D[edit | edit source]

DAM[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A structure that detains the FLOW of water in an open CHANNEL or watercourse. POWER dams raise the level of streams or rivers to create or concentrate HEAD for power purposes.

F - barrage
S - represa
DAMPER[edit | edit source]

(heat). A movable plate or other device for regulating the air-FLOW and burning rate in a stove. It is often located either inside the stove or in the FLUE pipe.

F - registre
S - regulador de tiro
DARRIEUS ROTOR WINDMILL[edit | edit source]

(wind). A VERTICAL AXIS WIND MACHINE that has long, thin, loop-shaped BLADES connected at the top and bottom of the WIND SHAFT.

F - eolienne a rotor de Darrieus
S - molino de viento de rotor Darrieus
DC[edit | edit source]

(elec). Abbreviation for DIRECT CURRENT.

F - CC
S - C.C.
DDG[edit | edit source]

(alc). Abbreviation for DISTILLER'S DRIED GRAINS. (See: DISTILLER'S GRAINS)

F - GSB
S - G.S.D.
DDGS[edit | edit source]

(alc). Abbreviation for DISTILLER'S DRIED GRAINS and SOLUBLES. (See: DISTILLER's GRAIN)

F - G.S.B.S.
S - G.S.D.S.
DEAD AIR SPACE[edit | edit source]

(constr) (sol). An empty area within the walls of a building in which the air remains motionless and acts as insulation. Dead air space may be included in a SOLAR COLLECTOR between the ABSORBER PLATE and the GLAZING, between glazings, and in the CASING.

F - espace d'air inerte
S - espacio de aire no renovado
DEAD CURB[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A ledge supporting the CAP of a WINDMILL without the interposition of WHEELS or ROLLERS.

F - chemin dormant
S - reborde
DEADMAN[edit | edit source]

(wind). A log or a mass of concrete or steel buried in the ground, to which GUY WIRES for supporting towers and poles are attached.

F - point fixe d'ammarage
S - macizo de anclaje
DECOMPOSITION[edit | edit source]

(bio) (chem). Decay of ORGANIC MATTER due to the action of BACTERIA. Also the separation of a substance into its component parts by chemical action.

F - decomposition
S - descomposicion
DEEP CYCLE BATTERY[edit | edit source]

(elec) (wind). A BATTERY that can be fully charged and discharged without shortening its life. They are often used with WIND GENERATORS.

F - batterie a cycle profond
S - bateria de gran ciclo
DEGREE DAY COOLING[edit | edit source]

(gen) (meas). A measurement used to evaluate the summer cooling requirements of a given location. Each degree that the daily temperature is above 75 [degrees] F (24 [degrees] C), one cooling degree day is counted.

F - degre-jour de refroidissement
S - enfriamiento de grado-dia
DEGREE DAY HEATING[edit | edit source]

(gen) (meas). A measurement used to determine the winter heating requirements of a given location. Each degree that the daily temperature is below 65 [degrees] F (19 [degrees] C) is a heating degree day.

F - degre-jour de chauffage
S - calefaccion de grado-dia
DEHYDRATION[edit | edit source]

(gen). The removal of moisture from a substance.

F - deshydratation
S - deshidratacion
DENATURE[edit | edit source]

(alc). The process of adding a substance, often METHANOL, to ETHANOL to make it unfit for human consumption.

F - denaturer
S - desnaturalizar
DEPHLEGMATOR[edit | edit source]

(alc). (See: ALCOHOL STILL)

F - deflegmateur
S - desflegmador
DESIGN HEAT LOAD[edit | edit source]

(heat) (meas). The total heat loss from a building during the most severe winter conditions the building is likely to experience.

F - charge thermique nominale
S - carga de calefaccion prevista
DESSICANT[edit | edit source]

(gen). A substance with an affinity for water, used for drying purposes.

F - dessiccatif
S - desecante
DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION[edit | edit source]

(alc) (gen). The heating, DECOMPOSITION, and subsequent DISTILLATION of FLUIDS from ORGANIC MATTER (e.g., METHANOL production from wood).

F - distillation destructive
S - destilacion destructora
DETENTION TIME[edit | edit source]

(biocon) (meas). The amount of time that incoming material is retained in a BIOGAS DIGESTER.

