Wood CHP & Solar Photovoltaic Literature Review

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Wood-based CHP[edit | edit source]

1.Kunal K. Shah, Aishwarya S. Mundada, Joshua M. Pearce."Performance of U.S. hybrid distributed energy systems: Solar photovoltaic, battery and combined heat and power"[edit | edit source]

  • Location: 1]Prescott, Arizona (representing a hot climate) 2]Sacramento, California (moderate climate) 3]Houghton, Michigan (cold climate)
  • Purpose of CHP - Provide electricity during high load and low solar hours
  • Provide thermal energy for heating to improve CHP efficiency
  • Priority- PV - Battery - CHP
  • Tools used for the size of CHP - (Spark Spread Estimator by EPA CHP (version 1.0))
  • Thermal Demand - Prescott - 22.45 MMBTU/year, Sacramento - 35.23 MMBTU/year, Houghton - 98.4 MMBTU/year


2. Amir H. Nosrat, Lukas G. Swan, Joshua M. Pearce. "Simulations of greenhouse gas emission reductions from low-cost hybrid solar photovoltaic and cogeneration systems for new communities"[edit | edit source]

  • Aim of paper - Emission reduction, Combining PV and Cogen system, Verifying whether it is feasible or not.
  • Algorithm used - Photovoltaic-Trigeneration Optimization Model (PVTOM)
  • Savings in GHG - Roughly 5644 KgCO2e/year
  • Electrical load is prioritized over thermal load in CHP
  • CHP unit: Honda IC Engine (1kWe, 3kWth)
  • PV panel: BP 340/Schott EFG 310


3.Trevor B. Peffley & Joshua M.Pearce. "The Potential for Grid Defection of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Using Solar Photovoltaic, Battery and Generator Hybrid Systems. Renewable Energy. 148, (2020), pp. 193-204."[edit | edit source]

  • Aim: Grid defect using Solar PV + battery + natural gas generator system
  • Location: Upper Peninsula of Michigan
  • Google-(100% renewable energy), Walmart (substantial investment in solar)
  • Electricity rate in Upper Peninsula: 14.72¢/kWh [33.57% higher than average Michigan state rate, 42.72% higher than the national average]
  • case studies: small office building (<10 kW), stand-alone retail building (10KW-200KW) and a large hotel (>200KW)
  • Tool used: HOMER 3.12.5
  • Operation and maintenance cost assumed: $2.8/MWh (8h per day for 5 days each week gives 0.08$/operating hour)
  • Electricity rates: small office building-0.1541$/KWh, stand-alone retail building-0.112$/KWh and a large hotel-0.094$/KWh
  • loan will be financed @2.99% interest rate from the non-profit program Michigan Saves
  • Cost of electricity increases dramatically with increases in natural gas prices
  • Tax incentives also help to lower the cost of electricity


4.Abhilash Kantamneni, Richelle Winkler, Lucia Gauchia, Joshua M. Pearce, "Emerging economic viability of grid defection in a northern climate using solar hybrid systems. Energy Policy 95, 378–389 (2016)."[edit | edit source]

  • Location: Upper Peninsula, Michigan
  • Aim: Economic Viability of grid defection in Cold climate
  • System Proposed: PV + Battery + CHP system
  • Software: PVsyst - to measure solar flux
  • Electricity rate: UPPCO (0.2273 $/KWh
  • CHP system: IC engine running on natural gas (1KWe)
  • Battery system Current rate ($621/KWh by 2015) expected rate by 2020 (225 $/KWh)
  • Cost of electricity is greatly affected by the change in the cost of natural gas
  • Hybrid system < Connected grid system ( in terms of GHG emission)
  • simulation model: Matlab v2015b "model"
  • loan interest of 4.99% from Michigan Saves
  • PV size: 1.67KW (seasonal houses) - 7.7KW (full-year residencies), Battery size (3.2 KWh - 15 KWh), Generator size (1KWe)
  • Approx installation cost: $9200 (seasonal houses) may drop to $4600 by 2020, $18200 (full-year residencies) may drop to $8300 by 2020
  • It is viable to implement this system but it should not be assumed that all houses will adapt to this new technology.


