facing and single axis tracking
    • GIS used to determined the location of farmland (excluding pasture)
    • The total installed capacity of verticals and SAT on the farmland
    • Simulation runs then performed on SAM to ascertain total potential for each province
  • Results
    • 175,267GWh for verticals or 272,554GWh for SAT - potential electrical output for 1% of agricultural land - 28% to 43% of Canada's electrical needs
    • Fossil fuel based electricity can be offset for majority of provinces - less than 1% agricultural land required except for Alberta , BC and Maritimes with verticals and only Maritimes with SAT

The optimization of vertical bifacial photovoltaic farms for efficient agrivoltaic systems[edit | edit source]

Publisher: Elsevier; Publication: Solar Energy;Year: 2021; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: ; Location: Lahore, Pakistan; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:

  • Land use competition, improved livelihood of farmers
    • Quantified: Qualified
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Protection of crops from harmful climate, reduced soil leaching, 20% less requirement of water for irrigation. higher yield, water efficiency, soil moisture
    • Quantified: Adopted from other studies
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Introduction
    • AV can reduce land use competition
    • Several benefits of AV cited in literature: Protection of crops from harmful climate, reduced soil leaching, 20% less requirement of water for irrigation. higher yield, water efficiency, soil moisture
    • Objective: To develop a light distribution model that can provide esimate of the irradiation incident on the ground in AV setting and use it to determine the implication on energy and crop yield
  • Methodology
    • Two config: N-S oriented at a tilt and use monos, E-W vertical and use bifacials; location: Lahore, Pakistan
    • MATLAB code used for irradiance modelling; irradiation received by panels and ground calculated, shadowing on the ground, LER as well as crop yield (lettuce) determined
  • Results and discussion
    • The two config tested with three variations in densities: p=h; p=2h and p=3h
    • Similar energy and crop yields for both confi for shade intolerant crops - with half dense PV config as compared to GMPV
    • Denser PV array; different yield; bi-E-W higher crop and mono-N-S higher energy
    • For greater than 80% of lettuce yield, PV density varies from half to twice of GMPVs
    • For greater than 80% of energy yield, crop yield varies from 65% (intolerant) to 100% (tolerant)
    • High hetrogeneity observed for N-S config while homogenous for E-W under low panel densities; for high panel densities, light distribution generally homogenous for both config
    • Crop yield suffers for E-W as p/h decreases; below p/h=4, crop yield for E-W are generally higher except for shade tolerant crops
    • At low densities, LER similar while it gets higher for monons with increased densities
    • Results related to impact of tilt angle also discussed
    • Soiling can cause 2-5% loss of annual PV power for tilted arrays
    • Model validation performed - model sligtly overstimates yield

Discuss with Koami - unsure if it makes our cut

Tinted Semi-Transparent Solar Panels Allow Concurrent Production of Crops and Electricity on the Same Cropland[edit | edit source]

Publisher: Wiley Online Library; Publication: Advanced Energy Materials;Year: 2021; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: ; Location: ; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:

  • Protection of plants, better water redistribution, wind mitigation, temperature modulation, reduced evapotranspiration, improved soil humidity, increased food production, better economics,
    • Quantified: Adopted from other study
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Improved protein content
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: Basil: protein content improved leaf - 14.1%; steam 37.6% and root 9.6%; Spinach: 53.1%, 67.9% and 13.8%
      • Unit: %
    • Quantification Method: Calculation
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Improved finances
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 223.4 vs 22.8 for basil and 5.66 vs 4.18 for spinach
      • Unit: USD/m2
    • Quantification Method: Calculation
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Risk mitigation for farmers associated with climate and economic uncertainty/diversificaiton of income, crop protection, effective water redistribution, mitigation of wind, temperaturem evapotranspiration, improved soil humidity
    • Quantified: Qualitative (discussion)
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Introduction
    • PVs can make use of all the light or selective portions of the incoming light for electricity generation
    • Electrical generation from PV - varies linearly with light intensity; not the same for plants as they reach a threshold
    • Tinted STPV used with spinach and basil; energy, crop yield, economics, as well as quality of product studied
  • Results
    • Basil yield reduced - mean dry weight of root, steam and leaf under AV: 441+-43gDW/m2 ; C: 627+-92 gDW/m2; only leaf + stem: 319+-31 for AV and 391+-82 for control
    • Spinach yield increased - mean dry weight of root, steam and leaf under AV: 158+-29gDW/m2 ; C: 218+-42 gDW/m2; only leaf + stem: 145+-40 for AV and 196+-57 for control
    • 57% less solar radiation received under AV but biomass reduced only 30% and 28% for basil and spinach - more efficient photosynthetic use of light
    • Basil: protein content improved leaf - 14.1%; steam 37.6% and root 9.6%; Spinach: 53.1%, 67.9% and 13.8%
    • Overall: 15% yield reduction for basil and 26% for spinach; financial gain 2.5% for basil and 35% for spainch

Water budget and crop modelling for agrivoltaic systems: Application to irrigated lettuces[edit | edit source]

Publisher: Elsevier; Publication: Agricultural Water Management;Year: 2018; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: ; Location: Montpellier, France; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:

  • Reduced water consumption (20-30%)
    • Quantified: Adopted from other study
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Actual evapotranspiration
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 22% ST, 26% HD, and 19% CT
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Reduced irrigation requirements
    • Quantified: Quantified
    • Low or High: 1.75 ST, 1.77 HD, and 1.69 CT vs 2.11 CP (spring); 2.27 ST, 1.83 HD, and 2.10 CT vs 2.48 CP
      • Unit: g/mm
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Introduction
    • Several benefits of AV - can address food and energy issues
    • Objective: To esimtate the effect of rain redistribution on crop yield and water requirement, ascertain water use and land use efficiencies, optimizng shading strategy soil water considering various factors
  • Materials and methods
    • Location: Montpellier, France; crop: lettuce; drip irrigation
    • Four shading config; fixed tilt of 25o facing south - HD (3.2 m gap); HD (1.6m gap); ST (maximize solar interception by PV) and CT (parallel in morning and evening - max interception in afternoon)
    • Radiaion, air temp and RH, wind vel and dir, rain, soil moisture content was measured; evapotranspiration, water productivity and LER calculated
    • Irrigation model developed for AV considering stomatal conductance, variation of radiation and expandingo on Optirrig model
  • Results
    • 33% ST, 30% HD, 49% FD and 23% CT - less radiation than Control
    • Actual evapotranspiration reduction: 22% ST, 26% HD, and 19% CT
    • Fresh biomass reduced for all AV config at the harvest dates
    • Reduced irrigation for both seasons for AV config
    • LER>1 for all AV config for both season
    • Almost similar yields are obtained with delay in harvest

Water evaporation reduction by the agrivoltaic systems development[edit | edit source]

Publisher: Elsevier; Publication: Solar Energy; Year: 2022; Lifetime: ; PV Technology: ; Location: Fuyang, China; PV Power: ; Energy: ; Efficiency:

  • Avoid drought and water stress, protection of plant from excess radiation, and improve plant growth
    • Quantified: Adopted from other study
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Reduced evaporation due to the EAS and CAS tech
    • Quantified: Qualified
    • Low or High:
      • Unit:
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Reduced soil surface evaporation
    • Quantified: Quantified (measured)
    • Low or High: CK, CAS, and EAS: 80.53 mm, 63.38 mm, and 54.14 mm,
      • Unit: mm
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Soil moisture conservation
    • Quantified: Quantified (measured)
    • Low or High: CK, CAS, and EAS: 26, 35, and 39
      • Unit: %
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Reduced pan surface evaporation
    • Quantified: Quantified (measured)
    • Low or High: CK, CAS, and EAS: 278.76 mm, 238.52 mm, and 225.85 mm,
      • Unit: mm
    • Quantification Method:
    • Implication analyzed:
    • Comments:
  • Introduction
    • Water shortage is a major issue and water evaporation occurs naturally
    • Reduction in water evaporation is being increasingly looked into - AV is a potential method as well
    • Objective: To estimate the alleviation of water evaporation under AV and study its mechanism
  • Experimental materials and methods
    • Location: Fuyang, China; evaporated container, pan evaporation, weather station for measurements
    • CAS allows red. blue and far red to pass through, reflect remaining wavelengths for elec. generation
    • EAS use a glass between solar cells to scatter light
  • Results and discussion
    • CAS only allows the light needed by plants reflecting the remaining, hence, reducing evaporation while in EAS due to diffusion, only a portion reaches the soil; also no direct light reaches in either EAS or CAS
    • Soil surface evaporation: CK, CAS, and EAS: 80.53 mm, 63.38 mm, and 54.14 mm,
    • Temp under CAS and EAS is lower than control; EAS<CAS<control
    • Improved soil moisture conservation and reduced pan surface evaporation

BIPV[edit | edit source]

Optimization of building-integrated photovoltaic thermal air system combined with thermal storage[45][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Photovoltaic (PV) combined with phase change material (PV/PCM) system is a hybrid solar system that uses a PCM to reduce the PV temperature and to store energy for other applications. This study aims to increase the integrated PV efficiency of buildings by incorporating PCM while utilizing the stored heat in PCM for controlling indoor conditions. Experiments have been carried out on a prototype PV/PCM air system using monocrystalline PV modules. Transient simulations of the system performance have also been performed using a commercial computational fluid dynamics package based on the finite volume method. The results from simulation were validated by comparing it with experimental results. The results indicate that PCM is effective in limiting temperature rise in PV device and the heat from PCM can enhance night ventilation and decrease the building energy consumption to achieve indoor thermal comfort for certain periods of time.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Temperature affect PV negatively -> studies aimed at reducing the heat loss
    • Mismatch b/w PV generation and building heating load
    • PCM great for heat storage
    • Goal: aims to increase the PV efficiency by incorporating PCM while utilizing the stored heat from PCM for conditioning indoor air
  2. Methods
    • CFD to simulate phase change and natural convection
    • Experimental setup description
    • PV size: 200W
    • Sensitivity analysis with different PCM Sizes air air duct size
    • Simulation using Nottingham weather
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Use of PCM can reduce PV temperature
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • NOT APPLICABLE FOR THIS REVIEW