F - temps de retention
S - periodo de detencion
DIFFUSED RADIATION[edit | edit source]

(sol). Indirect, scattered sunlight, which casts no shadow. It is the opposite of DIRECT RADIATION.

F - rayonnement diffus
S - radiacion difusa
DIFFUSION[edit | edit source]

(chem). The process by which a substance of a greater CONCENTRATION mixes with a substance of a lesser concentration to produce a uniform mixture.

F - diffusion
S - difusion
DIGESTED SLUDGE[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The residue remaining after DIGESTION. Digested sludge contains some UNDIGESTED SOLIDS and stabilized ORGANIC MATTER.

F - boues digerees
S - sedimento digerido
DIGESTED SLURRY[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: DIGESTED SLUDGE)

F - boue digeree
S - fango digerido
DIGESTER[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The tank in which ANAEROBIC DIGESTION takes place.

F - digesteur
S - digestor
DIGESTER TANK[edit | edit source]

(bio). The reservoir area in a BIOGAS DIGESTER in which DIGESTION of ORGANIC MATTER takes place. It usually has some gas holding capacity, and provides For the collection and removal of SCUM and SLUDGE.

F - reservoir digesteur
S - tanque digestor
DIGESTION[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The process by which ORGANIC MATTER is decomposed by the action of ANAEROBIC BACTERIA, producing METHANE and high-grade fertilizer.

F - digestion
S - digestion
DILUTION RATE[edit | edit source]

(biocon) (meas). The frequency with which water is added to a BIOGAS DIGESTER.

F - taux de dilution
S - tasa de dilucion
DIRECT CONVERSION[edit | edit source]

(sol). The transformation of sunlight to electricity without an intervening thermodynamic cycle.

F - conversion directe
S - conversion directa
DIRECT CURRENT[edit | edit source]

(elec). A continuous, one-directional FLOW of electricity, such as that from a BATTERY. Commonly abbreviated as dc.

F - courant continu
S - corriente continua
DIRECT GAIN SYSTEM[edit | edit source]

(sol). (See: DIRECT SOLAR GAIN)

F - gain direct, systeme de
S - sistema de ganancia directa
DIRECT METHODS OF SOLAR HEATING[edit | edit source]

(sol). SOLAR HEATING techniques in which SOLAR RADIATION enters a building through windows and SKYLIGHTS and is trapped inside to warm a room.

F - chauffage solaire direct
S - metodos directos de calefaccion solar
DIRECT RADIATION[edit | edit source]

(sol). Sunlight that has traveled a straight path from the sun. It is the opposite of DIFFUSED RADIATION.

F - rayonnement direct
S - radiacion directa
DIRECT SOLAR ENERGY[edit | edit source]

(sol). ENERGY acquired From conversion of DIRECT RADIATION.

F - energie solaire directe
S - energia solar directa
DIRECT SOLAR GAIN[edit | edit source]

(sol). A PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING system in which SOLAR RADIATION passes through and warms a room in a dwelling before being stored in THERMAL MASS for longterm heating.

F - apport solaire direct
S - ganancia solar directa
DISCHARGE PIPE[edit | edit source]

(hydr) (biocon). [1] The pipe through which water exits from a WATER TURBINE. [2] The outlet for EFFLUENT from a BIOGAS DIGESTER.

F - [1] tube de decharge; [2] tuyau d'evacuation
S - tubo de descarga
DISTILLATE[edit | edit source]

(alc). The portion of a liquid that is removed from a solid or semisolid as a vapor and CONDENSED during the DISTILLATION process. ETHANOL is a distillate of FERMENTED MASH. (See also: SOLAR DISTILLATE)

F - distillat
S - destilado
DISTILLATION[edit | edit source]

(alc). An evaporation and recondensation process by which liquids are separated into various fractions according to their boiling points. ETHANOL is separated by distillation from MASH and water.