5.Hanane Benchraa, Abdelbari Redouane, Imad El Harraki, Abdennebi El Hasnaoui. "Techno-economic feasibility study of a hybrid Biomass/PV/Diesel/Battery system for powering the village of Imlil in High Atlas of Morocco"[edit | edit source]

  • Location: village of Imlil in High Atlas of Morocco
  • System Proposed: Biomass CHP (Main) + PV + Diesel generator + Battery
  • Software used: HOMER
  • School, Mosque, Village Office, Five large Houses, Twenty small houses
  • Refer to table 3 of literature for information about wood
  • CHP: Froling's Chp fixed bed gasifier system (300$/KW + 300$/KW replacement)
  • PV Modules:2000$/KW + $2000/KW replacement cost + 10$/KW/y O&M
  • Battery: 1200$/Battery + 1170$/battery replacement + 10$/KW/y O&M
  • Converter: 890$/KW + 800$/KW replacement + 10$/KW/y O&M
  • Diesel generator 220$/KW + 220$/KW replacement
  • System tested: Wood chip CHP system, Wood chip CHP /Diesel generator hybrid system, Wood chip CHP /Battery hybrid system, Wood chip CHP /PV/Battery hybrid system, Wood chip CHP/Diesel generator/ PV hybrid system, Wood chip CHP/Diesel generator/ PV/Battery hybrid system


6.Normazlina Mat Isa, Himadry Shekhar Das, Chee Wei Tan, A.H.M. Yatim, Kwan Yiew Lau "A techno-economic assessment of combined heat and power photovoltaic/fuel cell/battery energy system in Malaysia hospital"[edit | edit source]

  • Location: Malaysia (Random hospital)
  • System proposed optimal: PV + Fuel cell + Battery
  • Software: HOMER
  • Emissions from pollutant gas of proposed system: 25873 kg/year (considered to be environmentally friendly)
  • Emissions from Fuel cell: Zero emissions (If emissions during the production of hydrogen gas are neglected)
  • Topping cycle: Electrical load is given priority in CHP | Bottoming cycle: Thermal load is given priority in CHP | Combined cycle: Both cycles are joined to work simultaneously
  • Methodology: Electricity is produced using PV + AC grid + Wind turbine | Natural gas is used to produce heat as well as hydrogen | Hydrogen is used in a fuel cell to produce electricity as well as heat
  • Loan interest of 6% is assumed in HOMER
  • Solar panel: Suntech solar power 120KW (2000 modules of 50W and 12V) | Area for each module is 0.871m2 | lifetime of 25 years
  • Fuel cell: PEMFC type fuel cell (Nexa power module from Ballard power systems company) | Efficiency > 40% | 100KW | cost-$450 | Replacement-$400 | O&M-0.15$/year | fuel- Hydrogen | 17.5V-77.6V DC | 135A
  • Battery: Surrette 4KS25P from Rolls Battery | 4V | 1900Ah | 10569 KW through lifetime | Number of Batteries-15 | cost-$1259 | Replacement-$1100 | O&M-0.02$/year
  • Diesel generator: 5KW Changchai diesel generator | cost-$500 | O&M-0.030$/hr | Replacement-$500 |Lifetime:15000 hours
  • Hydrogen Tank: 80Kg | cost-$1300 | Replacement-$1200 | O&M-15$/year | lifetime-25 years
  • Converter: 40KW | Cost-$800 | Replacement-$750 | O&M-$0 | Lifetime-15000 hours
  • Natural gas: Lower Heating value (45MJ/kg) | Density : 0.79 kg/m3 | Carbon content - 67% | Sulfur content - 0.33%
  • CO2 emission: 25708 kg/year


7.Andoni Urtasun, Pablo Sanchis, David Barricarte, Luis Marroyo. "Energy management strategy for a battery-diesel stand-alone system with distributed PV generation based on grid frequency modulation"[edit | edit source]

  • System proposed: Battery + Diesel stand-alone system + Distributed PV
  • PV-10kW | Battery inverter - 10kVA | Diesel generator- 5kVA
  • Sequence: PV - Battery - Diesel generator
  • Software: PSIM (generating model and simulation)
  • Inverter type: MPPT | This helps to keep PV operating at maximum condition
  • When the battery is fully charged the PV power should be limited | Battery inverter increases the frequency - Detected by PV generators - PV power is reduced to prevent battery overcharge (reduces the need of communication cable making the system simpler, cheaper and more reliable)


8.Vaishalee Dash, Prabodh Bajpai. "Power management control strategy for a stand-alone solar photovoltaic-fuel cell–battery hybrid system"[edit | edit source]