BIPV: a real-time building performance study for a roof-integrated facility[46][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Building integrated photovoltaic system (BIPV) is a photovoltaic (PV) integration that generates energy and serves as a building envelope. A building element (e.g. roof and wall) is based on its functional performance, which could include structure, durability, maintenance, weathering, thermal insulation, acoustics, and so on. The present paper discusses the suitability of PV as a building element in terms of thermal performance based on a case study of a 5.25 kWp roof-integrated BIPV system in tropical regions. Performance of PV has been compared with conventional construction materials and various scenarios have been simulated to understand the impact on occupant comfort levels. In the current case study, PV as a roofing material has been shown to cause significant thermal discomfort to the occupants. The study has been based on real-time data monitoring supported by computer-based building simulation model.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Emerges from land stress of GPV
    • Review of BIPV electrical performances studies
    • Goal: understand the thermal performance of a BIPV system through its climate responsiveness and thermal comfort aspects.
  2. Methods
    • Thermal performance evaluation through Climatre responsiveness and thermal comfort
    • Case-study analysis - measured data
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Temperature was outside comfort zone for summer
    • Temperature was inside comfort zone during winter
  4. Conclusions
    • PV could add to thermal dicomfort
    • Old study, did not compare PV to regular construction material without insulation

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • NOT APPLICABLE FOR THIS REVIEW
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
5.25 kW 5.25kW Crystalline Bangalore 7%

Temperature and color management of silicon solar cells for building integrated photovoltaic[47][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Color management of integrated photovoltaics must meet two criteria of performance: provide maximum conversion efficiency and allow getting the chosen colors with an appropriate brightness, more particularly when using side by side solar cells of different colors. As the cooling conditions are not necessarily optimal, we need to take into account the influence of the heat transfer and temperature. In this article, we focus on the color space and brightness achieved by varying the antireflective properties of flat silicon solar cells. We demonstrate that taking into account the thermal effects allows freely choosing the color and adapting the brightness with a small impact on the conversion efficiency, except for dark blue solar cells. This behavior is especially true when heat exchange by convection is low. Our optical simulations show that the perceived color, for single layer ARC, is not varying with the position of the observer, whatever the chosen color. The use of a double layer ARC adds flexibility to tune the wanted color since the color space is greatly increased in the green and yellow directions. Last, choosing the accurate material allows both bright colors and high conversion efficiency at the same time.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • BIPV do not allow cooling of PV
    • Aesthetics need to be taken into account in urban environment
    • Goal: determine the influence of the ARC thickness on the color and conversion efficiency taking into account the thermo-electro-optical properties
  2. Methods
    • Solar cell color modelling using CIE standards
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Fill in ...
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • NOT APPLICABLE FOR THIS REVIEW
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency

Heating and Cooling Performance of Office Buildings with a-Si BIPV Windows Considering Operating Conditions in Temperate Climates: The Case of Korea[48][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

This study analyzed the heating and cooling performance of an office building in Daegu, Korea, equipped with amorphous-Si (a-Si) building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) windows. EnergyPlus was used to simulate and compare the heating and cooling loads of models for clear glass double-layer, heat-absorbing glass double-layer, and low-emissivity (low-e) glass double-layer windows. In addition, the impact of changes in building operation time, temperature settings, air infiltration from the entrances, and internal load were also analyzed as these all have a large impact on heating and cooling loads. Finally, three types of heating and cooling equipment were tested, and their power and primary energy consumption analyzed, to determine the actual energy used. Under baseline conditions, there was an 18.2% reduction in heating and cooling loads when the BIPV model was used compared to when the clear glass double-layer window was used. In addition, increases in temperature settings and air infiltration from the entrances had a negative effect on the reduction of the heating and cooling loads demonstrating a need for intensive management of these features if a-Si BIPV windows are installed in a building.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • BIPV impacts a building energy consumption
    • BIPV used to reduce building cooling and heating loads in different types of climates
    • Review of BIPV studies showing cooling load reduction
    • Goal: compare the impacts of a-Si BIPV windows in office buildings with those of office buildings using other windows, and to use this data to analyze the characteristics of heating and cooling loads and evaluate how reductions therein varied according to building operating conditions.
  2. Methods
    • Climate conditions -> temperate
    • Small-scale office building for experiment - description provided
    • EnergyPlus used for building model simulation
    • IdealLoadAirSystem for cooling and heating loads
    • Comparison between a-Si BIPV windows and 3 other type of windows
    • Specs of building floor considered for studies provided
  3. Results and Discussion
    • South face: 10.56kWp; East face: 4.75 kWp
    • annual energy -> 8617 kWh
    • East face generates less energy than south face
    • No power generation performance analysis
    • Total load requirement in building -> 132,058 kWh/y
    • HP consumption -> 86,473 kWh/y
    • Comparison of results with sensitivity on
      • Operation time
      • temperature settings
      • air infiltration
      • internal load
  4. Conclusions
    • Need to account for the sensitivity factors when design BIPV with amorphous

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Heating and cooling load reduction - 18.1% as compared to base case
  • Cooling + heating load BIPV -> 77200 kWh/y
  • Base Case Cooling+heating load -> 94266 kWh/y
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
15.31 kWp - a-Si Daegu - Korea 8617 kWh/y -

Solar and Shading Potential of Different Configurations of Building Integrated Photovoltaics Used as Shading Devices Considering Hot Climatic Conditions[49][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

This study investigates the use of building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPVs) as shading devices in hot climates, with reference to the conditions of Saudi Arabia. It used parametric numerical modelling to critically appraise the potential of eight design configurations in this regard, including vertical and horizontal shading devices with different inclination angles. The study assumed that the examined shading devices could be entirely horizontal or vertical on the three exposed facades, which is common practice in architecture. The study found that the examined configurations offered different solar and shading potentials. However, the case of horizontal BIPV shading devices with a 45° tilt angle received the highest amount of annual total insolation (104 kWh/m2) and offered effective window shading of 96% of the total window area on average in summer. The study concluded that, unlike the common recommendation of avoiding horizontal shading devices on eastern and western facades, it is possible in countries characterised with high solar altitudes such as Saudi Arabia to use them effectively to generate electricity and provide the required window shading.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • BIPV used in building envelope -> electrical device + architectural component
    • BIPV in roof could cause excessive heating -> need for cooling or insulation
    • BIPV have a visual added value
    • BIPV is driven by sustainability concerns
    • Cost of solar < Cost of fuel IF environment and health impacts are considered in Saudia Arabia
    • Goal: aims to investigate this issue with reference to the use of BIPVs as shading devices in building facades.
  2. Methods
    • Numerical parametric simulation as a data collection tool
    • 20mx20x open-plan office building in Riyadh
    • Windows cover 25% of building
    • 96 different modelling cases with dependent variables (irradiation, outside surface sunlit fraction), and independent variables (climatic conditions, direction, azimuth, tilt, sun exposure)
    • Use of DesignBuilder for simulation / Valisation with IES VE2018 and Ecotect Anallysis 2011
    • Modeling for summer and winter
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Analyzed the impact of the BIPV config on insolation and self-shading
    • Analyzed the config impact on window shading
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Visual added value -> not quantified -> mentioned in introduction only
  • Natural lighting -> not quantified -> mentioned in discussion
  • Windows Shading -> Quantified through insolation analysis
    • Minimum: 23% windows shading
    • Maximum: 97% windows shading
    • Compared to a base case -> no
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
Riyadh, Saudia Arabia

Performance study of building integrated photovoltaic modules[50][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

To investigate the semi-transparent building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) modules on facades a systematic study has been performed using ordeal room. The BIPV modules are prepared with different cell coverage ratios of 0.69 and 0.77. The investigations have been performed at the location for which the local latitude is 9°10′0″N, 77°52′0″E. The measured solar radiations over horizontal surfaces vary from 250 to 1000 W/m2. The various parameters of the modules with respect to the incident solar radiations, such as power generation, solar heat gain and temperature of the cells, have been studied for various orientations of the modules and reported. On observation it has been noted that the power generation in east orientation is higher, however in the view of other parameters the south orientation has been suggested. The BIPV modules reduce the cooling load by minimizing the heat gain by the room in comparison with conventional double clear glass windows. With respect to the power generation, and thermal performances, the module with lower cell coverage ratio is found to be better than the other one. In addition it has been estimated that 0.4 kW power could be saved in cooling load during peak sunshine hours.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • BIPV improves weather proofing, aesthetical integration, thermal insulation, and nose protection
    • Review of BIPV studies
    • BIPV reduce heat gain in a building -> but decreases efficiency of PV
    • Goal: analyse electrical and thermal performances of semi-transparent BIPV modules on facades by considering different orientations
  2. Methods
    • Design of expermental room: glazing material and thermal insulation for windows and walls
    • Solar radiation measured on horizintal surfce, vertical radiation predicted
    • Alyzed electrical and thermal performance of STPV and compared with double-glazed window
    • Packing-factor of PV: Module1: 0.77 and Module2: 0.69
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Module 2 has higher efficiency towards east
    • Module 2 has higher efficiency (9.3%) than Module 1 (9.1%) towards west
    • Module 2 has higher power (21W) compared to Module 1 (20.4W) in south
    • Low heat gain for BIPV modules compared with glazed windows -> reduction in cooling load
    • 0.4kW peak load saving in the middle of the day
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Reduction in heat gain: 75% compared to base case
  • Reduciton in cooling loads: 1.2 kWh/day.
    • Month of may only
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency Methodology
87.13 Wp 94.4 Wp Multicrystalline Tamil Nadu, India 6 months 17.7% 17.7% Experimental

Building Retrofit with Photovoltaics: Construction and Performance of a BIPV Ventilated Façade[51][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Building retrofit offers the opportunity to reduce energy consumption, improve energy efficiency and increase the use of renewable energy sources. The photovoltaic (PV) technology can be integrated into the building envelope, where conventional construction materials can be easily substituted by PV modules. Prices are competitive with some other solutions and good architectural building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) solutions enhance the appearance of the buildings. All this makes BIPV an attractive solution for effectively and sustainably retrofitting building envelopes, providing savings in materials and in conventional electricity consumption and, at the same time, improving the energy efficiency of the buildings. This paper shows a building retrofit case study in which standard PV modules are integrated into a new ventilated façade, aiming at serving as an easy-to-implement example for large-scale actions.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Buildings account for 40% total energy consumption
    • BIPV is becoming cost-competive in many cases -> ref provided
    • Goal: addresses a practical solution for building retrofit with a BIPV ventilated façade, especially recommended for tertiary buildings
  2. Methods
    • Existing building retrofit analysis -> CIEMAT builfing
    • Two PV systems: Grid-connected and santalone
    • Grid-Connected -> 27.2 kW; max daily power generated -> 11 kW; 6 subsystems
    • Standalone 3 subsystems -> 3.6kW / 0.6kW / 0.6kW
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Fill in ...
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Outer Building temperature reduction:
    • BIPV: 41.7 - 49°C
    • Polymer concrete panels: 60.5 - 63.5°C
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
4.8 kW 27.2 kW Crystalline 19 MWh/y