F - distillation
S - destilacion
DISTILLATION COLUMN[edit | edit source]

(alc). (See: STILL COLUMN)

F - colonne de distillation
S - columna de destilacion
S DRIED GRAIN[edit | edit source]

(DDG) (alc). (See: DISTILLER'S GRAIN)

F - grains secs de brasserie

(GSB)

S - grano seco de destilacion

(GSD)

S GRAIN[edit | edit source]

(alc). A by-product of ETHANOL production. Once ethanol has been driven from the MASH in an ALCOHOL STILL, the remaining solids are known as distiller's grain. When dried, these grains can be used as high protein animal feed. The dried distiller's grain commonly is abbreviated as DDG. (Syn: BREWER'S DRIED GRAIN)

F - grains de distillerie
S - grano de destilacion
S MASH[edit | edit source]

(alc). (See: SPENT MASH)

F - mout de distillateur
S - mezcla de destilacion
DOUBLE CHAMBER[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A type of BIOGAS DIGESTER in which the GASHOLDER is separate from the DIGESTER TANK.

F - chambre double
S - camara doble
DOUBLE-GLAZING[edit | edit source]

(sol). [1] A cover for a SOLAR COLLECTOR that is made from two layers of GLAZING materials. [2] Double-glass windows designed to serve as insulation for buildings.

F - [1] vitre double; [2] double vitrage
S - vidriado doble
DOUBLE-SHUTTERED[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). PATENT SAILS or SPRING SAILS fitted with SHUTTERS on both sides of the WHIP.

F - double volets, a
S - doble postigo
DOWNCOMER[edit | edit source]

(alc) (impl). A component of an ALCOHOL STILL. When water is separated from ALCOHOL during DISTILLATION, the water falls toward the bottom of the STILL COLUMN through a pipe called a downcomer.

F - deversoir
S - tubo de descenso
DOWNDRAFT[edit | edit source]

(gen) (prod). [1] A type of PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR in which air and gas FLOWS from the top of the COMBUSTION ZONE down through to the bottom. [2] KILNS or other types of ovens and stoves in which CONVECTION or combustion air flows down through the device.

F - [1] tirage en bas; [2] tirage inverse
S - corriente descendiente
DOWNWIND[edit | edit source]

(wind). On the side opposite the WIND DIRECTION.

F - sous le vent
S - con el viento
DRAFT[edit | edit source]

(heat). The FLOW of air through a KILN, stove, oven, fireplace, PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR, etc. Draft affects both temperature and rate of combustion.

F - tirage
S - tiro de aire
DRAG[edit | edit source]

(wind). An aerodynamic force that retards the motion of lift-type ROTOR blades, or that causes BLADE motion in DRAG-TYPE WIND MACHINES.

F - trainee
S - resistencia aerodinamica
DRAG-TYPE SYSTEM[edit | edit source]

(wind). WIND MACHINES that are actuated by aerodynamic DRAG in a WIND STREAM (e.g., SAVONIUS ROTOR).

F - type a trainee, systeme du
S - sistema del tipo de arrastre
DRAG-TYPE WIND MACHINE[edit | edit source]

(wind). A WIND MACHINE that rotates by being pushed by the wind instead of by being driven by LIFT forces. This is generally a slow-moving device.

F - eolienne a trainee
S - aerogenerador del tipo de arrastre
DRAIN DOWN SOLAR COLLECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). A SOLAR COLLECTOR that will automatically drain itself to protect against freezing.

F - capteur solaire a evacuation automatique
S - colector solar con drenaje
DRY BIOMASS[edit | edit source]

(gen). Moisture-free BIOMASS. It is valuable because it can be conveniently stored for long periods of time. (See also: DRY ORGANIC WASTE)

F - biomasse seche
S - biomasa seca
DRY-BULB TEMPERATURE[edit | edit source]

(meas). The temperature of air as indicated by a standard thermometer, as contrasted with WET-BULB TEMPERATURE that depends on atmospheric humidity. This measure of AMBIENT temperature is used in designing PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING and SOLAR COOLING systems.

F - temperature au thermometre sec
S - temperatura de bola seca
DRY DIGESTION[edit | edit source]

(biocon). DIGESTION in which more than 10 percent of the SLURRY is solid material.

F - digestion seche
S - digestion seca
DRYING BED[edit | edit source]

(biocon). An area prepared for drying EFFLUENT after it hs been removed from a METHANE DIGESTER. Dried effluent can be used as fertilizer or as animal feed.

