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Native freshwater organisms by region

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Why native organisms ?[edit]

Native organisms can be expected to fit the ecology of the region, and be able to grow in the climate and soil of the region. They can also play an important role in reducing the distance food needs to travel. However, native organisms may not always be as productive as the more popular domesticated counterparts or attain equally high prices. The latter is often a result of being not well known (and thus disliked) by the population (at least at first).

Native organisms should always be considered in aquaculture as they are generally hardier and thus safer organisms in terms of providing food (especially today, with global warming affecting the environment). They are however not the most appropriate choice in some situations. As most freshwater species will be cultivated in secluded environments (ie ponds, tanks/basins) and as contact to the outside environment thus be reduced/eliminated non-indigenous organisms may be a suitable option as well however.

Note that although the amount of freshwater organisms is much greater than what is mentioned in the list, we only specify species here that are usable for aquaculture. Most types of organisms can not be kept in captivity (ie they may have very specific needs, are very susceptible to stress/disease, oxygen fluctuations in the water, water quality, ..)

Also note that on the map below, the amount of plankton per region is marked. Although many organisms grown in aquaculture do not/can not consume plankton, it is often still possible to use the locally available plankton to feed the organisms we grow. This, by also growing another organism (that can be fed on plankton) and use this as food for the organisms we grow. We can btw also process waste (ie feces) of organisms we grow and use this to grow hydrophytes as food for other organisms. These methods allow far more cost-efficient production, and also decrease pressure on the environment. See Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture.

Types of native organisms by region[edit]

File:Indigenous marine organisms.png
Indigenous fish, shellfish and hydrophytes map.

Type of organisms indicated in this article[edit]

Fish: abbreviation F_ followed by a number to indicate the region. Also includes fish grown for roe
Shellfish: abbreviation SF_ followed by a number to indicate the region. Shellfish includes crustaceans and molluscs
Hydrophytes: abbreviation H_ followed by a number to indicate the region. These crops are either coastal crops (so growing on land, but capable of being flooded or sprayed with freshwater or brakish water (in estuaries), ie Salicornia W ), floating plants (which live in deeper water yet which head their flower heads come above water and also still have their roots in the ground, ie Nuphar lutea W), submerged (rooted) plants (which are entirely submerged yet are rooted in soil, ...; ie most seaweed), or submerged (not-rooted) plants (which are entirely submerged and are not rooted in soil, ... ; ie most algae)

Regions[edit]

For a map showing the location of the oceans and seas, see here Note that although we divide the map using the oceans, the marine species are not grown in these oceans but rather in the rivers on the land, and near the sea (estuaries). Some fish mentioned here are catadromous or amphidromous.

Region 1: Arctic ocean (from North Sea to Beaufort sea[1])
Region 2: North Atlantic Ocean (from Caribbean Sea to Aral Sea [2])
Region 3: South Atlantic Ocean (from the coast of Uruguay over to the western coast of South Africa to the coast of Liberia and the coast of French Guyana)
Region 4: Indian Ocean (from west coast of South Africa to Coral Sea[3])
Region 5: North Pacific Ocean (from Phillipine Sea to Gulf of Alaska/Gulf of California[4]
Region 6: South Pacific Ocean (from northern coast of New Zealand to the southern coast of Peru) and Southern Ocean (from Scotia Sea over the Tasman Sea and to the southern coast of Chili[5])

Names of the native organisms[edit]