Building Integrated Shading and Building Applied Photovoltaic System Assessment in the Energy Performance and Thermal Comfort of Office Buildings[52][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Non-residential and more specifically office buildings are, nowadays, an integral part of the building stock and milestones of urban areas in most of the developed and developing countries all over the world. Compared to other building types, office buildings present some of the highest specific energy consumption rates. In the present study, a typical nine-story office is assessed for a number of different building integrated retrofitting measures. Measurements of indoor environmental conditions were used in order to validate the developed simulation model of the building in EnergyPlus. Then, a number of different building integration options for photovoltaic systems and shading options are examined, in order to evaluate the best option in terms of indoor air quality, thermal comfort and energy consumption. The amount of electricity produced can meet 65% of the building’s annual electricity requirements, while the shading options can reduce energy requirements by as much as 33%. Although this in not a value that can be dismissed easily, it becomes clear that further—and more deeply aiming—measures are needed, if the building is to achieve near zero energy status.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Buildings responsible for 40% energy comsumption
    • Office buildings -> 23% of total
    • Annual consumption of office building in europe -> 100 - 1000 kWh/m²
    • Many studies mentioned evaluation of comfort be considered in BIPV studies
    • Indoor monitor parameters provided: ait temp, humidity, air speed, CO2 levels, lighting, glare, noise
    • Goal: the energy performance and indoor air quality of a typical nine-story office building in the center of Thessaloniki, Greece is assessed for a number of different building integrated retrofitting measures
  2. Methods
    • Regular construction material in locaton -> concrete -> high heat storage capacity
    • Building net surface -> 1488m² / 4300m³
    • Total heated builidng area -> 1000m²
    • Base case
      • Building material: concrete + double brick no insulation
      • Facades: aluminuum sheets 3mm thick
      • Windows: sliding aluminum -> 65% of facade
      • Shading -> wooden blinds: 75% - curtains: 25%
      • Annual buyilding consumption -> 92310 kWh / 62.03kWh/m²
    • Environmental data measurement
    • Use of PMV and PPD indexes to measure thermal comfort
    • Measurement duration -> 1 week : summer + winter
    • EnergyPlus used for building modelling
    • Simulation Time -> 1year
    • Surrounding building considered in the building simulaiton for shading
    • Types of BIPV: Fixed vertical, fixed horizontal, movable vertical, movable horizontal
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Energy consumption from simulaiton:
      • Total -> 79813 kWh
      • Heating -> 31,377 kWh
      • Cooling demand -> 13% higher than heating demand
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Cooling demand reduction -> 75% compared to base case
  • Total energy demand reduction -> 30 - 33% compared to base case
  • Energy production -> simulated with SAM
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
Thessaloniki, Greece 58945 kWh/y 63176 kWh/y

Novel High Pressure Exfoliated Graphene-Based Semitransparent Stable DSSCs for Building Integrated Photovoltaics[53][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Integrating dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with a building’s architecture is required for its commercialization. Coupling semitransparent designer DSSCs with windows has the dual benefit of providing daylighting and power generation. To achieve this, we report a low-cost, novel, high-pressure exfoliation technique for graphene and utilize it as a transparent counter electrode for fabrication of semitransparent DSSCs. By adopting environmentally friendly and economic exfoliated graphene instead of conventional platinum, the overall device cost comes down. The electrocatalytic behavior of fabricated transparent graphene counter electrode was assessed using cyclic voltammetry, Tafel plot in symmetry cell configuration, and impedance spectroscopy. We have fabricated DSSC with >70% transmittance in the visible spectrum, which gives promising power conversion efficiency of 3.19%. The fabricated cells were stable for more than 500 h under constant illumination with no significant efficiency drop. Also, we have fabricated designer semitransparent DSSCs using various symbols.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Fill in ...
    • Goal: ...
  2. Methods
    • Fill in ...
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Fill in ...
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • NOT APPLICABLE FOR THIS REVIEW
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency

Proof-of-concept of a building-integrated hybrid concentrator photovoltaics-lighting system[54][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

A hybrid concentrator photovoltaics (CPV) module that combines the production of electricity and transports sunlight is proposed as a means to reduce the energy needs of buildings by two complementary solar energy approaches. Both concepts share the need for a solar tracker and an infrastructure to concentrate the sunlight which allows a reduction in costs of the proposed system. The CPV part is a well-known technology to produce electricity that serves as a host for the light subpart that transports sunlight through optical fibres. Measurements of a proof-of-concept show that in nominal conditions the lighting subpart is more efficient in the task of transporting sunlight than converting sunlight to electricity and then to light again. The efficiency threshold is a direct function of the fibre material and distance transported and the generated light is very similar to the solar light in terms of spectral content. Based on PMMA optical fibres and conventional CPV technology, the hybrid module converts 28.7% of the sunlight into electricity. Regarding the light transported by the optical fibres they slightly shift sunlight to bluish white but the quality of light is still comparable to a typical fluorescent lamp used in offices.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Fill in ...
    • Goal: Proof of concept of combining optical guides and concentrated PV in building energy generationg and lighting
  2. Methods
    • Full description of prototype provided
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Specs of the prototype:
      • Isc = 1.5A
      • Voc = 70.4V
      • Pmp = 84.5W
      • Hybrid module efficiency = 28.7%
    • Focused more on lighting than energy generation
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • BIPV reduces impact of building on global warming -> CO2 emissions reduction -> NQ -> mentioned in introduction
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
84.5W Concentrated PV 38%

Performance Analysis of BIPV Prototype System Installed in Greece and Main Affecting Parameters[55][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

The extended use of fossil fuels for power generation resulted in energy crisis and serious environmental problems, such as global warming etc. Nowadays, the deployment of “green” technologies related to renewable resources aspires to change the conventional power flow directions. In this framework, scientific community puts all the efforts to provide a sustainable and efficient solutions in respect with renewable resources and their application. Taking into consideration the fact that 68% of the world population projected to live in urban areas by 2050, the use of renewable energy sources as part of the building envelope could potentially provide a promising solution, transforming buildings from “energy consumers” to “energy producers”. One of the most appealing and easily installed technologies of renewable generation is related to the photovoltaic systems (PVs). However, the challenge is to increase the possible integration of PVs into the building infrastructure. For the successful integration of PVs into the building envelope, aesthetic issues along with technological issues, such as the highest possible energy performance, need to be considered and addressed.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Construction sector responsible for more than 40% engy consumption in EU
    • Smart Wire Connection Technology developed by Meyer Burger (MB) is an innovative technology regarding the wire bonding between the cell and the module, also known as cell metallization-interconnection => reduce shading losses by 25% and increase module efficiency by 7%
    • Construct PV offer good material properties:
      • water tightness
      • fire proof
      • range of framing options
      • Can go as low as 0.6€/W with mass production
    • Goal: describe the specific details of the demonstration site, the monitoring system as well as the tool developed for the efficient monitoring of the “Construct PV” panels
  2. Methods
    • System located in Attica, Greece
    • Annual energy yield in the region: 1400 kWh/kWp
    • Use of Construct PV panels ad BIPV -> Electricial specs provided
    • Power ranged from 0.34 - 2.83 kW depending on installation area => Total 15 kWp
    • Inverter specs and description
    • Different demo inclinaiton used
    • Description of monitoring system and data
    • Real time DAQ system
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Data monitored between 3-2017 and 1-2018
    • Monthly enegry yield: 85kWh/kWp - 170 kWh/kWp
    • Performance ratio: 0.69 - 0.89
    • Effect of temperature and shading on PR
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • NOT APPLICABLE FOR THIS REVIEW
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
0.34 kW 2.83 kW heterojunction technology Attica, Greece

Experimental Investigation of Overall Energy Performance in Algerian Office Building Integrated Photovoltaic Window under Semi-Arid Climate[56][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) energy has now become one of the most significant renewable energy alternatives for providing natural daylight and clean energy. As such, this study was conducted for the first time in Algeria to experimentally evaluate the BIPV window energy and lighting energy savings of a typical office building under the semi-arid climate condition. Apart from using the Energy Plus and Integrated Environment Solution-Virtual environment (IES-VE) energy simulation tools in the experimental validation, the daylighting control method and the dynamic Useful Daylight Illuminance (UDI) were also utilized to analyse the daylighting performance as well as the lighting energy of BIPV windows with different transparency levels at various cardinal orientations. The field measurements had revealed the overall energy model to be consistent and in good agreement with the EnergyPlus and the IESVE simulation models, where the tested PV module was found to have provided not only a 20% Visible Light Transmittance (VLT) of uniformed daylight with low illuminance level, but also thermal comfort and a considerable amount of clean energy. The simulated results had demonstrated a substantial improvement in cooling energy and glare reduction of the PV modules as compared to the base-model, where the only BIPV window configuration was achieved good area of UDI 300-700 lux is facing the South orientation and 30% VLT. In conclusion, the application of the thin film BIPV windows with different transparency and orientation levels can thus be regarded as an effective solution for minimizing the lighting energy consumption through its energy production instead of daylighting utilization.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Building energy consumption in Algeria -< 42% of total and lighting -> 25% of total
    • BIPV -> natural lighting improvement and near-zeo buidings
    • BIPV window type coupled with position and light transmittance can save energy
    • Goal:
      • experimentally investigate the application of the thin film BIPV window in an Algerian mock-up office building
      • establish an appropriate design methodology and comprehensive validation of the overall energy performance through the use of EnergyPlus and IES-VE tools under a semi-arid environment
      • determine the effects on the daylighting performance and lighting energy savings of the different BIPV windows used
  2. Method
    • Field measurements: energy, temperature, daylight
    • Use of EnergyPlus for energy modeling
    • Use IES-VE for daylight modeling
    • Provided specs of building
    • BIPV modules speca:
      • type -> amorphous
      • transmittance: 20%
      • Power: 90W
      • Efficiency: 4.5%
      • Thermal properties provided
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Energy generation b/w 4574 kW (June) and 7565 kW (July)
    • 4.5% energy demand reduction
    • With BIPV alone, room temperature went above recommended levels (22.5°C - 26°C)
    • No reduction in heating energy
    • No ligthing energy consumption reduction
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Cooling energy reduction: up to 17%
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
a-Si Tebessa, Algeria Summer Period (May - August) 4574 kW (June) 7565 kW (July) 4.5%