F - lit de sechage
S - lecho secador
DRY ORGANIC WASTE[edit | edit source]

(gen). ORGANIC WASTE that is free from moisture. This type of waste can be stored for long periods before being used as a fuel or fertilizer. (See also: DRY BIOMASS)

F - dechets organiques secs
S - desperdicios organicos secos
DRY SLURRY[edit | edit source]

(biocon). SLURRY that is more than 10 percent solid material.

F - boue seche
S - fango seco
DRY STEAM[edit | edit source]

(geo). An ENERGY source obtained when hot water boils in an underground reservoir. As the steam rises, some of it condenses on surrounding rack. The uncondensed steam that reaches the surface is called dry steam, and may be tapped and used in STEAM TURBINES.

F - vapeur seche
S - vapor seco
DUAL-FUEL ENGINE[edit | edit source]

(auto) (gen). A gasoline or diesel engine equipped to operate on an alternative fuel, either alternately or in combination (e.g., gasoline-BIOGAS, diesel-biogas, gasoline-WOOD GAS, diesel-wood gas).

F - moteur polycarburant
S - motor a doble combustible
DUNG[edit | edit source]

(bio). Manure, usually without urine. Dried dung can be burned directly as a fuel or used as a fertilizer.

F - fumier
S - estiercol
DUNG GAS[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: BIOGAS)

F - gaz de fumier
S - gas de estiercol
DYNAMO[edit | edit source]

(elec). A device for converting mechanical ENERGY into electrical energy by electromagnetic induction. Dynamos are often adapted to be driven by WINDMILLS. (See also: ALTERNATOR)

F - dynamo
S - dinamo
DYNAPOD[edit | edit source]

(gen) (impl). A pedal-operated POWER source. It is used to drive a variety of machines and devices.

F - dynapod
S - dynapod

E[edit | edit source]

EARTH KILN[edit | edit source]

(heat). A relatively inefficient KILN made by mounding earth over the materials to be burned. Used in traditional CHARCOAL production.

F - meule a charbon de bois
S - horno de tierra
ECCENTRIC WHEEL[edit | edit source]

(gen). A wheel in which the axle is not at the center point, but slightly off-center.

F - roue excentrique
S - rueda excentrica
ECONOMIZER[edit | edit source]

(heat). A HEAT EXCHANGER that recovers heat from FLUE gases and uses it to heat feedwater or combustion air.

F - economiseur
S - economizador
EFFECTIVENESS[edit | edit source]

(heat) (meas). The ratio of actual heat transfer in a HEAT EXCHANGER to the maximum possible heat transfer.

F - efficacite
S - eficacia
EFFICIENCY[edit | edit source]

(gen). The ratio of the ENERGY output to the energy input. Efficiency is usually expressed as a percentage.

F - rendement
S - eficiencia
EFFLUENT[edit | edit source]

(biocon). [1] SLURRY that has been removed from a BIOGAS PLANT. [2] Liquid sewage after having passed through any stage in its purification.

F - effluent
S - efluente
EMISSIVITY[edit | edit source]

(sol). The ratio of RADIANT ENERGY emitted by a body to that emitted by a perfect BLACKBODY. A perfect blackbody has an emissivity of one; a perfect REFLECTOR, an emissivity of zero.

F - emissivite
S - emisividad
EMITTANCE[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). A rating of the ability of a material to give off heat as RADIANT ENERGY.

F - emittance
S - emitancia
ENERGY[edit | edit source]

(gen). The capacity of a body to do work; POWER in action.

F - energie
S - energia
ENERGY CAPABILITY OF AN ELECTRICITY-PRODUCING DEVICE[edit | edit source]

(gen) (meas). The maximum amount of electricity that an electricity-producing device may produce under the best conditions during a given period. ENERGY capability is determined by the mechanical EFFICIENCY of the device.

F - capacite energetique d'un dispositif produisant du courant
S - capacidad energetica de un aparato productor de electricidad
ENERGY CONSERVATION[edit | edit source]

(gen). Practices and measures that increase the EFFICIENCY with which ENERGY is used or produced.

F - conservation de l'energie
S - conservacion de energia
ENERGY CONSUMPTION[edit | edit source]

(gen). The amount of ENERGY consumed in the form in which it is obtained by the user. This term excludes electrical generation and distribution losses. It also is called net energy consumption.