  • System proposed: PV + Fuel cell + Battery
  • Peak load: 2kW | Battery - 400Ah (nominal voltage-48V, Max current-40A) | PV array- 4.95kW ( 30 modules of 165W) | Electrolyzer - 2.75kW (110A, 24V) | Fuel cell stack-2.75kW(110A, 24V) | Hydrogen tank-100L
  • Electricity from PV is supplied to load, battery and electrolyzer | electrolyzer produces hydrogen and oxygen from water | Hydrogen is provided to fuel cell and electricity is generated which is supplied to the load
  • MPPT inverter is used to keep PV working at maximum power and the power is supplied to battery and electrolyzer
  • Softwares: HOMER, MATLAB/SIMULINK


9.Kazuhiko Kato, Akinobu Murata, Koichi Sakuta. "An evaluation on the life cycle of photovoltaic energy system considering production energy of off-grade silicon"[edit | edit source]

  • CO2 emission in the life cycle of PV (off grade silicon)
  • 3KW residential PV system was considered
  • There is no direct CO2 emissions from a PV system
  • Indirect CO2 emissions are measured during the manufacturing stage of PV cells or PV systems
  • For 3kW PV system -most energy requirement is 54MWh and indirect CO2 emission is 6 ton-C (majority emissions during the production of Si material)
  • For 3kW PV system -least energy requirement is 13MWh and indirect CO2 emission is 1.4 ton-C
  • Lifetime of c-Si PV cells is roughly 15.5 years


10.Sompol Kohsri, Apichart Meechai, Chaiwat Prapainainar, Phavanee Narataruksa, Piyapong Hunpinyo, Gürkan Sin. "Design and preliminary operation of a hybridsyngas/solar PV/battery power system for off-grid applications: A case study in Thailand"[edit | edit source]

  • Location: Thailand
  • system: Hybrid Solar PV + syngas system + diesel generator
  • Software proposed: Hybrid optimization model for rural electrification, HOMER, Mixed-integer LPP based model, artificial bee algorithm model (ABC), particle swarm optimization (PSO)
  • Working priority: Solar PV - battery - syngas system
  • biomass- Rubberwood (properties given in table 1 on page 4)
  • Calorific value of biomass fuel > 9MJ/kg
  • Syngas system: ISUZU Diesel 4BC2 (made in japan) refer to table 2 on page 7 for more details
  • PV: 315W (39 panels), 97% efficient solar converters, 99.5% efficient maximum power point tracking


11.Chaouki Ghenai, Tareq Salameh, Adel Merabet. "Technico-economic analysis of off-grid solar PV/ Fuel cell energy system for a residential community in desert region"[edit | edit source]

  • Location: Emirate of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
  • System: PV + Fuel cell
  • Energy demand:4500 kWh/day (residential community - 150 houses) | PV- 52% energy and Fuel cell - 48% energy
  • Conversion solar to hydrogen -5.3%
  • Working: similar to paper 8 (no battery in this system)
  • Average daily energy consumption per house 30 kWh/day for 150 houses 4500kWh/day
  • Solar PV output capacity - 0-800kW | Canadian Solar Max Power CS6U-330
  • Fuel cell output capacity - 0,700,750,800kW
  • Electrolyzer intake capacity- 0,250,300,350 kW
  • Hydrogen tank capacity-0,850,900,950kg
  • Inverter-0-800kW (For more information refer to page 7 of the literature
  • Best combination: 517kW PV array | 750 kW fuel cell | 250kW electrolyzer | 900kg Hydrogen tank | 738 kW inverter
  • Zero CO2 emission


12.Christian Rodriguez Coronado, Juliana Tiyoko Yoshioka, José Luz Silveira. "Electricity, hot water and cold water production from biomass. Energetic and economic analysis of the compact system of cogeneration run with woodgas from a small downdraft gasifier"[edit | edit source]

  • System proposed: Woodgas cogen system
  • LHV of fuel gas - 4-6 MJ/Nm3
  • ELectrical output - 15kW
  • Pyrolysis - 400C | Combustion - 1000C | Gasification - 700-800C
  • In house downdraft gasifier (Sao Paulo state university) 20-30kg/hr | Hot efficiency - 84.73% | Cold efficiency - 62.88%
  • For a 50kg/hr gasifier cost - 58715 USD | For a 600kg/hr gasifier - 408174USD
  • Fuel - eucalyptus wood | cost - 42 USD/m3 | density - 652 kg/m3