Investigating the potential for energy flexibility in an office building with a vertical BIPV and a PV roof system[57][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) are becoming an attractive solution in the context of high penetration of photovoltaics (PV) in buildings caused by the strive to achieve net or nearly zero energy status. Besides retrieving solar radiation to produce electricity, BIPV also offers aesthetical advantages because of its architectural feature. This paper reports on the electrical energy performance of a passive solar office building, Solar XXI, located in Lisbon, Portugal, which has installed on the South façade a BIPV (12 kWp) and an additional photovoltaic roof system in a nearby car park facility (12 kWp) for electricity generation. The main objective is to investigate the potential to increase load matching between energy generation and consumption and improve grid interaction for two scenarios using the energy flexibility enabled by the integration of Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) with capacities ranging from 13.5 kWh to 54 kWh. To collect the required results, real consumption and generation data are used, together with numerical simulations related to the integration of the BESS. The results show that load matching and grid interaction related metrics can be significantly improved by using the energy flexibility provided by a BESS and that the implementation of such system can be economically viable for a 10-year period.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Buildings responsible for 40% energy consumption in the EU and US
    • BIPV can generate electricity, improve confort, improve aesthetics
    • Energy flexibility / energy storage concept explained
    • Goal: reports on the electrical energy performance of Solar XXI passive solar office building and the associated considerations that are critical when similar renewable energy systems and energy flexibility options are considered in office buildings in the same climate context
  2. Methods
    • Building location: Lisbon, Portugal
    • 2 PV Systems:
      • System1: South Facade -> 12 kWp/100m²
      • System2: Rooftop -> 12kWp/205m²
      • 10cm b/w BIPV and insulation
      • Building relies on natural ventilation; No HVAC system
    • 1 hour resolution measurement over a year
    • BESS strategy described
    • 2 Scenarios analyzed
      • System with no BESS
      • System with 4 different BESS (13.5kWh / 27kWh / 40.5kWh / 54kWh)
    • Metrics used to quantify load matching improvement: self-consumption and self-sufficiency
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Better load-mathing achieved when battery is connected to system: numbers for 13.5kWh BEDD
      • 8.8% reduciton in daily negative net peak load
      • 26.1% decrease in annual exported electricity
      • 2.9% reduction in daily positive net peak load
      • 31.3% reduction in electricity imported from grid
    • Improvement of SC by 15.4% with BESS
    • Improvement of SS by 17.1% with BESS
    • Economic assessment based on: Initial Investment (II), Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Payback Period (PP)
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • NOT APPLICABLE FOR THIS REVIEW
  • PROVIDE ADVANTAGES OF BESS NOT BIPV
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
12 kW Poly-Si Lisbon, Portugal
12 kW a-Si Lisbon, Portugal

A novel method for optimal performance of ships by simultaneous optimisation of hull-propulsion-BIPV systems[58][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Shipping has been facing significant challenges due to strict limits imposed by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to become more environmentally sustainable. In this regard, the use of solar energy, as a viable way to deal with the pollutant emissions caused by ships, has been attracted considerable attention. However, considerable investment costs, high area demands, and low performances of ships equipped with the photovoltaic systems have until recently been some of the significant challenges in the use of solar energy in the shipping industry. This paper proposes a novel method for the optimal performance of ships through the simultaneous optimisation of the hull-propulsion-building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) system. Using the proposed method, the interaction effects among the ship hull, the BIPV system, and the propulsion system, as well as the impact of the wind and ship speeds on the BIPV system efficiency are considered. Ship operational conditions, including the sunshine duration, the clearness index, the ambient temperature, the latitude of the region, the view factor of the sky to ground, the wind and ship speeds, and the ship lifetime hour are also examined. Moreover, a probabilistic speed profile is employed to avoid a suboptimal design at a single ship speed. The performance of the suggested method is evaluated by designing a planing ship equipped with a waterjet propulsion system that operates in the Karun river, Iran. The non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is used to solve the multi-objective optimisation problem of a planing hull-waterjet-BIPV system. Eight cases are compared to demonstrate the effectiveness and the promise of the proposed approach in different ship design problems with different displacements and BIPV area-to-deck area ratios. The results show the high performance of the adopted approach in cutting operating costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Based on the results, the investment costs due to the BIPV system have been recouped within a year in different studied cases and scenarios. It is also found out that the interaction effects among the ship hull, the BIPV system, and the propulsion system are important to ensure the optimal performance of a ship.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Shipping accounts for 3% global CO2
    • Not a lot of study on Ship-PV
    • BIPV lifetime -> 30years up to 50 years in some cases -> corresponds to ship lifetime
    • Goal: presents novel strategy for the optimal performance of ships in minimising the GHG emission and the operating cost through the simultaneous optimisation of a hull-propulsion-BIPV system
  2. Methods
    • Design of ship hull, the propulsion system, and the BIPV system
    • Optimization using probabilistic speed profile of the ship
    • Ship resistance calculation procedure provided
    • Waterjet propulion system design described
    • BIPV model -> PV modeling
    • multi-objective optimisation algorithm named NSGA_II
    • 8 case studies; 2 scenarios
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Fill in ...
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Cost Reduction -> 22.59 to 34.92%
  • Lifetime Fuel Consumption Reduction -> 35.94 to 45.64%
  • Propulsion Efficiency Increase -> 19.5 to 44.89%
  • Emission reduction -> 35.94 to 45.64
  • Boat resistance reduction -> -5.15 to 5.66
  • Methodology used Optimization
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
Karun River, Iran

A Simulated Study of Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) as an Approach for Energy Retrofit in Buildings[59][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Building envelopes can play a significant role in controlling energy consumption, especially in hot regions because of the wide variety of envelope materials and technologies that have been developed. Currently, because of the high rise in energy prices, especially with the high demand of fossil energy in the building sector worldwide, using curtain walls for maintaining adequate lighting in public buildings could lead to higher energy consumption because of the continuous exposure to the sun in hot regions. For this reason, studying the use of renewable or smart alternatives in the building sector to ensure a cleaner, greener environment by deploying sustainable technology in order to reduce energy demand and support economic long-term solutions would be important for solving such a problem. This paper aims at studying the use of renewable energy technologies and alternatives; represented in new building integrated photovoltaics (BIPVs) technology that could be integrated within building skin to reduce energy demand. The methodology follows a quantitative comparative approach, using an energy simulation software to study two different types of BIPV technology (BISOL Premium BXO 365 Wp monocrystalline and BXU 330 Wp, polycrystalline) on an existing building by retrofitting a part of its curtain wall. This is to conclude the energy saving percentage and feasibility of both alternatives.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Energy sector consumes more than 60% of total energy consumption in Egypt
    • Building retrofitting process defined
    • Building performance simulation (BPS) process described
      • Phase 1: Building energy auditing.
      • Phase 2: Development of retrofit strategies/actions.
      • Phase 3: Simulated implementation of retrofit strategies/actions.
    • Goal:
      • building envelope energy retrofit strategies are highlighted to study its impact on energy usage in buildings
      • a quantitative comparative study is conducted through a building performance simulation (BPS) process to compare the performance of two different types of BIPV.
  2. Methods
    • Case study in existing building in Giza
    • Biuidling description provided
    • Evaluation of buidling enegry consumption -> electrical and thermomechanical systems analysis
    • EnergyPlus used for simulation - All resutls compared with a base-case scenario
    • 2 Facades considered
      • Facade 1 -> 508.08 m²
      • Facade 2 -> 7128 m²
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Case 1: Building Energy Consumption reduction of 7.04%
    • Case 2: Building Energy Consumption reduction of 5.47%
    • Installation economics provided for both case scenarios
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Building Energy Consumption reduction: 5.47% and 7.04%
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
365 Wp / modules 330 Wp modules Mono and Poly-Si Giza, Egypt October 6th - Date data collected 142.74MWh 111.07MWH 18.7% 16.9%

Profitability of active retrofitting of multi-apartment buildings: Building-attached/integrated photovoltaics with special consideration of different heating systems[60][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Multi-apartment buildings comprise almost half of the European housing stock and are for the most part old and energy inefficient, making active retrofitting an important topic. The objective of this paper is to determine the profitability and optimal size of different technology portfolios for renewable building energy. A mixed-integer linear programming optimisation model is developed in Matlab with the objective of maximising the Net Present Value over a time horizon of 20 years. To examine multiple use cases, a modular approach is used for realising different multi-apartment building set-ups. Building-attached and building-integrated photovoltaic systems on different parts of the building skin already achieve break-even. Heat pumps, pellet and district heating can hardly compete with gas heating yet. However, heat pumps have synergy effects with PV systems, thus reinforcing their implementation, as does a tenant portfolio with a good correlation with the sunshine hours. The profitability gap between investment costs for passive building renovation and resulting energy cost savings is significant. However, it is the smallest for buildings with quality standards. In conclusion, governmental subsidies and financial incentives such as the true cost pricing of CO2 emissions are necessary to trigger investments in reasonable combinations of passive and active retrofitting measures.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Buildings account for 40% energy consumption and 36% CO2 emisisons in EU
    • Type of retrofitting in buildings described:
      • Passive
      • Passive with solar theral
      • Passive + Active including HVAC and PV
    • Active retrofit complicated for multi-apparts building
    • Review of passive, active, and combination refrofit measures in buildings
    • Goal: focuses on investigating the profitability of active retrofitting measures for multi-apartment buildings by taking different electricity and heating technology combinations into account
  2. Methods
    • Building analyzed -> multi-appart with 10 residentials units
    • Use of optimization of NPV to select best retrofit option
    • Use of real load profiles - 15min resolution - One year data
    • Constraints: cover electric and heating load at every point in time
    • Economic analysis performed over 20 years
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Fill in ...
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • CO2 Emisions reduction -> 28.57 - 84.29% as compared to a gas heating system
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
51.67 kW Austria 20-years 17%

