Spin coater Literature Review

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Literature[edit | edit source]

Spin coater based on brushless dc motor of hard disk drives[edit | edit source]

R. F. Bianchi, M. F. Panssiera, J. P. H. Lima, L. Yagura, A. M. Andrade, and R. M. Faria, “Spin coater based on brushless dc motor of hard disk drivers,” Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 33–36, Sep. 2006.

This paper presents development of a novel programmable, low cost, spin coater to be used for applications where flat substrates are coated with an uniform thin layer of a desirable material. The equipment is built with dc brushless motor present in most of the hard disk drivers (HDDs). The system offers manual control, wide speed range (from 0 to 10,000 rpm), spin speed stability and compact size. The paper also describes the use of such equipment for the fabrication of thin poly(o-methoxyaniline) (POMA) films, which are of particular interest for design organic electronic devices, such as diodes, transistor, sensors and displays.


  • Easy to use, safe and inexpensive
  • Manual control, wide speed range and spin speed stability
  • Implemented using Brushless motor
  • Controlled by Arduino circuit

Plate whirler (Publication No: US 2386591 A)[edit | edit source]

Campbell James T, year=1945, month=oct # "~9", publisher=Google Patents


  • Complete manual operation for flow and temperature control
  • First invention
  • used in photo reproduction processes

Centrifugal apparatus for slide staining (Publication No: US 3352280 A)[edit | edit source]

R, H.W. and Hughes, R., year=1967, month=nov # "~14", publisher=Google Patents

The primary object of the invention is to provide apparatus in which a plurality of slides may be stained automatically `without `being handled but for inserting and removing them from the apparatus, the staining being done completely automatically, quickly, and with great saving of the solution.


  • More uniform distribution of the solution when compared to manual slide staining

Apparatus for coating memory discs with oxide or like film (Publication No: US 3537425 A)[edit | edit source]

W, D.C. and A, M.E., year=1970, month=nov # "~3", publisher=Google Patents

Apparatus for spraying discs including a rotatable disc support located within a coating chamber. Arm means are pivoted within the chamber for swinging a mask from a remote position to a position above the disc located in the support. Nozzle means are movably mounted adjacent the support for spraying portions of the disc exposed by the mask.

Method and apparatus for developing resist film including a movable nozzle arm (Publication No: US 4564280 A)[edit | edit source]

Fukuda, Y., year=1986, month=jan # "~14", publisher=Google Patents

An apparatus for developing a resist film coated on a rotatable base plate, comprising means for supporting and rotating the base plate and nozzle means for feeding a developer onto the resist film. The nozzle means comprises a nozzle arm extending over the base plate and having a plurality of nozzles arranged along the length of the nozzle arm. Disclosed also is a method for developing a resist film coated on a rotatable base plate with a developer fed from a plurality of nozzles arranged on a nozzle arm along the length of the nozzle arm. The method comprises feeding the developer from th respective nozzles onto the resist film while rotating the base plate and while scanning the nozzle arm over the resist film.

Spin Coater (Publication No: US 4895102 A)[edit | edit source]

Kachel, T.V. and Rydeen, C.F. and Millar, R.W. and Dawson, R.C. and Griffith, R.L. and Weitzel, W.H.,year=1990, month=jan # "~23", publisher= Google Patents

A spin coater suitable for spin coating spectacle lens molds with polymerizable coating composition. The spin coater includes a drawer which rotatably mounts at least one chuck thereon, which drawer is slidable between a front and rear position within a housing to sequentially allow application of a coating by the spinning chucks in the front chamber of the housing, followed by polymerization thereof in the rear chamber. Each chuck of the spin coater is provided with a mold seat defined by a ledge and adjacent lip, the lip automatically centering the mold in the seat axis by virtue of its dimensions in relation to the mold. The chuck also has a lengthwise resilient vacuum conduit, preferably in the form of a bellows, which has an open end which can sealingly engage against a seated mold, such that when a vacuum is applied through the vacuum conduit the mold is urged firmly against the ledge of the mold seat. A method of producing a coated spectacle lens, preferably using such a spin coater, involves providing two different abrasion resistent coatings on front and rear molding surfaces of a form, which coatings are only partially polymerized. The form is then filled with resin which is cured and the coated formed lens is separated from the form. The coatings on the lens are then preferably further polymerized by exposure to actinic light.