F_1: common carp[6], silver carp [7], crucian carp [8], channel catfish[9]sea lamprey[10], lampern[11], brook lamprey[12], sturgeon[13], sterlet[14], twaite shad[15], allis shad[16], charr[17], lavaret[18], grayling[19], smelt[20], roach[21], sunbleak[22], dace[23], ide[24], minnow [25], rudd[26], asp[27], common nase [28], bleak[29], spirlin[30], white bream[31], bream[32], blue bream[33], Vimba bream[34], sichel[35], gudgeon[36], barbel[37], tench[38], goldfish[39], bitterling[40], stone loach[41], weatherfish[42], spined loach[43], wels[44], burbot[45], Mediterranean killifish[46], perch[47], ruffe[48], bullhead[49], flounder[50]
SF_1: [51]
H_1: [52]
F_2: crucian carp [53], Nile tilapia[54], blue tilapia [55], common bream[56], northern pike[57], giant sturgeon[58], twaite shad[59], allis shad[60], Danube salmon[61], mudminnow[62], roach[63], Danubian roach[64], Black Sea roach[65], sunbleak[66], chub[67], souffie[68], ide[69], rudd[70], asp [71], common nase [72], Danubian bleak[73], bleak[74], spirlin[75], white bream[76], bream[77] white-eyed bream[78], blue bream[79], Vimba bream[80], sichel[81], gudgeon[82], Danubian gudgeon[83], barbel[84], tench[85], goldfish[86], stone loach[87], weatherfish[88], spined loach[89], wels[90], burbot[91], Mediterranean killifish[92], silverside [93], ten-spined stickleback[94], perch[95], ruffe[96], striped ruffe[97], pikeperch[98], zingel[99], freshwater blenny [100], tube-nosed goby [101], bullhead[102], flounder[103][104]
SF_2: [105]
H_2: [106]
F_3: African sharptooth catfish[107]
SF_3: [108]
H_3: [109]
F_4: catla carp[110], Mrigal carp[111], Rohi[112], Nile tilapia[113], blue tilapia [114], Mozambique tilapia[115], walking catfish[116], African sharptooth catfish[117], three-spined stickleback[118]
SF_4: giant river prawn[119], monsoon river prawn[120]
H_4: [121]
F_5: rainbow trout[122], grass carp[123], silver carp [124], largescale silver carp[125], bighead carp [126], black carp [127], common goldfish [128], basa fish[129], Iridescent shark[130], walking catfish[131], channel catfish[132], northern pike[133], largemouth bass[134], pumpkinseed sunfish[135], brown bullhead [136]
SF_5: giant river prawn[137], oriental river prawn [138], Chinese river crab[139], mud carp [140]
H_5: [141]
F_6: [142]
SF_6: [143]
H_6: [144]

References[edit]