Holistic economic analysis of building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) system: Case studies evaluation[61][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Recent trends and future objectives in sustainable buildings are to reduce energy consumption, and simultaneously try to supply their energy demand within the building employing an environmentally friendly energy resource which leads to a nearly zero energy building (nZEB). Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), which is one of the fastest growing industries worldwide currently, refers to photovoltaic cells that are integrated into the building envelope such as facade or roof to generate clean energy from sunshine and is the most remarkable technology to contribute to nZEB purposes. In this paper, an innovative approach of BIPV economic analysis is presented. The proposed method is to quantify the societal and environmental advantages of a BIPV system as much as possible and import these values to the economic analysis in order to see their effects in a lifecycle cost analysis (LCCA). In order to compare the results with the current LCCA, four case studies from Brazil, Italy, China, and Bahrain were chosen, because they were the most recent BIPV system LCCA, and the suggested method was applied on them. The economic analysis showed that with the societal and environmental benefits of the implemented system, replacing conventional façades and roof building materials with BIPV modules will become economically more feasible. As a result, the presented strategy could not only expectantly guide the end user to decide more conscious about the implementation of BIPV systems but also steer governments or decision-makers to support the technology by rational subsidies and incentives.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Building energy demand -> 31% of world's energy demand
    • BIPV estimated at 30 years; 50years possibly
    • Rooftop are more prized for BIPV installation
    • More than 80% BIPV on rooftops
    • BIPV on facade suffer from shading but can have a siginicant impact
    • BIPV barriers:
      • Institutional
      • Public acceptance
      • Economic barriers
      • Technicla Barriers
    • Most significant barrier => high capital cost + low electrical efficiency'
    • Past BIPV studies do not account for societal and environmental benefits
    • Goal: proposed an innovative approach for LCCA of the BIPV systems
  2. Methods
    • Selection of 4 case studies from previously published papers
      • Milan -> PR found 0.37%/year in 13 years
      • Brazil -> Discounted payback period (DPP) -> 6 - 16 years
      • Shanghai -> 10 kW BIPV -> EPBT: 3.1years; GPBT: 0.4years; DPP: 11years
      • Awali -> 8.64 kW BIPV; DPP: 624 years (very cheap fuel cost)
    • Economic tools:
      • NPV
      • DPP
    • Provided data from the 4 past case studies
    • Important aspect affecting BIPV systems economy:
      • Transmission line lost power
      • Power delivery cost
      • The societal cost of carbon
      • Material cost
    • LCCA used -> 4 key components of LCCA:
      • costs of owning and operating an asset
      • the lifespan of the asset
      • the discount and inflation rate
      • the benefits (quantitative and qualitative) of the asset during its lifespan.
    • Spreadsheet used for analysis
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Fill in ...
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Past BIPV studies do not account for societal and environmental benefits
  • When societal and environmental cost are included, benefits of BIPV increase -> CO2 emissions reduction
  • Include this paper in discussion
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency

Numerical studies of thermal comfort for semi-transparent building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV)-vacuum glazing system[62][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV)-vacuum system is promising for advanced window application due to its ability to reduce heat transfer, control over admitted solar heat and generates environmentally benign electricity. In this work, numerically thermal comfort for an unfurnished room comprising of BIPV-vacuum glazing was evaluated for the United Kingdom (UK) climate. Required parameters to determine thermal comfort, one-dimensional heat transfer model was developed and validated for BIPV-vacuum glazing and results were compared with BIPV-double-pane glazing system. PV cell temperature difference between these two different types of glazing was 24 °C. For the UK climate, BIPV-vacuum glazing offered 26% higher room temperature at clear sunny day compared to BIPV-double system. BIPV–vacuum glazing system provided soothing or comfortable thermal comfort during mid-day period for a clear sunny day at temperate climate. In a combined BIPV-vacuum glazing, it was also predicted that vacuum glass facing external ambient is suitable for the UK climate whilst vacuum glass facing internal room ambient is applicable for Indian climate.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Fill in ...
    • Goal: ...
  2. Methods
    • Fill in ...
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Fill in ...
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • NOT APPLICABLE FOR THIS REVIEW
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency

Colour properties and glazing factors evaluation of multicrystalline based semi-transparent Photovoltaic-vacuum glazing for BIPV application[63][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Low heat loss vacuum glazing offers high heat insulation for indoor space, which reduces the building’s heating energy demand. However, the transparent nature of this glazing allows similar daylight to double glazing that creates discomfort glare. Double pane semi-transparent type photovoltaic (PV) glazing introduces control of solar heat gain, daylight and generates clean electricity. The transparent portion between regularly distributed PV cells allows light penetration. Addition of these two technologies can offer low heat loss PV-vacuum glazing that will control heat loss, heat gain, and daylight and generate renewable power. In this work, two different areas of multicrystalline PV cells were employed to form 35% and 42% transparent PV-vacuum glazing. Spectral characterisation, glazing factor and entering light quality through the transparent part of this PV-vacuum glazing were evaluated. Colour rendering and correlated colour temperature of this glazing were compared with an electrically actuated switchable suspended particle device glazing.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • In developed countries, building account for 20-40% total energy consumption
    • Regular glazing not energy efficient -> high heat loss; and glare generation
    • Glass is coated to reduce heat loss
    • Vacuum glazing offers low overall heat transfer, but generates glare
    • Ways to reduce glare in windows:
      • switchable transparent electrochromic (EC).
      • suspended particle device (SPD),
      • liquid crystal (LC)
      • static transparent photovoltaic
    • SPD and EC need to be powered to function
    • Description of PV glazing
    • Best solution to glare and heat gain -> PV glazing + vacuum glazing
    • Goal: first time multicrystalline based combined semitransparent PV-vacuum glazing has been introduced for low energy adaptive retrofit or new building.
      • first case: 35% transmittance
      • second case: 42% transmittance
  2. Methods
    • Evaluation of quality of light with:
      • coulour rendering index: CRI
      • corelation colour temperature (CCT)
    • Compared PV-vacuum glazing to SPD glazing
    • Evaluation of optical parameters, glazing factors, CCT, CRI -> detailed equations provided
    • Provided details on type of glazing used
    • Optical characterization performed using UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Detailed numerical on light transmission
      • 40% SPD: CRI->91; CCT->6350
      • PV-Vacuum: CRI->95.5; CCT->6400
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Light transmission improvement
    • 5% increase in CRI compared to SPD
    • 0.8% increase in CCT light transmission compared to SPD
  • Heat gain reduction -> mentioned , not quantified.
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
mc-Si

Experimental investigation of overall energy performance in Algerian office building integrated photovoltaic window under semi-arid climate[64][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) energy has now become one of the most significant renewable energy alternatives for providing natural daylight and clean energy. As such, this study was conducted for the first time in Algeria to experimentally evaluate the BIPV window energy and lighting energy savings of a typical office building under the semi-arid climate condition. Apart from using the Energy Plus and Integrated Environment Solution-Virtual environment (IES-VE) energy simulation tools in the experimental validation, the daylighting control method and the dynamic Useful Daylight Illuminance (UDI) were also utilized to analyse the daylighting performance as well as the lighting energy of BIPV windows with different transparency levels at various cardinal orientations. The field measurements had revealed the overall energy model to be consistent and in good agreement with the EnergyPlus and the IESVE simulation models, where the tested PV module was found to have provided not only a 20% Visible Light Transmittance (VLT) of uniformed daylight with low illuminance level, but also thermal comfort and a considerable amount of clean energy. The simulated results had demonstrated a substantial improvement in cooling energy and glare reduction of the PV modules as compared to the base-model, where the only BIPV window configuration was achieved good area of UDI 300-700 lux is facing the South orientation and 30% VLT. In conclusion, the application of the thin film BIPV windows with different transparency and orientation levels can thus be regarded as an effective solution for minimizing the lighting energy consumption through its energy production instead of daylighting utilization.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Fill in ...
    • Goal: ...
  2. Methods
    • Fill in ...
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Fill in ...
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • DUPLICATED - ALREADY REVIEWED
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency

Investigation on the energy performance of a novel semi-transparent BIPV system integrated with vacuum glazing[65][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

The development of vacuum glazed windows in recent decades has provided a foreseeable energy saving opportunity in the design of low-energy consumption buildings and the application of building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) has experienced rapid development for application in buildings. This paper reports our investigations on the combinations of the vacuum glazing and BIPV integration. Semi-transparent photovoltaic windows can convert solar energy into electricity, but most of absorbed solar heat is transferred into indoor environment which becomes additional cooling load. The proposed vacuum photovoltaic insulated glass unit (VPV IGU) in this paper combines vacuum glazing and solar photovoltaic technologies, which can utilize solar energy and reduce cooling load of buildings at the same time. Various experiments were conducted to evaluate the thermal performance and determine the key characteristics of the VPV IGU in this study. It was found that the VPV IGU can achieve very low total heat gain coefficient (U-value) of around 1.5 W/(m2 K) and block most of undesired solar radiation from penetrating through the window. Compared with a common double-pane glass sheet, the vacuum PV glazing can maintain the indoor environment at a relatively low temperature due to its excellent thermal insulation performance in summer. A detailed simulation study has been conducted by EnergyPlus and Berkeley Lab WINDOW. The simulation work has indicated that the cooling load can be reduced by 14.2% by a south-oriented VPV IGU compared with common glazing products while power generation is not compromised compared with normal BIPV systems. The results show that the application of the VPV IGU has a huge energy saving potential and can minimize the drawback of common PV insulating glass units.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • 90% electricity consumed by buildings in Hong Kong in 2015
    • Buildings responsible for 30% GHG emission in developing countries
    • mitigate energy consumption in buildings:
      • energy saving
      • Renewable energy usage
    • Building energy loss mainly due to glazing:
      • 71% in summer
      • 48% in winter
    • Vacuum glazing -> potential solution to reduce energy loss + useful for noise cancelling
    • Review of vacuum glazing and STPV
    • Goal:
      • proposed novel vacuum PV insulated glass unit (VPV IGU) that combines the advantage of the high thermal insulation performance of vacuum glazing and the power generation capability of PV glazing
  2. Methods
    • a-Si with transmittance of 20%
    • Used for nature day-lighting
    • Thermal insulation could increase the temperature of PV -> guided the decision of PV technology
    • Experimental measurment comparing PV glazing to other types of glazing:
      • double pane glass
      • single pane window
      • vacuum glazing
      • Double clear pane glazing
    • Data collecte dat 1-min interval
    • Measurement equipment description provided in detail
    • Simnulation performed using EnergyPlus and Berkley Lab WINDOW
    • Step-by step simulation process described
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Check Key takeaways
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Thermal insulation:
    • Better indoor environment
    • Low U-value / Temperature closest to ambient compared with other window type
    • Quantified experimentally
    • Temp: 53% decrease compared to base case
  • Cooling load reduction
    • Energy reduction between 5.2% and 25.4% compared to other systems and depending on orientation
    • Quantified by simulation
  • energy generation closed to otrher types of system (0.4 -1%)
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
74W a-Si 4 days 9Sept26-September 30) 2.1kWh/month in June 22.17kWh/month in December

Optimization of a BIPV system to mitigate greenhouse gas and indoor environment[66][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