13.Abdel-Karim Daud, Mahmoud S. Ismail. "Design of isolated hybrid systems minimizing costs and pollutant emissions"[edit | edit source]

  • Location: Palastine
  • Proposed system: PV + wind + Diesel + battery
  • Method: Wind + PV | Battery | Diesel
  • Load: Lights, Radio, TV, washing machine, fans, refrigerators, street light
  • Wind turbine rated power (kW) 5 | Wind turbine cut-in speed (m/s) 2.5 | Wind turbine rated speed (m/s) 9.5 | Wind turbine cut-off speed m/s) 40 | Wind turbine tower height (m) 30 | Wind turbine cost ($/kW), include | installation cost 2000 | PV cost ($/kW) 3000 | PV installation cost ($/kW) 400 | Bi-directional inverter cost ($) 2500 | PV regulator cost ($) 1500 | Wind regulator cost ($) 1000 | Battery cost ($/kWh) 280 | PV regulator efficiency (%) 95 | Wind regulator efficiency (%) 95 | Bi-directional inverter efficiency (%) 92 | Battery Wh efficiency (%) 85 | Wind turbine life (year) 24 | PV life (year) 24 | Battery life (year) 12 | Diesel | generator rated power (kW) 4 | Diesel generator cost ($/kW) 1000 | Diesel engine life (hours) 24,000 | Interest (discount) rate (%) 8 | General inflation rate (%) 4 | Fuel inflation rate (%) 5 | Project life cycle period (year) 24
  • lowest cost - contribution by PV for electricity is 60%
  • Design data of selected system:Wind turbine rated power (kW) 5 | PV panel size (kW) 7.3 | Battery capacity (kWh) 40 | Diesel generator capacity (kW) 4 | Yearly load demand (kWh) 18,250 | Yearly energy generated by wind | turbine (kWh) 14,390 | Yearly energy generated by PV panel (kWh) 14,636 | Yearly energy generated by diesel generator (kWh) 1714 | Yearly dump energy (kWh) 10,057 | Diesel generator operating hours (h) 428 | Yearly fuel consumption (l) 566 | COE ($/kWh) 0.281 | LCC ($) 82,643 | Yearly CO2 produced (kg) 1415
  • Refer table 6 on page 10 for further specifications
  • COE may decrease with decrease in price of PV modules


14. Witold Elsner, Marian Wysocki, Paweł Niegodajew, Roman Borecki. "Experimental and economic study of small-scale CHP installation equipped with downdraft gasifier and internal combustion engine"[edit | edit source]

[WORKING ON IT]


15.Md. Raju Ahmed, Subir Ranjan Hazra, Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Rowsan Jahan Bhuiyan. "SOLAR-BIOMASS HYBRID SYSTEM; PROPOSAL FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION IN BANGLADESH"[edit | edit source]

  • Location: Bangladesh
  • solar insolation: 3.8kWh/m2/day to 6.4kWh/m2/day
  • Biogas generator: Crop residue /animal dung/trees
  • Software: HOMER
  • Load: 3 energy-efficient lamps (15W),on an average 1 ceiling fan (100 W), and 1 television (70 W) for each family and 2 energy efficient lamps (15 W each), 1 fan (100 W) and overall 2 refrigerators (1.2 kWh/day each) for shops. Also, 5 refrigerators (1.2 kWh/day each) and 5 pumps (150 W each)
  • Peak load: 45kW, primary load 245kWh/day, deferrable load: 18kWh/day
  • Calorific value of syngas: 4-6MJ/Nm3 (10-15% of natural gas)
  • PV: 25KW
  • Generator: 1KWe
  • Battery: Surrette 4KS25P 800Ah/kWh 2V 162A
  • Converter:25kW
  • Biogas-67%, PV-33%
  • 100 families and 10 shops were considered


16.Rumi Rajbongshi, Devashree Borgohain, Sadhan Mahapatra. "Optimization of PV-biomass-diesel and grid base hybrid energy systems for rural electrification by using HOMER"[edit | edit source]