Coating equipment (Publication No: US 5143552 A)[edit | edit source]

Masahi Moriyama, year=1992, month=sep # "~1", publisher=Google Patents

Coating equipment, which is installed in a clean room where air flows in a vertical laminar flow, comprises coating apparatus, for applying a resist, having a spin chuck connected to a motor and used to hold a semiconductor wafer and a cup with an inlet port to draw in a vertical laminar flow from the clean room and enclosing the wafer held on the spin chuck, and a control apparatus to control the temperature and humidity of the vertical laminar flow supplied to the coating apparatus. A vertical laminar flow control in temperature and humidity by the control apparatus is always supplied to the wafer in the cup during the coating process of a semiconductor wafer.

Design of an inexpensive spin coater (with a touch-screen interface)[edit | edit source]

Gurucharan V. Karnad(Dept. of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India),b, R. N. Ninad(Dept. of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Amrita School of Engineering, Bangalore, India) and V. Venkataraman (Dept. of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India)

Design of an inexpensive spin coater (with a touch-screen interface) costing less than US $350. The user input is through the touch-screen interface, where parameters such as spin duration and speed can be entered. Real time speed is also displayed alongside. A microcontroller forms the intelligence of the system and manages the inputs, display, and speed and duration control. The real time speed is sensed by the microcontroller using an optical encoder, and a control loop keeps it within acceptable error limits.

E441 Spin Coater[edit | edit source]

Copyright © 2009 - 2014 Ossila Ltd, Kroto Innovation Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ. Company Number 06920105.

Spin coating made easy: the Ossila Personal Spin Coater offers the ideal solution for a busy lab where space is at a premium. It doesn't require a vacuum pump or nitrogen line and offers better film quality, for the ultimate plug and play spin coater. Its compact size and reduced requirement for servicing means you can optimise space in the glovebox or on the bench without compromising on functionality.

Spin Coating Theory[edit | edit source]

©1997-2015 Brewer Science, Inc.

Cost-Effective Home-Made Spin Coater for Depositing Thin Films[edit | edit source]

Mohua Fardousi, M.F. Hossain, M.S. Islam and Sharik Rahat Ruslan, Journal of Modern Science and Technology Vol. 1. No. 1. May 2013 Issue. Pp.126-134

A simple, low cost spin coater design has been described in this paper. This low cost coating system is used to deposit thin films. The system can be easily built with the knowledge of machine and electronics. It’s constructed by using a dc motor and electronic circuit, designed to control the spinning speed. The spinning speed varies from 350 to 3800 RPM. In our design, the spinning speed is controlled manually by 11 steps.

Design and fabrication of a simple cost effective spin coater for deposition of thin film[edit | edit source]

Mohammad Meftahul Ferdaus, M.M. Rashid and Mohammad Ataur Rahman., Adv. Environ. Biol., 8(3), 729-733, 2014

This paper describes the design and fabrication of an economical spin coater for depositing thin films.Spin coater is a machine that can dispense a liquid onto a substrate uniformly. Some desirable properties of Spin coater such as ability to make defect free and uniform thin film, accuracy in rotation control together with a closed optimized process chamber etc. are maintained in this prototype spin coater.The materials used for making thin filmliquefied in a volatile solvent. Here the system is fabricated by using a dc motor and simple electronics circuit, in which the spinning speed can be controlled very easily. In this design the spinning speed is up to 3,000 rpm that can be controlled step by step manually. ZnO thin films are successfully prepared through this spin coater by sol-gel process. This thin film isa mixture of Zinc acetate dihydrate, ethanol anddi-ethanolamine. Thin filmdeposition by this cost effective spin coater is a very simple technique and can beused widelyfor preparing films of uniform thickness.

Construction of Spin Coating Machine Controlled by Arm Processor for Physical Studies of PVA[edit | edit source]

N. Manikandan, B. Shanthi and S. Muruganand, International Journal of Electronics and Electrical Engineering Vol. 3, No. 4, August 2015

This paper describes, construction and working of more efficient and compact spin coating machine with a low power consumption comparing to that of current spin coating machine available in the market. The spin coating machine consists of stepper motor, syringe system, Dc brushless motor and Arm processor. The machine will coat thin film in a micro level thickness and its spinning speed and flow rate of the liquid has been controlled by the arm processor (LPC11U24). Thickness of the film is determined by the flow rate and coating time of the spinning machine. Films with good uniformity for various thicknesses have been successfully prepared by using above spin coating machine, a capacitor sensor has been fabricated the above spin coating techniques and studied their physical properties.