  1. Hence also includes Baltic Sea, Norwegian Sea, Greenland Sea, Barents Sea, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, East Siberian Sea, Labrador Sea
  2. Hence also includes Celtic Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Azov Sea, Caspian Sea
  3. Hence also includes Mozambique Channel, Arabian Sea, Andaman Sea, South China Sea, Celebes Sea, Java Sea, Timor Sea, Banda Sea, Arafura Sea
  4. Hence also includes East China Sea, Yellow Sea, Sea of Japan, Sea of Okhotsk, Bering Sea
  5. Hence also includes Wedell Sea
  6. Cyprinus carpio carpio native to Eastern Europe (notably the Danube and Volga Rivers)
  7. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix native to eastern Asia from the Amur River of far eastern Russia south through much of eastern half of China to Pearl River, possibly including northern Vietnam
  8. Carassius carassius native to region between England and Russia; it is found as far north as the Arctic Circle in the Scandinavian countries, and the southern extremities defined by central France and the Black Sea
  9. Ictalurus punctatus native to the Nearctic, being well distributed in lower Canada and the eastern and northern United States, as well as parts of northern Mexico
  10. Petromyzon marinus native to Scandinavia to the Mediterranean Sea
  11. Lampetra fluviatilis native to North Sea to west of the Mediterranean Sea
  12. Lampetra planeri native to Celtic Sea to Baltic Sea and western Italy
  13. Acipenser sturio native to North Sea to Baltic Sea
  14. Acipenser ruthenus native to Black Sea and Caspian Sea to Siberia and East Siberian Sea
  15. Alosa fallax native to North Sea, Baltic Sea, Celtic Sea, Mediterranean Sea
  16. Alosa alosa native to Celtic Sea and Mediterranean
  17. Salvelinus alpinus native to Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea, North Sea and the rivers of the Alps
  18. Coregonus lavaretus native to North Sea, Baltic Sea, Norwegian Sea
  19. Thymallus thymallus native to Baltic Sea, Celtic Sea, rivers of central to northeastern Europe
  20. Osmerus eperlanus native to North Sea, Celtic Sea, Baltic Sea,
  21. Rutilus rutilus native to North Sea, Celtic Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, western Russia
  22. Leucaspius delineatus native to Baltic Sea, Black Sea, North Sea to rivers of western Russia
  23. Leuciscus leuciscus native to North Sea, Celtic Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, to just above the Mediterranean Sea
  24. Leuciscus idus native to North Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, west Russia
  25. Phoxinus phoxinus native to North Sea, Celtic Sea, Baltic Sea, Mediterranean Sea, west Russia
  26. Scardinius erythrophthalmus native to North Sea, Celtic Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea
  27. Aspius aspius native to North Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea
  28. Chondrostoma nasus native to North Sea, Black Sea, western Russia
  29. Alburnus alburnus native to Baltic Sea, Black Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Celtic Sea
  30. Alburnoides bipunctatus native to North Sea, Black Sea, rivers of central Europe to west Russia
  31. Abramis bjoerkna native to North Sea, Celtic Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, rivers of west Russia
  32. Abramis brama native to North Sea, Celtic Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, rivers of west Russia
  33. Abramis ballerus native to Black Sea, Baltic Sea
  34. Vimba vimba native to Baltic Sea, Black Sea
  35. Pelecus cultratus native to Baltic Sea, Danube river, Aral lake, Black Sea
  36. Gobio gobio native to North Sea, Celtic Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea
  37. Barbus barbus native to North Sea, Black Sea, rivers from France to Ukraine
  38. Tinca tinca native to Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, celtic Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea
  39. Carassius gibelio native to North Sea, Celtic Sea, Black Sea, Baltic Sea, west Russia
  40. Rhodeus sericeus native to North Sea, Celtic Sea, Black Sea, west Russia
  41. Barbatula barbatula native to North sea, Celtic Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea
  42. Misgurnus fossilis native to North Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, most of central europe to west Russia
  43. Cobotis taenia native to North Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, all of europe to west Russia
  44. Silurus glanis native to Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Germany to west Russia
  45. Lota lota native to North Sea, Baltic Sea, Celtic Sea, Black Sea, most of central Europe
  46. Aphanius fasciatus native to Baltic Sea, Black Sea, France to west Russia
  47. Perca fluviatilis native to Baltic Sea, North Sea, Celtic Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea
  48. Gymnocephalus cernuus native to North Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Celtic Sea, Russia (upto the Ural Mountains)
  49. Cottus gobio native to North Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Celtic Sea, upto the Ural Mountains