  • Location: India
  • System proposed: PV + Biomass + Diesel + Grid
  • Cost of energy off-grid: 0.145$/kWh while costing of hybrid + grid energy: 0.91$/kWh
  • Grid + PV + Hydrogen - 0.307$/kWh
  • 51+31+18 houses from 3 areas
  • Total land area - 329 acres, cultivable area - 329 acres rest is waste land and community land
  • Load: lighting, fans, television, mobile charging point, water pump for drinking water, etc. Community load includes street lights in the village, fans in the community hall and computer for school. In case of commercial loads, lighting is considered for the shops those operate in the evening in the village
  • A: Peak load-19kW, Energy demand-178kWh/day, Load factor-0.386
  • B: Peak load-25kW, Energy demand-169kWh/day, Load factor-0.279
  • C: Peak load-41kW, Energy demand-286kWh/day, Load factor-0.294
  • Biomass gasifier -Capital cost (1600 $/kW) Replacement cost (1280 $/kW) O&M (0.025 $/hour)
  • Solar photovoltaic - Capital cost (2800 $/kW) Replacement cost (0 $/kW) O&M (20$/year)
  • Diesel generator Capital cost - (370 $/kW) Replacement cost (296 $/kW) O&M (0.005 $/hour)
  • Battery (Surrtte 6CS25P) - Capital cost (1295 $/kW) Replacement cost (1036 $/kW) O&M (20$/year)
  • Converter Capital cost - (1000 $/kW) Replacement cost (800 $/kW) O&M (0)
  • Grid was connected in homer to simulate purchase and selling of electricity
  • The optimum distance for grid extension varies mainly on the change in price of Biomass


17.Anand Singh, Prashant Baredar. "Techno-economic assessment of a solar PV, fuel cell, and biomass gasifier hybrid energy system"[edit | edit source]

[WORKING ON IT]

CHP & Photovoltaic[edit | edit source]

1.Noel Augustine, Sindhu Suresh, Prajakta Moghe, Kashif Sheikh,"Economic dispatch for a microgrid considering renewable energy cost functions", 2012 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT), January 2012, pp.1-7[edit | edit source]

  • Search: Economic dispatch for microgrid with renewable sources
  • Economics of microgrid with solar, wind, CHP and diesel generators
  • Hourly cost of generation considering the investment, fuel and maintenance cost
  • Economic Load dispatch based on solar and wind forecast
  • Solar credits and its effect on total operation cost
  • Profitability comparison study between modes of operation

2.Kunal K. Shah, Aishwarya S. Mundada, Joshua M. Pearce,"Performance of U.S. hybrid distributed energy systems: Solar photovoltaic, battery and combined heat and power" Energy Conversion and Management 105, pp. 71–80[edit | edit source]

  • Off-grid residential Hybrid microgrid with PV, Battery, and CHP
  • PV, Battery, and CHP sizing
  • Viability study in North America using HOMER Pro Microgrid Analysis Tool
  • System efficiency improvements using Battery & PV combined system and thereby reducing the runtime of CHP
  • Natural gas - IC Engine for CHP (Fossil fuel)
  • Objective to reduce dependency on grid power thereby reduce GHG emissions

3.Mehdi Baneshi, Farhad Hadianfard,"Techno-economic feasibility of hybrid diesel/PV/wind/battery electricity generation systems for non-residential large electricity consumers under southern Iran climate conditions" Energy Conversion and Management Volume 127, 1 November 2016, Pages 233-244[edit | edit source]

  • Study location - Iran
  • Comparison study of combinations of hybrid cogeneration units to meet the load demand in Shiraz Iran to find the most feasible combination
  • Hybrid cogen system with PV, Battery, Wind turbine and diesel gene for non-residential load (9911kWh)
  • Techno-economic and environmental study using HOMER
  • Both ON-Grid and Off-Grid configuration of hybrid system operation with battery discussed
  • Renewable energy credits and policies discussed
  • Power output calculations of PV array, Charging discharging of Battery, power output calculations of Wind turbine discussed
  • CO2 emissions and carbon taxes discussed. emissions calculated based on the fuel consumption by gene and emissions per grid energy usage
  • Explains how simulations can be done in HOMER with required data inputs
  • Comparison between the Cost of electricity wrt an increasing number of sources (PV modules, wind turbine, battery)

4.P. Derewonko and J.M. Pearce,"Optimizing Design of Household Scale Hybrid Solar Photovoltaic + Combined Heat and Power Systems for Ontario"[edit | edit source]

