Low-cost Pole and Wire Photovoltaic Racking Literature Review

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Low-cost Pole and Wire Photovoltaic Racking Literature Review[edit | edit source]

Background[edit | edit source]

This page is dedicated to the literature review of low-cost pole and wire photovoltaic racking.

Literature[edit | edit source]

Google Scholar: wire photovoltaic racking[edit | edit source]

Total U.S. cost evaluation of low-weight tension-based photovoltaic flat-roof mounted racking[edit | edit source]

Wittbrodt, B. T., & Pearce, J. M. (2015). Total U.S. cost evaluation of low-weight tension-based photovoltaic flat-roof mounted racking. Solar Energy, 117, 89–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2015.04.026 Open Access

Notes:

  • Roof attached systems can only be installed on roofs designed to support the extra loads from the solar panels
  • Low academic interest in PV racking design
  • X-wire racking system is challenging to service modules due to close packing.
  • Commercially available racking is rail-based that secures to the roof of the building

Google Scholar: low cost photovoltaic racking[edit | edit source]

Reducing solar PV soft costs: A focus on installation labor[edit | edit source]

Morris, J., Calhoun, K., Goodman, J., & Seif, D. (2014). Reducing solar PV soft costs: A focus on installation labor. 2014 IEEE 40th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC), 3356–3361. https://doi.org/10.1109/PVSC.2014.6925654

Notes:

  • Racking and mounting account for 32% of the cost in the U.S. while in Germany it is only 22%
  • Travel and on and off-site prep account for 16% in the U.S and 9% in Germany
  • Overall cost could be reduced in many areas of the installation process if Lean practices were implemented

Google Scholar: solar panel racking system[edit | edit source]

3-D printing solar photovoltaic racking in developing world[edit | edit source]

Wittbrodt, B., & Pearce, J. M. (2017). 3-D printing solar photovoltaic racking in developing world. Energy for Sustainable Development, 36, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esd.2016.08.001 Open Access

Notes:

  • To be more competitive with traditional energy generation methods PV systems need to reduce the cost of the racking, wiring, and electronics.
  • Simple tools used allows for repairs by anyone especially important in developing regions.
  • Customization of racking allows for optimization for geographical regions.

Google Scholar: flexible photovoltaic[edit | edit source]

Flexible photovoltaic power systems: integration opportunities, challenges and advances[edit | edit source]

Ostfeld, A. E., & Arias, A. C. (2017). Flexible photovoltaic power systems: Integration opportunities, challenges and advances. Flexible and Printed Electronics, 2(1), 013001. https://doi.org/10.1088/2058-8585/aa5750

Notes:

  • Flexible PV modules are lighter weight and can be rolled up for transportation or storage
  • Ideal for remote portable lighting systems
  • Flexible batteries can be integrated into the PV module so no external battery pack is needed.

Google Scholar: vertical photovoltaic racking[edit | edit source]

Performance and financial evaluation of various photovoltaic vertical facades on high-rise building in Malaysia[edit | edit source]

Performance and financial evaluation of various photovoltaic vertical facades on high-rise building in Malaysia | Elsevier Enhanced Reader. (n.d.). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.11.003

Notes:

  • Vertically mounted PV are ideal where no horizontal space is available such as in a city
  • Vertically mounted PV is capable of generating more electricity than a horizontally mounted system in cases where the vertical area is significantly larger.
  • Vertical surfaces do not collect dirt making them ideal in dusty environments

Google Scholar: mobile photovoltaic racking[edit | edit source]

Quad Pod: Ultra-efficient PV Racking System for Long-span Ground Mount and Canopy Applications[edit | edit source]

Al-Haddad, T., Brooks, B., Gentry, R., Goodman, J., Lohr, J., & Rahimzadeh, K. (2014). Quad Pod: Ultra-efficient PV Racking System for Long-span Ground Mount and Canopy Applications. 1566–1575. https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784413517.160

Notes:

  • Pre-assembled in a controlled environment such as a factory improves worker safety, and higher quality
  • Uses galvanized steel due to lower cost compared to custom aluminum extrusions
  • Quad Pod can be either ground mounted or span over large spaces


Found in other papers reference sections[edit | edit source]

Mobile Solar Power[edit | edit source]

Trautz, K. M., Jenkins, P. P., Walters, R. J., Scheiman, D., Hoheisel, R., Tatavarti, R., Chan, R., Miyamoto, H., Adams, J. G. J., Elarde, V. C., & Grimsley, J. (2013). Mobile Solar Power. IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 3(1), 535–541. https://doi.org/10.1109/JPHOTOV.2012.2215580