Instrumentation for fabricating an indigenous spin coating apparatus and growth of zinc oxide thin films and their characterizations[edit | edit source]

P. Sevvanthi, A. Claude*, C. Jayanthi and A. Poiyamozhi.

Spin coating is an easy and efficient technique to grow good quality thin film crystals and amorphous films suitable for many applications in science in technology namely sensors, filters and solar cells. The engineering and design for the spin coating apparatus was conceived tested and fabricated in-house inside the laboratory to grow thin film crystals and amorphous films to suit various applications. The rotor consists of an AC motor capable of reaching speeds like 1200 rpm, 2400 rpm and 3600 rpm. A rectangular substrate holder is fabricated on the top of the stub firmly fixed so that not to spin off while reaching the above said high speeds. A transparent lid is fixed with a provision for applying the liquefied charge periodically as droplets onto the substrate. A spill container cum arrestor is fabricated around the spinning platform in order to reduce the splashing and wasting of the charge. The charge is taken in the form of the solution with an optimal texture and super saturation so that the long range order is maintained else there is scope of accumulation and multiple nucleation which will prevent the film from a smooth formation. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous combinations of single layered and multiple layered thin films are realized after effecting a coating with an optimal spin speed. The thin films realised after the process will be subjected to structural, functional and optical characterizations.

Low cost instrumentation for spin-coating deposition of thin films in an undergraduate Laboratory[edit | edit source]

Ramón Gómez Aguilar, Jaime Ortiz López Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Edificio 9, U.P.A.L.M. de Zacatenco, 07738 México D.F.

We describe the implementation of an inexpensive spin-coating system to deposit thin films of materials dissolved in a volatile solvent. The system can be easily built with interdisciplinary knowledge of mechanics, fluid mechanics and electronics at undergraduate level. The system allows the deposition of thin films of up to 5 sq.cm in area and is constructed from a commercial DVD player drive motor and an electronic circuit designed to control the spinning speed and spinning time up to 10,000rpm and 60seg, respectively. In our design, both variables can be adjusted manually through an array of micro push button switches and a varistor. To illustrate the use of our spin-coating system, were prepared films of MDMO-PPV conjugated polymer from solutions in chlorobenzene and tetrahydrofuran and their optical absorption and photoluminescence properties are analyzed and discussed.

A comprehensive study of spin coating as a thin film deposition technique and spin coating equipment[edit | edit source]

M.D. Tyona, Advances in Material Research, Vol. 2, No. 4 (2013) 181-193

Description and theory of spin coating technique has been elaborately outlined and a spin coating machine designed and fabricated using affordable components. The system was easily built with interdisciplinary knowledge of mechanics, fluid mechanics and electronics. This equipment employs majorly three basic components and two circuit units in its operation. These include a high speed dc motor, a proximity sensor mounted at a distance of about 15 mm from a reflective metal attached to the spindle of the motor to detect every passage of the reflective metal at its front and generate pulses. The pulses are transmitted to a micro-controller which process them into rotational speed (revolution per minute) and displays it on a lead crystal display (LCD) which is also a component of the micro-controller. The circuit units are a dc power supply unit and a PWM motor speed controlling unit. The various components and circuit units of this equipment are housed in a metal casing made of an 18 gauge black metal sheet designed with a total area of 1, 529.2 sq.cm. To illustrate the use of the spin-coating system, ZnO sol-gel films were prepared and characterized using SEM, XRD, UV-vis, FT-IR and RBS and the result agrees well with that obtained from standard equipment and a speed of up to 9000 RPM has been achieved.

The “Spin-Grower”: A Machine for Rapid Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Nano-structured Materials[edit | edit source]

Matthew Bachner, Yeh Chuin Poh, Thomas Serbowicz, and Steve Vozar

Layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly is a well-established method of producing multilayered nanostructured materials. In Professor Nicholas A. Kotov’s lab at the University of Michigan, LBL assembly is often accomplished via a dip-coating process, which is time consuming and often performed on unreliable equipment. Spin-assisted LBL assembly has the potential to reduce the fabrication time of nanostructured materials by an order of magnitude and increase the quality of the films. The purpose of this project is to design and produce a spin-assisted LBL assembly prototype using a spin-coater and an automated fluid delivery system for the production of a variety of different nanocomposites.

References[edit | edit source]