  • Hybrid PV & CHP with battery as baseload power to grid (on-grid) on a residential scale
  • 1.2kW PV and CHP understudy
  • Natural Gad combustion engines and Hydrogen fuel cells taken into consideration for CHP
  • Solar energy fluctuation and factors affecting it (cloud cover)
  • Secondary room heating using CHP in winter season

#5.Amir Nosrat, Joshua M. Pearce, "Dispatch strategy and model for hybrid photovoltaic and trigeneration power systems"[edit | edit source]

  • Search: Google scholar "CHP and photovoltaics"
  • Waste heat recovery in PV trigeneration system with Diesel generator (2.4kW elec and 4kW therm.) CHP
  • Absorption chiller use waste heat for cooling loads
  • Parallel configuration instead of the series configuration for better efficiency
  • Heat/Energy dispatch strategy for space heating and domestic hot water supply
  • CHP Design - Thermal output of CHP more than Electrical output
  • Excess electricity after Battery storage fed to the grid. Excess heat thrown out using exhaust
  • MATLAB coding for dispatch strategy
  • Variation in the efficiency of system according to seasons

6.A. D. Hawkes, M.A. Leach, "Cost-effective operating strategy for residential micro-combined heat and power"[edit | edit source]

  • Micro-CHP technologies: Stirling Engine, Gas engine and Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)
  • Stirling and Gas engines can be switched off, but Fuel cell has a mini output (20% of max output) always
  • Study conducted in the UK
  • Least cost operating strategy by following heat and electricity demand load dispatch strategy.
  • Thermal energy storage (TES)
  • All systems include an integrated condensing boiler to supply additional heat (that the prime mover cant deliver) when economically viable
  • Cost optimal strategy discussion for three systems and its modeling
  • Least cost operating strategy for the three systems are achieved when dispatched against Electric and Heat load during the winter season.

7.M. Dentice d'Accadia, M. Sasso, S. Sibilio, L. Vanoli, "Micro-combined heat and power in residential and light commercial applications"[edit | edit source]

  • Very old paper
  • Cogeneration of MCHP's compared
  • Various Deisel engine based CHP output and efficiency comparison discussed
  • Test facility is demonstrated
  • Waste heat recovery is shown using Water Jacket over exhaust


8.Xinyu Chen; Chongqing Kang; Mark O'Malley; Qing Xia; Jianhua Bai; Chun Liu; Rongfu Sun; Weizhou Wang and Hui Li, "Increasing the Flexibility of Combined Heat and Power for Wind Power Integration in China Modeling and Implications"[edit | edit source]

  • Explores the ways to reduce the inflexibility of CHP (like 100kW constant output) to integrate with Wind turbine systems to improve efficiency
  • Uses waste wind power to enable Electric boilers and Heat storage tanks (existing in Denmark - check ref 4)
  • Model of a Heat storage tank and its dispatch methodology with district heating systems is explained.
  • Mathematical modeling are too complicated to follow; but the idea of heat storage tank can be used for energy storage

9.Amir H. Nosrat, Lukas G. Swan, Joshua M. Pearce, "Simulations of greenhouse gas emission reductions from low-cost hybrid solar photovoltaic and cogeneration systems for new communities"[edit | edit source]

  • Case study in Calgary, Alberta
  • Photovoltaic-Trigeneration Optimization Model (PVTOM) to minimize both lifetime cost and GHG emissions
  • off-grid co-generation systems emit GHG form CHP only; in Grid-connected, grid GHG emissions also accounted
  • Life cycle cost is accounted using following factors: initial capital costs, the discounted operational costs, the replacement costs, penalty function and 20-year discount factor
  • Higher emissions for grid supplied power because of coal powered power plants
  • Space heating and lighting are considered as load here.
  • CHP used is 1kWe Honda IC engine, Battery is Trojen T-105
  • The savings ranged from 3000 to 9000 kg CO2e/year, which represents a reduction of 21–62% based on the type of loads

10.Xiandong Ma, Yifei Wang, Jianrong Qin, "Generic model of a community-based microgrid integrating wind turbines, photovoltaics and CHP generations"[edit | edit source]