F - consommation d'energie
S - consumo de energia
ENERGY CONVERSION[edit | edit source]

(gen). The act of changing ENERGY from one form to another (e.g., WIND ENERGY to mechanical energy).

Mechanical -> Electrical
Wind Generator 40%
Water Turbine 68-93%
Steam Power Plant 40%
Mechanical -> Mechanical
Windmill 20-30%
Waterwheel 70-85%
Solar -> Thermal
Flat Collector 40-60%
Concentrator 80-90%
Chemical -> Thermal
Wood Combustion Burner 85% maximum
Chemical -> Electrical
Battery 80%

(Storage)

Chemical -> Chemical
Biogas Digester 40-60%
F - conversion de l'energie
S - conversion de energia
ENERGY PATTERN FACTOR[edit | edit source]

(wind). The ratio of the available ENERGY in all of the winds in a particular location over a certain period of time to the energy that would be available if the WIND SPEED over that period of time were constant at the mean wind speed over that period of time.

F - coefficient de diagramme energetique
S - factor energetico del viento
ENERGY PRODUCTS[edit | edit source]

(gen). Fuels that can be used to produce ENERGY. Also, the by-products that result when fuels are produced.

F - combustibles energetiques
S - productos energeticos
ENERGY STORAGE[edit | edit source]

(gen) (meas). The ability to convert ENERGY into other forms, such as heat or a chemical reaction, so that it can be retrieved for later use. Also the development, design, construction, and operation of devices for storing energy until needed. The technology includes devices such as batteries, pumped storage for hydroelectric generation and compressed gas.

F - stockage de l'energie
S - almacenamiento de energia
RENEWABLE ENERGY STORAGE
Storage Medium Storage Efficiency (%) Major Loss Characteristics Cost* Complexity**
SOLAR (Heat) Water 75-90 Leaks (thermal & physical) 2 1
Earth varies Leaks (thermal) 1 1
Rock 60-80 Leaks (thermal) 2 2
Salt Hydrates 75-95 Material Breakdown 3 3
WIND/WATER (Mechanical) Pumped Water 50-70 Evaporation, Friction 1 2
Compressed Air 40-50 Leaks, Friction 2 2
WIND/WATER (Electrical) Battery 70-85 Internal Discharge 3 3
METHANE Tank Leaks 1 2
Tank (compressed) 50-60 3 3
ALCOHOL Tank Leaks, Evaporation 1 1
* Relative Cost 1 = Negligible
2 = Intermediate
** Degree of Mechanical Complexity 3 = Considerable
ENHANCEMENT[edit | edit source]

(sol). Increasing the amount of sunlight transmitted through the GLAZING in a SOLAR COLLECTOR through the use of a REFLECTOR.

F - renforcement
S - intensificacion
ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS[edit | edit source]

(alc). The use of ENZYMES to convert STARCH into simple sugars. This is a stage in the production of ETHANOL.

F - saccharification enzymatique
S - hidrolisis enzimica
ENZYMES[edit | edit source]

(chem) (alc). Organic substances that are produced in the cells of living organisms, and which cause specific chemical changes. Enzymes are produced by BACTERIA or FUNGI and are used in the liquefication and SACCHARIFICATION steps of ALCOHOL production.

F - enzymes
S - enzimas
EOLIAN[edit | edit source]

(wind). Of, relating to, formed by, or deposited by the wind or air currents. (Syn: Aeolian)

F - eolien, eolienne
S - eolico
EQUINOX[edit | edit source]

(sol). Either of two times of year when the sun passes over the celestial equator and when the length of day and night are almost equal.

F - equinoxe
S - equinoccio
ETHANOL[edit | edit source]

(alc). A Flammable organic compound (C[H.sub.3]C[H.sub.2]OH) formed during sugar FERMENTATION. It is also called ethyl alcohol, GRAIN ALCOHOL, or simply ALCOHOL.

F - ethanol
S - etanol
ETHYL ALCOHOL[edit | edit source]

(alc). (See: ETHANOL)

F - alcool ethylique
S - alcohol etilico
EUTECTIC SALTS[edit | edit source]

(heat). Heat storing salts that melt at a relatively low temperature. They absorb large quantities of heat when they do melt. Heat is released when the salts freeze.