  50. Platichthys flesus native to shores of North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Celtic Sea, Baltic Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea
  51. (Latin name) native to ?
  52. (Latin name) native to ?
  53. Carassius carassius native to region between England and Russia; it is found as far north as the Arctic Circle in the Scandinavian countries, and the southern extremities defined by central France and the Black Sea
  54. Oreochromis niloticus native to Africa from Egypt south to East and Central Africa, and as far west as Gambia
  55. Oreochromis aureus native to Cameroon, Chad, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, and Senegal in tropical and subtropical African and the Middle East
  56. Abramis brama native to Europe north of the Alps and Pyrenees, as well as the Balkans. It is found as far east as the Caspian Sea, the Black Sea, and the Aral Sea
  57. Esox lucius native throughout the northern hemisphere, including Russia, Europe and North America
  58. Huso huso native to Black Sea and Caspian Sea, Adriatic Sea and Po river
  59. Alosa fallax native to North Sea, Baltic Sea, Celtic Sea, Mediterranean Sea
  60. Alosa alosa native to Celtic Sea and Mediterranean
  61. Hucho hucho native to Danube river
  62. Umbra krameri native to Black Seathe rivers of Hungary
  63. Rutilus rutilus native to North Sea, Celtic Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, western Russia
  64. Rutilus pigus native to Danube river
  65. Rutilus frisii native to Black Sea
  66. Leucaspius delineatus native to Baltic Sea, Black Sea, North Sea to rivers of west Russia
  67. Leuciscus cephalus native to North Sea, Baltic Sea, Celtic Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea
  68. Leuciscus souffia native to the Rhine
  69. Leuciscus idus native to North Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, west Russia
  70. Scardinius erythrophthalmus native to North Sea, Celtic Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea
  71. Aspius aspius native to North Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea
  72. Chondrostoma nasus native to North Sea, Black Sea, western Russia
  73. Chalcalburnus chalcaoides native to Black Sea
  74. Alburnus alburnus native to Baltic Sea, Black Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Celtic Sea
  75. Alburnoides bipunctatus native to North Sea, Black Sea, rivers of central Europe to west Russia
  76. Abramis bjoerkna native to North Sea, Celtic Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, rivers of west Russia
  77. Abramis brama native to North Sea, Celtic Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, rivers of west Russia
  78. Abramis sapa native to Black Sea
  79. Abramis ballerus native to Black Sea, Baltic Sea
  80. Vimba vimba native to Baltic Sea, Black Sea
  81. Pelecus cultratus native to Baltic Sea, Danube river, Aral lake, Black Sea
  82. Gobio gobio native to North Sea, Celtic Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea
  83. Gobio uranoscopus native to Danube river, Black Sea
  84. Barbus barbus native to North Sea, Black Sea, rivers from France to Ukraine
  85. Tinca tinca native to Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, celtic Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea
  86. Carassius gibelio native to North Sea, Celtic Sea, Black Sea, Baltic Sea, west Russia
  87. Barbatula barbatula native to North sea, Celtic Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea
  88. Misgurnus fossilis native to North Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, most of central europe to west Russia
  89. Cobotis taenia native to North Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, all of europe to west Russia
  90. Silurus glanis native to Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Germany to west Russia
  91. Lota lota native to North Sea, Baltic Sea, Celtic Sea, Black Sea, most of central Europe
  92. Aphanius fasciatus native to Baltic Sea, Black Sea, France to west Russia
  93. Atherina boyeri native to Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea
  94. Pungitius pungitius native to North Sea, Celtic Sea, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea
  95. Perca fluviatilis native to Baltic Sea, North Sea, Celtic Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea
  96. Gymnocephalus cernuus native to North Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Celtic Sea, Russia (upto the Ural Mountains)
  97. Gymnocephalus schraetser native to Black Sea
  98. Sander lucioperca native to Aral lake
  99. Zingel zingel native to Eastern Europe
  100. Salaria fluviatilis native to Mediterranean Sea
  101. Proterorhinus marmoratus native to Black Sea
  102. Cottus gobio native to North Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Celtic Sea, upto the Ural Mountains
  103. Platichthys flesus native to shores of North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Celtic Sea, Baltic Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea
  104. Die Süswasserfische Europas by Roland Gerstmeier, Thomas Romig
  105. (Latin name) native to ?
  106. (Latin name) native to ?