The solar architecture is defined as a kind of building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) which the Photovoltaic (PV) modules are deployed to passive solar concepts, to minimize the heating & cooling load, to upgrade the indoor environmental quality and to be adjustable for regional weather and to continuously succeed architectural culture and history. The most ideal form of a BIPV is a multi-functional and ecological convergence through a passive concept application of a photovoltaic module for a building. The solar architecture needs to consider the architectural culture and history of the region through an ecological convergence which is applicable to a passive concept if the environment, energy and comfort problems will be effectively mitigated. The evaluation standard is needed to fulfill these requirements of solar architecture. The renewable energy sources are getting very hot issues, due to the environmental pollution, global warming, and energy shortage, etc. It is reasonable to disseminate the representative energy systems which could be ecologically convergent with the regional architecture. Most renewable energy systems including PV could not be activate or not be environmentally friendly if the systems are planned simply without multi-functional and ecological convergence. This paper describes the ecological criteria to optimize solar architecture through an ecological convergence of a passive solar architecture and photovoltaic system.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • 25% of energy used for building heating and cooling in Korea; 45-50% in EU and USA
    • Goal: describes the ecological criteria to optimize the solar architecture through an ecological convergence of a passive solar architecture and photovoltaic system and newly suggested simulation model for solar architecture, considering results from a remodeling process of a small or medium-sized public building by an ecological application of the photovoltaic system.
  2. Methods
    • Use of Building Physical Information Modeling (BPIM)
    • BIPV as shading device in Seok-Kwan Community, Seoul Korea.
    • Year round energy simulation using TRNSYS 17
    • PV covers 32% of total building rnergy consumption
    • SolCel 19 to simulate BIPV as shading device
    • Bifacial PV irradiation calculation
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Fill in ...
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • NOT INCLUDED IN REVIEW
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
21.2 kW mono-cSi Seok-Kwan 1 year 16.44

Optimum design of building integrated PV module as a movable shading device[67][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Building-integrated PV (BIPV) can be used as an external shading device as well as an electricity generator. In this study, the energy efficiency of the movable BIPV shading system installed over the windows has been investigated. In the first stage, the PV panels monthly electricity generation at different tilt angles and the building's monthly thermal load for the various overhang depth of windows were calculated. Based on the data obtained from these analyses, optimal condition for PV panel and overhang were determined for each month. In the next step, the geometry of the BIPV Panel was designed such that in each month the BIPV panel can provide obtained conditions. The movable BIPV shading was compared with the fixed modes include BIPV installed over the window with distance, BIPV installed over the window without distance, overhang, and no shading mode with fixed PV on the roof. The building annual thermal load integrated with the movable system, in comparison with four mentioned fixed modes is 12, 16, 15 and 20 % lower, and electricity generation, excessive to building thermal demand is 70, 142, 113, and 290 % higher respectively. The annual electricity generated by the movable PV is only 2 % higher than the fixed mode.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Postulates that BIPV reduces cost compared to PV and building alone
    • Listed studies indicating where BIPV can be installed on a building: wall, roof, window, shading device
    • BIPV Shading uses can prevent increase in heating and cooling loads, and improve daylighting control
    • BIPV optimum angle changes depending on the goal of installation
      • Hong Kong -> max electricity production -> 30°
      • Hong Kong -> optimize air-conditoning and daylighting -> 20°
    • Moveable BIPV can save 20-80% net energy depend
    • Goal:
      • analyzed the performance of moveable inclined PV over south-facing window
      • geometry optimizationof the BIPV system with the constraint of building energy load and PV generation
      • Monthly analysis through computational models
  2. Methods
    • Use of EnergyPlus 8.5 for heating and cooling load calculations, and PV generation
    • Use of Matlab to automate multiple runs in EnergyPlus
    • Validation of model using experimental results in literature
    • Appartment building model form Teheran used
    • Neaby building shading ignored
    • No storage needed, net-metering considered
    • Table of PV genertaion with tilt angle and month provided
    • Rationale used in movable device design:
      • PV should be position at best titl angle for each month
      • simplicity of installation
      • low capex and O&M
    • Description of moveable PV mechanical structure and
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Compasred Moveable BIPV to 4 other systems (optimized)
      • Fixed BIPV shading system with distance from window
      • Fixed BIPV shading system without distance from window
      • Overhang shading and fixed PV module on roof
      • No shading and fixed PV on roof
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Reduced heating and cooling loads:
    • Simulation
    • Low -> 12%
    • High -> 20%
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
Tehran, Iran 18%

Pilot study on building-integrated PV: Technical assessment and economic analysis[68][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) is an innovative green solution that incorporated energy generation into the building façade with modification on the building material or architectural structure. It is a clean and reliable solution that conserves the aesthetical value of the architecture and has the potential to enhance the building's energy efficiency. Malaysia's tropical location has a high solar energy potential to be exploited, and BIPV is a very innovative aspect of technology to employ the available energy. Heriot-Watt University Malaysia (HWUM) has a unique roof design that could be utilized as an application of the BIPV system to generate electricity, reducing the carbon footprint of the facility. Eight BIPV systems of different PV technologies and module types and with capacities of 411.8 to 1085.6 kW were proposed for the building. The environmental plugin software has been integrated with a building geometry modelling tool to visualize and estimate the energy potential from the roof surface in a 3D modelling software. Additionally, detailed system simulations are conducted using PVSyst software, where results and performance parameters are analysed. The roof surface is shown to provide great energy potential and studied scenarios generated between 548 and 1451 MWh yearly with PR range from 78% to 85%. C-Si scenarios offer the best economical profitability with payback period of 4.4 to 6.3 years. The recommended scenario has a size of 1085.5 kW and utilizes thin-film CdTe PV modules. The system generates 1415 MWh annually with a performance ratio of 84.9%, which saves 62.8% of the electricity bill and has an estimated cost of 901 000 USD. Installation of the proposed system should preserve the aesthetical value of the building's roof, satisfy BIPV rules, and most importantly, conserves energy, making the building greener.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • BIPV -> carbon footprint reduction -> net-zero energy building targets
    • 40% BIPV growth since 2009
    • BIPV integrates well with architectural designs
    • BIPV price does not compete with PV
    • a-Si BIPV not fully matured
    • More cooperation needed b/w PV designers and building architects
    • 3 forms of BIPV: roof-integrated; curtain-integrated; window-integrated
    • BIPV design parameters listed
    • BIPV advantages: no land required; possible material cost reduction; no mounting system
    • 50% rise in BIPV systems form 2014 to 2015
    • Not enough knowledge on dust impact for BIPV
    • Cleaning schedule may increase cost economic impact
    • Other degradations factors are specified
    • Unproper installation could be detrimental to building
    • Goal: assessing the solar radiation resource potential at the Heriot-Watt University Malaysia location, designing a grid-connected BIPV system to fit on the curved roof of this building, aids to save energy by reducing the utility bill, and evaluating the performance of proposed system scenarios by comparing different performance and economic parameters
  2. Methods
    • Investigation of different PV technologies: CIGS Flex; a-Si Flex; mono c-Si Flex; CdTe Standard frameless; mono c-Si standard; poly c-Si standard
    • Energy modeling
    • PV System Scenarios Table
Scenario Technology DC Power (kW)
Design 1 CIGS 546
Design 2 a-Si 411.8
Design 3 CdTe 1085.6
Design 4 c-Si Mono 1078.8
Design 5 c-Si Poly 1047
Mixed (1+3) CIGS-CdTe 758.8
Mixed (1+5) CIGS-Poly c-Si 750.6
Mixed (3+4) CdTe-Mono c-Si 1082.2
    • Architectural 3D-modeling
    • Economic analysis -> NPV explained in detail
    • Non-optimal tilt-orientation factor (TOF) in BIPV -> architecture constrains BIPV efficiency

3. Results and Discussion

  • 12.3% loss due to temperature effect in Design 1
  • a-Si -> low efficiency
  • Scenario 3: PR b/w 78% and 84.9%
  • CdTe Scenario 3 -> highest efficiency; lowest temperature losses -> highest cost
  • Facade PV have lower PR compared to roof PV
  • Results will reduce carbon footprint of building
  • Thin film not economically feasible
  • Best Option economically -> scenario 5
  • Design 3 -> 992 tons CO2 reduction; 7.3 years EPBT

4. Conclusions

  • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • CO2 emissions reduction:
    • Estimation
    • 992 tons saved per year
  • Annual electricity bill reduction
    • Simulation
    • Low -> 19.6%
    • High -> 62.8%
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
546 kW 1082.2 kW Multiple Malaysia 30 years 595.5 MWh/y 1,239.7 MWh/y 7.1% 17.5%

Analysis of the Impact of Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) on Reducing the Demand for Electricity and Heat in Buildings Located in Poland[69][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Based on a method to reduce energy consumption suggested in a real energy audit carried out in an industrial plant located in Poznań (city in Poland), the potential of using photovoltaic (PV) panels as wall cladding was analyzed, in order to reduce energy (electric and thermal) consumption and financial expenditure. The authors’ concept of using building integrated photovoltaic installation (BIPV) was presented and tested. This study checked whether the presence of PV modules would also affect heat transfer through the external wall of the building on which the installation is located. The analysis consisted of determining, for two variants, the heat transfer coefficients across the partition, in order to estimate the potential thermal energy savings. The first variant concerned the existing state, i.e., heat transfer through the external wall of the building, while the second included an additional partition layer in the form of photovoltaic panels. As a result, the use of panels as wall cladding allowed the improvement of the thermal parameters of the building wall (by increasing the thermal resistance of the wall), and the reduction of gas consumption for heating. The panels also generate electricity for the factory’s own needs. Payback time, compared to calculations which do not include changes in thermal parameters, was shortened from 14 to 11 years. The main reason for this is that gas consumption is reduced due to the improved heat transfer coefficient of the wall and the reduction of the heat loss of the facility. This aspect is usually overlooked when considering photovoltaic installations and, as argued by this paper, can be important.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Reviewed energy reduction pathways
    • Reviewed BIPV Studies
      • Discussed the main aspects to consider whiule designing a BIPV system: operating conditions, shading, voltage level
      • PV has the possibility of reducing cooling load
      • Wall PV sometimes generate more energy than ground PV in area covered in snow
      • Ventilated channel beneath PV modules allows increased enegry production
      • Double layered BIPV facade good for heating and cooling loasd reduction
    • Goal:
      • analyze the possibilities of using photovoltaic wall elements to improve the energy efficiency of an enterprise, based on the energy audit of a company existing in Poland
      • determining the thermal resistance of building elements and made calculations of the amount of gas saved for heating the building
  2. Methods
    • Reviewed energy auditing
    • PV system description
      • PV surface: 6 x 85 m²
      • 300W PV modules -> 0.99 x 1.65 m²
      • Onsite Consumption
    • Detailed calculation of thermal resistance a wall with and withour BIPVdetermining the thermal resistance of building elements and made calculations of the amount of gas saved for heating the buildingvaria`
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Proposed PV system was found insufficient for plant demand
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • BIPV improves cooling and heating load of building (reducing heat exchange coefficient)
    • 12% reduction in the heat exchange coeffcient
    • Determined by calculation
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
93.6 kW mono-Si Poland 25 years 1,728,317 MWh