  • Study of community-based microgrid consisting of PV modules, CHP (IC engine) and Wind Turbine
  • Micro grid diagram is given; direct grid connection of individual sources using point of common coupling (PCC)
  • Fault studies and isolation operation discussed
  • Batteries are not considered instead excess energy is sold to 11kV grid
  • Reactive load is taken into consideration
  • Detailed Photovoltaic array, CHP and Wind turbine circuit diag is given; V-I chara of PV given
  • Fuel intake control system with PI controller described
  • Three systems simulated with PSCAD/EMTDC, a general-purpose time domain simulation program with a graphical interface
  • Single phase and Three phase to Ground faults were simulated

11.J. Francois, L. Abdelouahed, G. Mauviel, F. Patisson, O. Mirgaux, C. Rogaume, Y. Rogaume, M. Feidt, A. Dufour "Detailed process modeling of wood gasification combined heat and power plant"[edit | edit source]

  • Wet wood is the input to this CHP
  • Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the most attractive energy sources because of its widespread availability and its renewable nature
  • contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions
  • Gasification converts biomass at temperatures over 700 degrees Celcius to produce a gaseous mixture rich in carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) called syngas
  • Syngas can be used as fuel for IC engines
  • The demo CHP plant Gussing generates 2 MW of electricity and 4.5 MW of heat (for district heating) from 8 MW of biomass fuel
  • CHP System model is given
  • Syngas combustion in IC engine and evaluation of system efficiency is calculated
  • LCA studies are conducted for quantifying all gaseous products

12.Antonio Rosato, Sergio Sibilio, Giovanni Ciampi, "Energy, environmental and economic dynamic performance assessment of different micro-cogeneration systems in a residential application"[edit | edit source]

  • micro combined heat and power (MCHP) systems (IC engine and Reciprocating external combustion Stirliings Engine) fuelled by natural gas
  • Simulation based on the case study in Italy
  • Auxiliary thermal energy supply by natural gas-fueled boiler
  • Combined heat stored in a Heat storage tank (as discussed in #lit.review 8)
  • proposed system was simulated to compare with a reference system with Elec grid and natural gas-fired boiler
  • Results shows, reduction in Grid dependency, Carbon equivalent and the operating costs with respect to the conventional system

#13.Manwell JF, Rogers A, Hayman G, Avelar CT, McGowan JG, Abdulwahid U, Wu K. "Hybrid2-a hybrid system simulation model, Theory manual. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Subcontract No. XL-1-11126-1-1; 2006"[edit | edit source]

  • Reference to #Lit.review 5
  • Hybrid2 a computer structure and simulation model for hybrid power systems
  • Contains AC & DC diesel generators, DC & AC distribution system, loads, renewable power sources, energy storage, power converters, rotary converters, coupled diesel systems, dump loads, load management options, or a supervisory control system.
  • A number of strategies suggested to maintain system autonomy to 100% grid reliability
  • Considered Power system parameters, Energy balance, Separate AC and DC bus power systems, transfer losses, different types of loads
  • Economics of this hybrid model also been explained

14.Zefu Jiang, Chong Ma, Yilin Zhong, Kaigui Xie, Bo Hu, Yuhang Guo, Yanlin Li, Changlin Li, "Capacity Assignment Optimization of CHP Micro-grid with Heat Pumps"[edit | edit source]

  • CHP micro-grid system model explained
  • Natural gas combustion and waste heat gas is given to lithium-bromide chiller for heating
  • Lead acid battery charging-discharging scenario
  • Heat pumps for micro CHP

#15.J.M.Pearce"Expanding photovoltaic penetration with residential distributed generation from hybrid solar photovoltaic and combined heat and power systems"[edit | edit source]

  • Introductory paper for PV+CHP
  • Without Energy storage (residential on-grid hybrid system)
  • CHP for mainly heating
  • Discuss on GHG emissions and benefits of DGs( Distributed Generations)
  • Discusses the benefits and PV penetration to US Grid
  • Solar flux and meeting peak loads in seasons are explained
  • Explains different generations of Hybrid PV + CHP systems for residential uses
  • analytical study for PV penetration
  • Good reference for paper writing

16.N. ThilakRaj, S.Iniyan, Ranko Goic "A review of renewable energy based cogeneration technologies" (Working..)[edit | edit source]

17.E.S.Sreeraj, Kishore Chatterjee, Santanu Bandyopadhyay "Design of isolated renewable hybrid power systems" (Working)[edit | edit source]

Wood fuel distribution, costs[edit | edit source]