  107. Clarias gariepinus native to the whole of Africa and also native to some Middle Eastern countries
  108. (Latin name) native to ?
  109. (Latin name) native to ?
  110. Catla catla native to subtropical Asia (Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Myanmar)
  111. Cirrhinus cirrhosus native to the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers of India
  112. Labeo rohita native to south Asia and south-east Asia (Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar and Nepal)
  113. Oreochromis niloticus native to Africa from Egypt south to East and Central Africa, and as far west as Gambia
  114. Oreochromis aureus native to Cameroon, Chad, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, and Senegal in tropical and subtropical African and the Middle East
  115. Oreochromis mossambicus native to Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe and South Africa
  116. Clarias batrachus native to Southeastern Asia (Malaysia, Thailand, eastern India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Burma, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei)
  117. Clarias gariepinus native to the whole of Africa and also native to some Middle Eastern countries
  118. Gasterosteus aculeatus native to most inland coastal waters north of 30°N, particularly northern Asia to North America
  119. Macrobrachium rosenbergii native to Indo-Pacific region, northern Australia and Southeast Asia.
  120. Macrobrachium malcolmsonii native to the rivers of Bangladesh, India and Pakistan
  121. (Latin name) native to ?
  122. Oncorhynchus mykiss native to tributaries of northwestern Mexico to North America and eastern Russia
  123. Ctenopharyngodon idella native to eastern Asia, from northern Vietnam to the Amur River on the Siberia-China border
  124. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix native to eastern Asia from the Amur River of far eastern Russia south through much of eastern half of China to Pearl River, possibly including northern Vietnam
  125. Hypophthalmichthys harmandi native to southeast Asia; from southeastern China (Hainan Island) and from the Red River basin in northern Vietnam
  126. Hypophthalmichthys nobilis native to the large rivers and associated floodplain lakes of eastern Asia. Their range extends from southern China to the Amur River system, which forms the northern border of China and the southern border of Russia.
  127. Mylopharyngodon piceus native to eastern Asia from the Pearl River (Zhu Jiang) basin in China north to the Amur River (Heilong Jiang) basin of China and far eastern Russia; possibly native to the Honghe or Red River of northern Vietnam
  128. Carassius auratus native to eastern Asia, including China and perhaps adjacent regions (Japan, Republic of Korea)
  129. Pangasius bocourti native to the Mekong River Delta in Vietnam and Chao Phraya basin in Thailand.
  130. Pangasius hypophthalmus native to the Chao Phraya and Mekong rivers in south-east Asia
  131. Clarias batrachus native to Southeastern Asia (Malaysia, Thailand, eastern India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Burma, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei)
  132. Ictalurus punctatus native to the Nearctic, being well distributed in lower Canada and the eastern and northern United States, as well as parts of northern Mexico
  133. Esox lucius native throughout the northern hemisphere, including Russia, Europe and North America
  134. Micropterus salmoides native to eastern USA, the region of the great lakes, upto Florida and northeastern Mexico
  135. Lepomis gibbosus native to southeastern Canada, and northeastern USA
  136. Ameiurus nebulosus native to eastern USA
  137. Macrobrachium rosenbergii native to Indo-Pacific region, northern Australia and Southeast Asia.
  138. Macrobrachium nipponense native to China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Myanmar and Taiwan
  139. Eriocheir sinensis native to the coastal estuaries of eastern Asia from Korea in the north to the Fujian province of China in the south
  140. Cirrhinus molitorella native to southern China, Vietnam, Thailand
  141. (Latin name) native to ?
  142. (Latin name) native to ?
  143. (Latin name) native to ?
  144. (Latin name) native to ?

Notes[edit]

  • Freshwater eels (such as European eel, New Zealand Longfin eel, Japanese eel, ...) have not been included as they are not yet bred in captivity, and as a result are now in danger of becoming extinct. They can be included later-on, once the breeding issue has been resolved.
  • Certain submerged plants can also provide extra oxygen to the water, allowing (certain) fish to survive if planted in the area, even if the water had low amounts of in oxygen; see Treatment_ponds.
  • In certain situations, it is possible to place seaweed and/or other estuary farms in such a way that it obstructs areas behind the farm, preventing fishing at that location. This method could allow the creation of places where (the still young) fish can hide, a bit similar to mangroves. Off course, fishing should then also not be exerciced by the owner of the estuary farm.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]