Experimental Study on Energy Efficiency of Multi-Functional BIPV Glazed Façade Structure during Heating Season[70][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) is technology that can significantly increase the share of renewable energy in final energy supply and are one of essential technologies for the nearly zero-energy buildings (nZEB), new build and refurbished. In the article (a) an experimental semitransparent BIPV glazed façade structure with 60% of PV cell coverage is shown; (b) energy efficiency indicators were developed based on identified impact parameters using experimental data; and (c) multi-parametric models of electricity generation, preheating of air for space ventilation, and dynamic thermal insulation features that enable prediction of solar energy utilization in different climate conditions are shown. The modeled efficiency of electricity production of BIPV was in the range between 8% and 9.5% at daily solar radiation above 1500 Wh/day, while low impact of outdoor air temperature and ventilation air flow rate on PV cell cooling was noticed. Between 35% and 75% of daily solar radiation can be utilized by preheating the air for space ventilation, and 4.5% to 7.5% of daily solar radiation can be utilized in the form of heat gains through opaque envelope walls.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Building GHG emissions in Europe -> 36%
    • Reviewed multi-functional BIPV modules studies
    • Goal:
      • Design and build a BIPV glazed-facade structure
      • Solar PV usage evaluated: electricity prod, thermal performance, PV use efficiency.
  2. Methods
    • Investiage the use of BIPV in terms of PV energy use , energy efficiency, and thermal comfort
    • Description fo the exprimental system provided
    • PV used:
      • mc-silicon
      • efficiency: 18.5%
      • dimension: 156x156 mm
    • One-minute interval data taken from different types of sensors
    • Data collected form 25 Dec 2019 to April 15 2020
    • Developped energy efficiency indicators
      • electricity production: provided equation for PV generation of glazed BIPV
      • Preheating of ventilation air
      • Dynamic thermal insulation
      • Overall efficiency of sola rEnergy Utilization
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Energy effiicency indicators are dependent from one day to the other
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • NOT INCLUDED IN REVIEW
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency

Architectural Forming and Economic Analysis of BIPV System for the Faculty of Engineering Buildings in Mansoura University.[71][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Recently, we have become more conscious about the impact of the industrial and technological revolution on the environment and human health which is basically due to the use of fossil fuel. In the development of energy sources in Egypt for the 21st century, it is necessary to replace by solar energy as one of the most promising and available renewable energy sources. Egypt is considered one of the solar belt countries with high intensity of direct solar radiation from north to south which provides a variety of solar energy applications. In Egypt existing building sector is responsible for use of large amount of energy for lighting, heating and cooling. As the amount of existing buildings is much higher than the number of buildings being built, while many of these existing buildings need improvements. This provides an opportunity to use photovoltaics (PVs) integration technologies to reduce primary energy usage and greenhouse gas emissions. At the moment, PVs technologies are available in relatively competitive prices; solar radiation is converted into electricity providing a cleaner, environmentally friendly alternative to reduce the environmental impact of buildings. The main reason for these technologies to stay unpopular is the lack of good architectural quality that meets the desired design considerations. The main aim of this paper is to pave possible ways for architects and engineers to use the building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems with innovative approaches which can serve the dual function of emphasis on the architectural expression and power generation. Introduce a model of architectural forming and economic analysis of BIPV system for an existing campus building in Egypt (the Architectural Department in the Faculty of Engineering in Mansoura University). This will encourage the responsible authorities and operators of existing buildings in Egypt to implement sustainable practices and reduce the environmental impacts of buildings over their functional life cycles.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Existing buildings contributre over 40% of the primary energy use globally + 24% GHG emissions
    • Goal:
      • discuss the cexisting condition of the Egyptian builfing sector + need fo Ren Energy
      • emphasize the BIPV use in Egypt for solving energy and emissions issues
  2. Methods
    • Egypt has a good solar PV potential
    • Connection to grid high => need for change in policy to allow transition to PV
    • Architectural acceptance limits PV deployment
    • MEteonorm used for data collection
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Fill in ...
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Mentioned CO2 emissions but not quantified
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
17.5 kW mc-Si Mansoura University 25 1058500 kWh

Integrability assessment methodology for building integrated photovoltaics: concept and application[72][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

The existing evaluation of Building Integrated Photovoltaic systems (BIPV), limit to the system’s electrical performance, similar to conventional PV ground-mounted systems. BIPV has to deliver on both the roles of building and PV alike while catering to the needs of the society, economically. The current paper introduces the concept of Integrability, which is an attempt towards a holistic approach in evaluating BIPV systems. Integrability Methodology for BIPV evaluation has been proposed, for urban localities, which can be adopted for various PV configurations, building typologies and climatic zones. An Integrability Index has also been devised, considering various building performance factors, to evaluate and compare the performance of BIPV structures. The methodology has been applied to a 5.25 kWp BIPV system and the index has been computed to be 0.17 (on a scale of 0–1) and the various strategies that improve the index (up to 0.56) have also been discussed.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • BIPV can satisfy multiple functions: electricity generation, weather protec-tion, natural lighting, thermal insulation, shading, noise protection and even satisfy aspects of archi-tectural design
    • BIPV are still only characterize by the performance of the PV alone
    • PV alters overall performnce of the building
    • No existing agreed upon performance index
    • BIPV sometimes compared to GPV as if they perofrmed the same role
    • 40% of electricity in building -> thermal comfort
    • Goal: Propose an integrability methodology to address holostic evaluation of BIPV
  2. Methods
    • Defined 3 key components of BIPV: building, PV, occupant
    • 4 steps integrability framework proposed:
      • BIPV components
      • Identification of BIPV functionality through interactions
      • Identification of measuring parameters of functionality
      • Integrability index
    • Analyzed interactions b/w the 3 key components
      • Interaction b/w building and PV: Use of PVE/m² -> Photovotlaic energy for the calculation of PV electric generation per unit area
      • Interaction b/w building and occupant: Use of TCE -> thermal comfort energy for the quantification of comfort index
      • Interacytion b/w PV and coccupant: Use of PV Loading Ratio and Cost-Benefit Ratio
    • Proposed a formula for integrability index:
      Equation integrability.png
    • Prensented a detailed graphical framework of the integrability methodology
    • Presented advantages and limitations of integrability concept
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Case Study:
      • PC size: 5.25kWp
      • Location: Bangalore, India
      • Tech: mono crystalline siliconRoof area: 45m²; 15°pitch
      • Elecytical Load: 1066kWh
      • Considered losses in the energy calculation
      • Full description of the system operation
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Climate responsiveness and Thermal comfort improvement:
    • Quantified using TCE;
      • Minimum: 0kWh
      • Maximum: 3183.7 kWh
      • Normalized: 0.13
      • Actual: 2764.6 kWh
    • Needs a comparative basis to know whether it is an improvement or not.
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
5.25kWp monocrystalline Bangalore, India 3585.8 AC kWh/year 11.9%

Secure Management of Networked Batteries for Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) Systems[73][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

This letter reviews the related research on Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) for efficient utilization of solar energy, and further clarifies the concept of networked batteries. Taking Lithium-ion batteries as an example, maximizing the energy storage is the target, which is achieved by managing the charging and discharging of the individual batteries within a network. With the optimal management of the networked batteries, buildings constructed by using PV-capable materials are expected to be energy self-sufficient, which leads to zero-carbon energy supply. It is pointed out that the real-time estimation on the State-of-Charge (SoC) of Lithium-ion battery is crucial for secure management of the networked batteries.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Fill in ...
    • Goal: ...
  2. Methods
    • Fill in ...
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Fill in ...
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • NOT INCLUDED IN REVIEW
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency

BAPV SYSTEM MODELING FOR THE SINGLE-FAMILY HOUSE: A CASE STUDY[74][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

The community all over the World has to tackle the problem of depletion of fossil fuels, overusing the natural resources, and growing emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. It is related to the growing demand for electricity due to global development in every field. The solution to this problem can be production clean, solar energy with the use of photovoltaic modules. However, the installation of PV system in urban areas is very often impossible because of high-density citie’s architecture. The objective of this study was to analyze building applied photovoltaic system configurations for the flat rooftop of the detached house in Warsaw, Poland. Four configurations were analyzed taking into consideration the area of the rooftop, different tilt angles of PV modules, and shading areas. The system configuration as well as monthly energy output were carried out by the use of DDS-Cad software. The ecological aspect of the photovoltaic installation was also analyzed. A significant reduction of greenhouse gases was observed based on conducted calculations.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Presented statistics of PV in europe and in Poland, more specifically
    • Poland seemed to be on track to achieve 2030 National Plan for Climate and Energy
    • But not enough space in urban areas to deploy more PV => need to integrate into buildings
    • Decentralize PV could be a potential solution
    • Goal:
      • Computational analysis for efficient BAPV orientation under Polish weather conditions
      • included maximum use of rooftop area and optimal PV tilt
      • Examined ecological aspects and GHG emission reduction
  2. Methods
    • Use of DDS-Cad software for computatyional analysis
    • 4 different PV config investigated
      • flat rooftop - tilt: 0° - azimuth: 0°
      • flat rooftop - tilt: 36° - azimuth: 0°
      • flat rooftop - tilt: 24° - azimuth: 0°
      • flat rooftop - tilt: 24° - azimuth: E-W
    • Location: Warsaw; Poland - elevation: 130m
    • Single family house with 2 storeys considered for the study - Rooftop area: 134 m²
    • Specs of PV provided
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Config1 has higher energy but Case 2 has higher yield/kWp
    • Detailed yield given for all 4 configs
    • Optimal tilt angle is one of themost important parameters for energy yield
    • CO2 edmisison redudctions estimated using data from National Center for Emissions Balancing and Management in Poland
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • GHG emisisons reduction - Quantified individually
    • Quantified using calculation by inference - high/low (kg/MWh)
      • CO2: 1051 / 487
      • SO2: 11.01 / 5.10
      • NOx: 10.21 / 4.73
      • CO: 4.45 / 2.06
      • Dust: 0.58 / 0.27
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
7.840kWp 21.56 kWp multicrystalline Warsaw, Poland 7.494 kWh/year 16.173 kWh/year 17.1%

The value of aesthetics in the BIPV roof products segment: a multiperspective study under European market conditions[75][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

