We continue to develop resources related to the COVID-19 pandemic. See COVID-19 initiatives on Appropedia for more information.

Prosthetic Plastic Literature Review

From Appropedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Sunhusky.png By Michigan Tech's Open Sustainability Technology Lab.

Wanted: Students to make a distributed future with solar-powered open-source 3-D printing.
Currently looking for PhD or MSC student interested in solar energy policy- apply now!
Contact Dr. Joshua Pearce - Apply here

MOST: Projects & Publications, Methods, Lit. reviews, People, Sponsors, News
Updates: Twitter, Instagram, YouTube


Contribute to this Literature Review Although this page is hosted by MOST it is open edit. Please feel free to add sources and summaries. If you are new to Appropedia, you can start contributing after you create an account or log in if you have an existing account.

Literature Review[edit]

Google Scholar

Nanophase Separation in Segmented Polyurethane Elastomers[edit]

Pukánszky, Béla, et al. “Nanophase Separation in Segmented Polyurethane Elastomers: Effect of Specific Interactions on Structure and Properties.” European Polymer Journal, vol. 44, no. 8, Aug. 2008, pp. 2431–38. ScienceDirect, doi:10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2008.06.008.

  • They are bio-compatible and can provide a functional outer coating
  • Tensile strength depends on the molecular weight
  • Adding -NCO/OH groups vary the molecular weight
  • You reach a point of excess -OH groups added
  • When you reached a peak of -OH groups added, the excess you put in the shorter the length before breakage
  • Melt viscosity relies on the length of the molecule
  • Stiffness relies on phase structure

Costello, C. R., et al. “Characterization of Heavyweight and Lightweight Polypropylene Prosthetic Mesh Explants From a Single Patient.” Surgical Innovation, vol. 14, no. 3, Sept. 2007, pp. 168–76. Crossref, doi:10.1177/1553350607306356.

TPE Uses in Plastics[edit]


  • The different types of thermoplastic elastomeric polymers. Classified and chemicalized.
  • Thermoplastic elastomeric polymers decompose slowly and are not hazardous to the environment.
  • When burned, it releases potential pollutants and cancer producing carcinogenic agents.
  • Show characteristics of polymer constituents.
  • Can use ultra sound waves to melt thermoplastics together.
  • Molding is petty popular and easy with thermoplastics.

Markarian, J. (2004). Processing and recycling advantages drive growth in thermoplastic elastomers. Plastics, Additives and Compounding, 6(6), 22–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1464-391X(04)00301-0

  • Thermoplastic elastonomers (TPEs) are typically flexible.
  • TPE can be recycled.
  • TPU (thermoplastic polyurethane) is incompatible with other materials when using it to compound

Type of Plastic in Windshield Wiper[edit]

Theodore, A. N., Samus, M. A., & Killgoar, P. C. (1992). Environmentally durable elastomer materials for windshield wiper blades. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 31(12), 2759–2764. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie00012a020

  • Found tensile strength, ultimate elongation, tear strength, hardness, etc
  • EPDM compound might be good material for windshield wipers

Composite Material Windshield Wiper[edit]

Bielinski, D. M., Glab, P., & Slusarski, L. (2006). New approach to study tribological properties of polymer materials. A case of car windshield wipers. Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, 15(1), 9.

  • Windshield wipers are made of natural rubber and ethylene-propylene copolymer.
  • Talks about mechanical characteristics and properties of windshield wipers.
  • By adding UV Radiation and Ozone to the material, the surface increases its polarity.

Graphene Polymer 3D Printing[edit]

Wei, X., Li, D., Jiang, W., Gu, Z., Wang, X., Zhang, Z., & Sun, Z. (2015). 3D Printable Graphene Composite. Scientific Reports (Nature Publisher Group); London, 5, 11181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep11181

  • Printed with TPE around 230 degrees C
  • Degredation of material came around 400 degrees C

Lee, J., Ho-Chan, K., Jae-Won, C., & Lee, I. H. (2017). A review on 3D printed smart devices for 4D printing. International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing - Green Technology; Heidelberg, 4(3), 373–383. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40684-017-0042-x

  • Designs include a bike helmet, electronic devices (circuits, sensors, battery/capacitor).
  • Introduces 4D printing

Aumnate, C. (2018). Fabrication of ABS/Graphene Oxide Composite Filament for Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) 3D Printing. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering; New York, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/2830437

  • Nozzle temp at 220 degrees C
  • Occasional clogged nozzle from printing occurred.
  • There was a composite mixture of Graphene-Oxide and ABS to successfully 3D print.

Our Thoughts[edit]

  • The way the body reacts to polypropylene depends on the genetic make up of the person
  • Checking the differences between light-weight and heavy-weight polypropylene in the body
  • Could soak the material in a buffer solution (better homeostasis qualities)
  • Take into account the oxidation of the material to determine longevity


  • The material was put through a device known as a Recyclebot in order for it to be made into printable filament
  • Once turned into filament, the material was inserted into a Lulzbot Taz 6 and a Gigabot to test if the material could be used similarly as regular filament (i.e. PLA or PETG)
  • By using a Delta Open-source 3D-printer, the filament was able to extrude into a snowflake shape once; any other attempt afterwards failed
  • Due to the material not being able to print, it was injected into a tensile bar, and a fingertip, mold


  • After a complete chemical analysis, the material was found to be pieces of windshield wipers
  • The material is able to be made into 3D-print flexible filament by using the Recyclebot set at a melting temperature of 250 C
  • To make half a roll of filament, the process took approximately 3 to 4 hours
  • The filament is unable to print through 3D-printer possibly due to windshield wipers being made out of multiple materials with a variety of melting points
  • The material is capable of being used in 3D-printed molds


The windshield wiper material was used in building two prosthetic hands. The first prosthetic used the material as a screw by soldering the material at the ends to keep the filament from falling out of the prosthetic. This methodology worked to keep the hand together and is easily removable from the device. The second prosthetic used the material to create fingertips by using a 3D-printed mold.


Fig 01: A sample of filament created through the Recyclebot  
Fig 02: A quarter of a roll that was used during the 3D-printing tests  
Fig 03: The first, and only, successful print using a Delta printer  
Fig 04: The prosthetic hand that used the flexible material as a method to hold the pieces together  
Fig 05: The finger mold used for the injection molding phase  


  • TPE Uses in Plastics

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/d2d1/a3a79de6bcf188a8dc09c3655188b4d758d7.pdf https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1464391X04003010

  • Type of Plastic in Windshield Wiper


  • Windshield Wiper Material


  • Graphene Polymer 3D Printing

https://search.proquest.com/docview/1899565239/BDF6FD19FCF94F72PQ/1?accountid=28041 https://search.proquest.com/docview/2135580916/BDF6FD19FCF94F72PQ/2?accountid=28041 https://search.proquest.com/docview/2135023556/6FCC9F05F7CA42B6PQ/2?accountid=28041 talks about properties of 3D printing GO and ABS

  • Prosthetic Hand


  • Fingertips Mold for UnLimbited Arm


  • Unlimbited Phoenix Hand


  • My Customized The UnLimbited Arm v2.1 - Alfie Edition