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Polymer-glass 3D print literature review
| By Michigan Tech's Open Sustainability Technology Lab.
Wanted: Students to make a distributed future with solar-powered open-source 3-D printing.
Types of glass and melting points:
- soda-lime glass: ~1000C 
- borosilicate glass:
- Google for polymer and glass composites
- Google for glass-polymer composites applications -biomedical
- google for polymer glass composite
Effect of sandblasting and silicoating on bond strength of polymer-glass composite to cast titanium possible application for glass-polymer composite 3D print
- google for commonly used types of glass 3 Common Glass Types: Properties and Applications
- google for types of glass google scholar Types and Compositions of Glass for Production of Continuous Glass Fiber (Review)
- google for cost of borosilicate glass vs soda-lime glass Borosilicate Glass vs. Soda Lime Glass?
First link at bottom of page for material comparison: 
- google for polymer-glass composites +spheres [http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0307174X1404100104, The structure formation in polymer composites with
hollow glass microspheres] This resource discusses use of hollow glass microspheres in glass-polymer composite fabrication. this will help me in finding a glass-polymer combination that works as a composite, but hollow glass microspheres might not be the best option for this project. Air ingisde the glass may lead to bubbles in the filament and low-quality printing.
this source offers links to other databases and suppliers of microspheres who might have some that will work for this project. Major strengths of hollow glass spheres in composites are mentioned as well.
- google for hollow glass microsphere sintering A Novel Method for Preparation of High Strength Hollow Spherical Silicon Dioxide By Plasma Technology
cites Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, which will likely be helpful.
- google for solid glass microspheres sintered Sintering of Soda‐Lime Glass Microspheres Using Spark Plasma Sintering
- google for glass filled polymer composite fabrication -fiber -fibre -hollow Polypropylene Filled With Glass Spheres in Extrusion‐Based Additive Manufacturing: Effect of Filler Size and Printing Chamber Temperature
summary of this study print chamber is used for controlled environment polypropylene is the polymer used aminosilane-coated borosilicae glass microspheres maleic anhydride compatiblizer used to functionalize PP 30% filler volume used for all tests polypropylene print surface
- google for galss filled polymer FFF Properties of glass-filled polypropylene for fused filament fabrication
3D-printable glass-filled Polypropylene composite can be fabricated using hollow borosilicate glass or solid soda-lime glasss spheres. Solid spheres will be eaiser to use for my project so I will focus more on that part. this paper discusses effects of various properties before/after addition of filler material and also compares to PLA investigated properties include shrinkage, tensile properties, warpage and adhesion. polypropylene is not susceptible to moisture absorption like most conventional filament types (ABS, PLA) are. Spheriglass 3000 solid glassmicrospheres used 30% filler volume could reduce shrinkage to a value similar to that of PLA
- search in ResearchGate for similar Clemens Holzer publications (access granted by Janak Sapkota for both articles) Shrinkage and Warpage Optimization of Expanded-Perlite-Filled Polypropylene Composites in Extrusion-Based Additive Manufacturing
expanded perlite (similar chemical composition to glass) is used as filler material low-density, low cost are best for filler materials, solid spheres are used because they are less expensive advantage of spheres over fibers: unless fibers are randomly oriented, the shrinkage properties of fiber-reinforced polymers are anisotropic. spheres are assumed to have uniform geometry and therefore lead to isotropic material properties shrinkage and warpage depend on filler morphology shrinkage strongly depends on crystallinity lower crystallinity in polymer is better, polypropylene random copolymer is used which has lower crystallinity than homopolymer compatiblizer is polypropylene functionalized with maleic acid anhydride
inorganic nanosilica particles with diameter of approximately 14nm are used as filler material ABS is the polymer nanosilica fillers dispersed ultrasonically dispersed into ABS, increases stiffness and hardness 5 and 10 wt% filler composites are tested for mechanical properties, due to embrittlement of composite, only 5wt% was possible uses instrumented indentation technique to characterize material behavior print parameters: nozzle extrusion temperature of 210°C, heat bed temperature of 55°C, deposition line (layer) height 0.2 mm, deposition line width 0.4 mm and printing speed of 50 mm/sec dynamic ultra-micro hardness tester measured indentation hardness and elastic modulus of the composite
- Vitro Minerals (this is the supplier I ended up purchasing materials from)
- Cospheric (includes microspheres)
- Mo-Sci corporation (includes microspheres)
- Kopp Glass
- Rayotek Scientific, Inc.