On account of supportive policies and improving technologies, Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) is gaining attention. Although the BIPV offer is costly, the customers are willing to accept premium rates for more visually appealing systems. The objective of this paper is to estimate and confront the actual market costs of the esthetics offered by the market and to understand the perceived value of esthetic premiums on the customer end. The topic is approached by employing a case study to assess the cost of investment, to learn the economic benefit throughout the entire system’s life cycle and to discern its impact on the value of the residence. The results indicate that from the system’s cost perspective, the current premium reaches over 80% of the Building Applied PV (BAPV) while maintenance plays an important role. Although the Net Present Values (NPV) are positive for both: BIPV and mainstream PV, the Internal Rate of Return (IRR)’s difference reaches 7%. The BIPV’s 0.14Euro/kWh of Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) stay below the current market standards so the economic benefits brought by the system are conceivably assured. It has been found that the value of esthetics premium is priced similarly for both the manufacturer and customer. In the latter stages of the BIPV industry’s evolution, the suppliers focus on the functionality of the products, their complex installations, and expensive maintenance. These elements have negative impacts on the esthetics premium value and hinder its acceptance.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Reviewed past studies in BIPV regarding:
      • BIPV status barrier, and future
      • Performance calculation financial feasibility
      • Importnace of aesthetics in customer decision
    • Goal:
      • Holistic research on staus of BIPV roof market
      • Case study of BIPV aesthetics premium in residential projects in Central Europe
      • Estimate and confront actual market costs of esthetics and perceived value of esthetics
  2. Methods
    • General description of BIPVs with focus on tiled rooftop BIPV
    • tile BIPV represents 50% of total BIPV on the market
    • Estimated usable roof surface in EU-27: 2350 km²
    • Discrepancy in size and specs of BIPV tiles on market
      • weight b/w 10.5kg/m² and 60kg/m² -> mostly depends on mounting system
    • Presented data on BIPV specs
    • Descirbes the value of aesthetics in BIPV
    • Detached house from Poland and analyzed:
      • the investment cost in comparison to the non-PV, and mainstream PV solutions (BAPV),
      • the installation as an energy source and investment vehicle generating cashflow,
      • the perception of the value of esthetic on the market (based on literature review findings)
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Fill in ...
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • NOT INCLUDED IN REVIEW
    • Compared BIPV and BAPV
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency

Determination of economically optimised building integrated photovoltaic systems for utilisation on facades in the tropical climate: A case study of Colombo, Sri Lanka[76][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are becoming a viable solution for clean on-site energy production and utilisation to combat the existing energy crisis. In tropical climates, although rooftops are ideal for photovoltaic (PV) module integration, the available area may be insufficient to meet building energy demand due to the recent high-rise nature of urban buildings, causing a requirement for the utilisation of facades. However, the high angle of solar elevation means that facades are unfavourably oriented towards receiving incident solar irradiation. In addition, the issue exists of high solar heat gains into built spaces. This paper proposes a method to utilise horizontally inclined photovoltaic modules integrated on solar shading devices in order to combat these issues of unfavourable inclination and solar heat gains in commercial office buildings in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Various strategies are introduced and evaluated in terms of their inclination angles and the distance between installations. The results are analysed in terms of economic potential in order to determine which strategies are capable of producing the most electricity and reducing building cooling loads for the lowest installation costs. The results show that horizontal inclinations of PV on facades are capable of generating nearly 8% more electricity as a percentage of the building energy consumption when compared with traditional vertical PV facade installations.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Construction sector in Sril Lanka energy consumption -> 35% of national energy
    • Fully glazed facade not recommended in tropical region without shading
    • Rooftop in high-rise offer too little space -> necessity to optimize PV facade
    • PV can acts as shading device while on facade
    • Review of past PV facade studies -> need to analyze both PV generation and building energy consumption
    • Goal:
      • optimise PV generation of high-rise commercial buildings in Colombo, Sri Lanka using 3 param:
        • PV generation
        • available area
        • building enrgy consumption
      • minimize building energy while optimizing PV generation
      • compare inclined PV to vertical PV
  2. Methods
    • Provided the building characteristics
    • comparison b/w building in Colombo, and in London (tropical vs temperate)
    • Use of Radiance, Rhino, and Grasshopper, EnergyPlus
    • Compared building energy consumption with and without PV
    • Economic analysis using payback period
  3. Results and Discussion
    • The raidance simulation gave PV insolation on building areas
    • Provided PV generation results depending on the angle
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Building Energy reduction - > no quantification provided
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
Colombo, Sri Lanka

The Optimum Performance of Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) Windows Under a Semi-Arid Climate in Algerian Office Buildings[77][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Recently, Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) windows have become an alternative energy solution to achieve a zero-energy building (ZEB) and provide visual comfort. In Algeria, some problems arise due to the high energy consumption levels of the building sector. Large amounts of this energy are lost through the external envelope façade, because of the poorness of the window’s design. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate the optimum BIPV window performance for overall energy consumption (OEC) in terms of energy output, heating and cooling load, and artificial lighting to ensure visual comfort and energy savings in typical office buildings under a semi-arid climate. Field measurements of the tested office were carried out during a critical period. The data have been validated and used to develop a model for an OEC simulation. Extensive simulations using graphical optimization methods are applied to the base-model, as well as nine commercially-available BIPV modules with different Window Wall Ratios (WWRs), cardinal orientations, and tilt angles. The results of the investigation from the site measurements show a significant amount of energy output compared to the energy demand. This study revealed that the optimum BIPV window design includes double-glazing PV modules (A) with medium WWR and 20% VLT in the southern façade and 30% VLT toward the east–west axis. The maximum energy savings that can be achieved are 60% toward the south orientation by double-glazing PV module (D). On the other hand, the PV modules significantly minimize the glare index compared to the base-model. The data extracted from the simulation established that the energy output percentages in a 3D model can be used by architects and designers in early stages. In the end, the adoption of optimum BIPV windows shows a significant enough improvement in their overall energy savings and visual comfort to consider them essential under a semi-arid climate.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Fill in ...
    • Goal: ...
  2. Methods
    • Fill in ...
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Fill in ...
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency

Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Integrated Shading Devices (PVSDs) and Semi-Transparent Photovoltaic (STPV) Devices Retrofitted to a Prototype Office Building in a Hot Desert Climate[78][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

This paper presents the impact on energy performance and visual comfort of retrofitting photovoltaic integrated shading devices (PVSDs) to the façade of a prototype office building in a hot desert climate. EnergyPlus™ and the DIVA-for-Rhino© plug-ins were used to perform numerical simulations and parametric analyses examining the energy performance and visual comfort of five configurations, namely: (1) inclined single panel PVSDs, (2) unfilled eggcrate PVSDs, (3) a louvre PVSD of ten slats tilted 30° outward, (4) a louvre PVSD of five slats tilted 30° outward, and (5) an STPV module with 20% transparency which were then compared to a reference office building (ROB) model. The field measurements of an off-grid system at various tilt angles provided an optimum tilt angle of 30°. A 30° tilt was then integrated into some of the PVSD designs. The results revealed that the integration of PVSDs significantly improved overall energy performance and reduced glare. The unfilled eggcrate PVSD did not only have the highest conversion efficiency at ȵ 20% but generated extra energy as well; an essential feature in the hot desert climate of Saudi Arabia.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Highlighted the need for countries with abundant fossil fuel resiurces to transitiuon to cleaner energy -> example of Saudia Arabia
    • BIPV as a viable solution -> mentioned different types of BIPVs as building envelope
    • Reviewed past studies in the used of PVSD as energy saving, thermal comfort improvement and glare reducing devices in buildings => not much studies have investigated perofrmance of ecternal fixed PVSDs over conventional shading devices.
    • Goal:
      • case study of energy performance and visual comfort of 5 different configurations in a university building
      • modeling of HVAC system, daylighting, solar gains, and energy production
      • experimental investigation performed for an off-grid Pv with different tilt angles
      • energy saving potential analyzed
  2. Methods
    • Software: skecthup (3D model), EnergyPlus, Openstudio, Window 7.7, Diva-for-Rhino
    • clear sky considered for simulation
    • 5 config were analyzed:
      • An inclined single panel PVSD.
      • An unfilled eggcrate PVSD.
      • A louvre of ten outward-tilted slats.
      • A louvre of five outward-tilted slats.
      • A semi-transparent photovoltaic (STPV) module with 20% transparency
    • Inverter not included in study
    • PV generation validated against experimental data
    • Detailed simulation parameters provided
  3. Results and Discussion
    • PVSDs reduced their cooling enegry by 2 - 9.24% compared to reference case
    • STPV reduced cooling energy by 75%
    • PVSD and STPV increased energy comsumption for lighting -> (20-21%), and heating of the building -> careful design to find an optimum operation point
    • Energy Saving potentials noticed and quantifed in all 5 config -? (14.2 - 101%)
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • Cooling energy reduction:
    • 2 - 75% depending on the configuration
    • Quantified through simulation
  • CO2 reduction
    • Mentioned, not quantified
  • Visula comfort improvement
    • Mentioned, not quantified
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency
12.25kW
  • multi crystalline silicon
  • thin film amorphous
Ha'il, Saudia Arabia 36.4 kWh/year 351.7kWh/year 3.1% 20%

Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) in Historical Buildings: Opportunities and Constraints[79][edit | edit source]

Abstract[edit | edit source]

In this work, we investigate the potential of using last generation photovoltaic systems in traditional building components of historical buildings. The multifunctional photovoltaic components also open new application and implementation horizons in the field of energy retrofitting in historical buildings. Some of the Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) solutions lend themselves optimally to solving the problems of energy efficiency in historical buildings. For the next few years, Italian legislation foresees increasing percentages of energy production from renewable sources, including historical buildings. The opportunities and constraints analysed are presented through a specific approach, typical of building processes for innovative technological BIPV solutions on historical buildings.

Key Takeaways[edit | edit source]

  1. Introduction
    • Energy reduction in historical building cannot be generalized
    • Heritage building can be part of the decarbonization effort using PV
    • Energy PErformance of Building Directive (EPBD) -> more building that are energy efficient annd low CO2 emisisons
    • BIPV can provide:
      • weather protection
      • thermla insulation
      • noise reduction
      • daylight modulation
    • BIPV on historical buildings must prserve the aesthetics and hitorical value of the byuilding while providing energy
    • Goal:
      • investigate opportunities and constraints of BIPV in historical buildings
      • 3 factors analyzed: technology, matket, integration
      • synthesis approachto meet requirement of BIPV on historical building
  2. Methods
    • Described the challenge of historical buildings in Italy
    • Application of BIM to historical buildings -> HBIM
    • Discussd BIPV standards in EU
    • BIPV need to fulfill PV standards + construction standards
    • Reviewed the efficiency of BIPVs
  3. Results and Discussion
    • Proposed the Heritage Building Energy Solar Solution Technologies (hBESST) as a synthesis approach to meet the needs of the energy retrofit, the protection and preservation of the historical building stock and the BIPV solutions
  4. Conclusions
    • Fill in ...

Key Takeaways for Review[edit | edit source]

  • NOT INCLUDED IN REVIEW BUT CAN BE USEFUL IN DISCUSSION
Size Technology Location Lifetime Energy Efficiency

Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV)[80][