F - eutectiques
S - sales eutecticos
EVACUATED TUBE COLLECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). A SOLAR COLLECTOR that uses a vacuum to insulate the ABSORBER PLATE. This COLLECTOR is highly EFFICIENT but very expensive.

F - capteur a tube vide
S - colector con tubo vaciado
EVAPORATIVE COOLING[edit | edit source]

(refrig). The exchange of heat from air to a water spray or wet surface through a reversible THERMODYNAMIC process. Air passing through the water is cooled as the water evaporates. The process can be reversed by condensing the vapor on a cool surface.

F - refroidissement par evaporation
S - enfriamiento evaporante
EXCESS AIR[edit | edit source]

(heat). Air that passes through a COMBUSTION ZONE in excess of the quantity theoretically required for complete combustion.

F - exces d'air
S - aire excesivo
EXTRATERRESTRIAL SOLAR RADIATION[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). The amount of SOLAR RADIATION that would strike a surface if that surface were outside the Earth's atmosphere. (See also: CLEARNESS INDEX)

F - rayonnement solaire extraterrestre
S - radiacion solar extraterrestre

F[edit | edit source]

F[edit | edit source]

(meas). Abbreviation for FAHRENHEIT.

F - F
S - F
FAHRENHEIT[edit | edit source]

(meas). The temperature scale in which water freezes at 32 oF and boils at 212 oF. Temperatures of the Fahrenheit scale can be converted to equivalent temperatures on the CELSIUS or Centigrade scale by first subtracting 32 degrees from the Fahrenheit temperature, then multiplying the result by 5/9 according to the formula: .

F - Fahrenheit
S - Fahrenheit
FALL WIND[edit | edit source]

(wind). A strong, cold, downhill wind.

F - vent catabatique
S - racha de viento
FANTAIL[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A small, secondary ROTOR set at a right angle to the main ROTOR of a WINDMILL to provide the motive POWER to turn the CAP to face the wind.

F - gouvernail
S - timon
FARM WINDMILL[edit | edit source]

(wind). A multi-BLADED WINDMILL that is based on an Early American design and is used primarily for water pumping.

F - eolienne de ferme
S - molino de viento rural
FEATHER[edit | edit source]

(wind). Turning the SAILS or the ROTOR of a WIND MACHINE out of the wind to protect the device from damage from high WIND VELOCITIES.

F - mettre en drapeau
S - poner en bandolera
FEATHERING MECHANISM[edit | edit source]

(wind) (impl). A mechanism on a WINDMILL that automatically turns the BLADES out of the wind when winds are too strong. This slows the windmill, protecting it from damage in high winds.

F - mecanisme de mise en drapeau
S - mecanismo de puesta en bandolera
FEED[edit | edit source]

(gen). See: FEEDSTOCK)

F - alimentation
S - alimento
FEEDSTOCK[edit | edit source]

(gen). The raw ORGANIC MATTER, such as grain, fruit, DUNG, or other BIOMASS, used as the INFLUENT in the FERMENTATION or DIGESTION processes.

F - charge d'alimentation
S - materia prima organica
FENESTRATION[edit | edit source]

(sol). An opening in a building that admits light and/or air.

F - fenestration
S - ventanaje
FERMENT[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A transformation or DECOMPOSITION of ORGANIC MATTER by the catalytic effect of ENZYMATIC action. To cause or undergo the action of FERMENTATION.

F - fermenter
S - fermentar
FERMENTABLE SUGAR[edit | edit source]

(alc). (See: MONOSACCHARIDE)

F - sucre fermentable
S - azucar fermentable
FERMENTATION[edit | edit source]

(alc) (chem). [1] A biological sequence of ENZYMATIC reactions that convert sugars to carbon dioxide and ALCOHOL in the absence of FREE OXYGEN. The term generally refers to metabolism in the absence of oxygen. [2] The process by which YEAST changes sugar to ALCOHOL in the absence of air. [3] The process of chemical change in ORGANIC MATTER brought about by living organisms.

F - fermentation
S - fermentacion
FERMENTATION PERIOD[edit | edit source]

(gen) (meas). The length of time required for a substance to FERMENT.