Notes:

  • Semirigid, lightweight, rugged, and efficient portable solar blanket that can be stored or mounted on backpacks of Marines
  • Decreased use of liquid fuels for power generation with solar being the best current technology to replace liquid fuels
  • High performance panels by W/kg and W/m^2
  • Future work to make panels so they can connect in parallel to charge a battery faster

SIMPLE BoS: Towards a Multidisciplinary Integration of Photovoltaic Energy in Buildings[edit | edit source]

Cavieres, A., Al-Haddad, T., Gentry, R., Nagel, K., & Goodman, J. (2013). SIMPLE BoS: Towards a Multidisciplinary Integration of Photovoltaic Energy in Buildings. ARCC Conference Repository. https://doi.org/10.17831/rep:arcc%y198

Notes:

  • Most significant pv cost reduction needs to come from “balance of system” cost
  • One strategy is for optimizing individual components having multidisciplinary groups working together
  • SIMPLE BoS project aims to reduce racking and hardware cost by 50%
  • Keeping standardization between each of the individual components


Dynamic life cycle economic and environmental assessment of residential solar photovoltaic systems[edit | edit source]

Ren, M., Mitchell, C. R., & Mo, W. (2020). Dynamic life cycle economic and environmental assessment of residential solar photovoltaic systems. Science of The Total Environment, 722, 137932. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137932

Notes:

  • Houses with a small number of panels/size are best not investing in battery storage systems as this will increase the system cost
  • Increasing the number of panels will increase the optimum battery storage capacity
  • Having a small number of panels with no battery storage is the most economic savings


Expanding the Photovoltaic Supply Chain in the United States: Opportunities and Challenges[edit | edit source]

Smith, B., & Margolis, R. M. (2019). Expanding the Photovoltaic Supply Chain in the United States: Opportunities and Challenges (NREL/TP-6A20-73363). National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). https://doi.org/10.2172/1547262

Notes:

  • Analysis of new PV components and materials that the U.S. is already a net exporter of will give a competitive advantage as well as a unique U.S. product
  • U.S. manufacturing of PV cells and modules has declined the demand has increased
  • Utilization of steel in racking components as U.S. steel production has been 80% below capacity.


Applying lean process principles to improve labor efficiency of solar photovoltaic installations[edit | edit source]

(Goodman, J., Nagel, K., Wren, M., & Morris, J. (2014). Applying Lean Process Principles to Improve Labor Efficiency of Solar Photovoltaic Installations. 709–718. https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784413517.073)

Notes:

  • In order to reduce the cost of PV systems standardization of information, hardware, and work task
  • Solar module costs have significantly dropped in price while the balance of system (BoS) has only small cost reduction to none at all.
  • Reduction in labor cost will increase residential adoption of solar

Solar photovoltaic energy for agricultural operations[edit | edit source]

Harmon, J., Hanna, H. M., & Miller, T. (2017). Solar photovoltaic energy for agricultural operations. Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Extension and Outreach Publications. https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/abe_eng_extensionpubs/9

Notes:

  • Solar generation on farms can be used for powering ventilation/aeration fans
  • Electricity usage varies by season and having battery storage is essential due to parts of the year generation will be higher than usage and at times usage will be much higher than generation

Technical viability of mobile solar photovoltaic systems for indigenous nomadic communities in northern latitudes[edit | edit source]

Technical viability of mobile solar photovoltaic systems for indigenous nomadic communities in northern latitudes | Elsevier Enhanced Reader. (n.d.). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2015.12.036

Notes:

  • Nomadic lifestyle requires mobile PV systems that can be transported with a reindeer-sleigh
  • Due to permafrost standard ground-mounted PV racking is not feasible
  • Tents are primary structure at campsite and racking could be made from wood

Penetration of solar power without storage[edit | edit source]

Stodola, N., & Modi, V. (2009). Penetration of solar power without storage. Energy Policy, 37(11), 4730–4736. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.06.029

Notes:

  • Regions that have no daytime peaks would not benefit from solar without storage
  • Need for dispatchable power sources reduced due to solar panels highest generation is during the peak of the day with the highest load
  • As more countries adopt solar the price will continue to decrease

Local and overall wind pressure and force coefficients for solar panels[edit | edit source]

Stathopoulos, T., Zisis, I., & Xypnitou, E. (2014). Local and overall wind pressure and force coefficients for solar panels. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 125, 195–206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2013.12.007

Notes:

  • Having panels near the edge of a roof experience the highest net force coefficient
  • Net peak force on panels due to wind is decreased at a lower inclination
  • Peak net force coefficients are fairly independent of the building height