F - duree de fermentation
S - periodo de fermentacion
FERMENTATION TANK[edit | edit source]

(alc). The container in which FERMENTATION takes place in an ETHANOL production operation.

F - cuve de fermentation
S - tanque de fermentacion
FERMENTER[edit | edit source]

(gen). (See: FERMENTATION TANK)

F - fermenteur
S - fermentador
FETCH AREA[edit | edit source]

(wind). The geographic area over which the wind passes shortly before reaching a WIND MACHINE. It is considered in the selection of a site for a wind-powered device.

F - portee du vent
S - extension expuesta
FIRE BACK[edit | edit source]

(constr). A metal plate set in a CHIMNEY to control the back DRAFT of flames.

F - contre-feu
S - respaldo refractario
FIREBOX[edit | edit source]

(gen). The area in a stove, oven, or PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR in which combustion occurs.

F - chambre de combustion
S - caja refractaria
FIRE BRICK[edit | edit source]

(constr). A type of brick with a high melting point that is used to line FLUES, CHIMNEYS, furnaces, and fireplaces.

F - brique refractaire
S - ladrillo refractario
FIXED-DOME DIGESTER[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A BIOGAS DIGESTER in which the gasholder is an integral part of the digester, rather than a FLOATING GAS CAP. This type of digester is usually used to produce fertilizer. METHANE is considered a by-product.

F - digesteur a dome fixe
S - digestor de sombrerete fijo
FLAT BLACK PAINT[edit | edit source]

(sol). A nonglossy black paint with a relatively high ABSORPTANCE.

F - peinture noire mate
S - pintura negra uniforme
FLAT-PLATE SOLAR COLLECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). A device that uses an ABSORBER PLATE to COLLECT SOLAR RADIATION without assistance of devices to concentrate the sun's rays.

F - capteur solaire a panneau plan
S - colector solar de placa lisa
FLOAT[edit | edit source]

(hydr). The BUCKET of a WATER WHEEL.

F - aube
S - paleta [1]
FLOATING GAS CAP[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A lid over a BIOGAS DIGESTER that rises or falls with the production of METHANE.

F - cloche a gaz flottante
S - sombrerete movible
FLOW[edit | edit source]

(gen). The volume of a substance passing a point per unit time (e.g., meters per second, gallons per hour, etc.)

F - debit
S - flujo
FLOW DESIGN[edit | edit source]

(hydr) (meas). The FLOW rate at which a TURBINE is designed to operate.

F - debit nominal
S - diseno de flujo
FLUE[edit | edit source]

(const). A passageway in a CHIMNEY that vents gases produced during combustion. The flue opening can be regulated to control the DRAFT in the oven or stove, thus changing the rate of combustion.

F - carneau
S - conducto de humos
FLUE GAS DRYING[edit | edit source]

(heat). THERMAL drying using gases in a FLUE as the source of heat.

F - sechage au gaz de carneau
S - secado por gases del conducto
FLUID[edit | edit source]

(gen). Any substance that FLOWS, such as a liquid or gas. Fluids differ from solids in that they cannot resist changes in their shape when acted upon by a force.

F - fluide
S - fluido
FLUIDIZED BED GASSIFIER[edit | edit source]

(prod). A type of PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR in which air FLOWS upward through a bed of suitably-sized fuel particles fast enough to buoy the particles and give them an appearance of great agitation. The fuel particles generally are small. This type of combustion reduces the sulphur-dioxide emissions when coal is burned.

F - gazogene a lit fluidise
S - gasificador en lecho fluidizado
FLUME[edit | edit source]

(hydr). [1] A HEAD RACE in the form of a trough or CHANNEL that carries water to a WATER WHEEL. [2] A waterway, usually made of wood and often supported on a trestle, that conveys water to be used for POWER, transportation, etc.

F - [1] coursier; [2] canal d'amenee
S - canaleta
FLYWHEEL[edit | edit source]

(gen) (impl). A rotating element attached to the shaft of a machine to maintain uniform angular velocity and revolutions per minute.

F - volant
S - volante
FOCUSING COLLECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). A type of SOLAR COLLECTOR that focuses the sun's rays on a sinqle point.

F - capteur a concentration [2]
S - colector enfocante
FOLD-UP REFLECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). A portable type of folding mirror used in SOLAR COOKERS to reflect sunlight.

F - reflecteur pliant
S - reflector plegable
FOOT-POUND[edit | edit source]

(gen) (meas). The amount of ENERGY required to lift one pound of a substance one foot.

F - pied-livre
S - libra-pie
FORCED CONVECTION[edit | edit source]

(heat). The use of a pump or blower to control the FLOW of heat into a heated FLUID (e.g. circulating warm air in a room or dwelling with a pump or blower).

F - convection forcee
S - conveccion forzada
FOSSIL FUELS[edit | edit source]

(fos). Nonrenewable, naturally-occurring fuels from ORGANIC MATTER. These include coal, crude oil, and natural gas.

F - combustibles fossiles
S - combustibles fosiles
FRACTIONATING COLUMN[edit | edit source]

(alc). A vertical tube or column attached to an ALCOHOL STILL that is usually filled with packing or intersected with plates. An internal REFLUX results in a separation between the high and low boiling fractions inside the column. Those with the lowest boiling point DISTILL out. (See also: DISTILLATION COLUMN)

F - colonne de fractionnement
S - columna de fraccionar
FRANCIS TURBINE[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A WATER TURBINE that operates on a low or medium HEAD and is often installed in large HYDROELECTRIC plants. Water enters the turbine radially and leaves axially.

F - turbine de Francis
S - turbina Francis
FREE OXYGEN[edit | edit source]

(bio). Oxygen in the atmosphere, which can be extracted at no cost. Conversely, oxygen extracted at a cost would cause the substance from which the oxygen molecules were taken to DECOMPOSE.

F - oxygene libre
S - oxigeno libre
FRESNEL COLLECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). A type of SOLAR COLLECTOR consisting of a concentric series of rings with reflecting surfaces. These rings focus SOLAR RADIATION onto an ABSORBER PLATE.

F - capteur a lentille de Fresnel
S - colector Fresnel
FRESNEL LENS[edit | edit source]

(sol). A type of lens built up from a number of narrow concentric segments. It is used in SOLAR CONCENTRATORS.

F - lentille de Fresnel
S - lente de Fresnel
FRICTION[edit | edit source]

(gen). Surface resistance to relative motion, which slows down movement and causes heat.

F - frottement
S - friccion
FRICTION HEAD[edit | edit source]

(hydr). HEAD or ENERGY lost due to FRICTION created by the contact between a moving stream of water and the conduit through which it is moving. In pipes, the friction head is also caused by bends in the pipelines, changes in the pipe diameter, valves, and couplings.

F - perte frictionnelle
S - perdida de carga por rozamiento
FRUCTOSE]](alc)[edit | edit source]

(chem). A FERMENTABLE sugar commonly found in fruit. Fructose can be used as a FEEDSTOCK in ETHANOL production.

F - fructose
S - fructosa
FUEL EFFICIENCY[edit | edit source]

(heat) (meas). The ratio of heat produced by a fuel for doing work to the available heat of the fuel. Fuel EFFICIENCY is determined by the nonheat-forming materials in the fuel and the nonwork-producing heat that is developed by the fuel.

F - rendement du combustible
S - eficiencia del combustible
FUELWOOD[edit | edit source]

(heat). Any type of wood that can be used to fuel a fire.

F - bois de chauffe
S - lena
FULL SAIL[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A COMMON SAIL with the cloth fully spread.

F - aile deployee
S - aspa completamente estirada
FUNGUS[edit | edit source]

(bio). One of numerous plants in the division of Thallophyta characterized by a lack of chlorophyll, including YEAST, molds, and mushrooms. Fungi do not require FREE OXYGEN to survive. (Plural: fungi)

F - champignon
S - hongo
FURLING[edit | edit source]

(wind). Rollinq up and tying back SAILS of a WINDMILL to keep the ROTOR from turning.

F - ferlage
S - aferramiento
FURLING SPEED[edit | edit source]

(wind). (See: CUT-OUT SPEED)

F - vitesse de ferlage
S - velocidad maxima admisible

G[edit | edit source]

GASAHOL[edit | edit source]

(alc). A gasoline substitute or supplement derived from 10 percent ETHANOL and 90 percent unleaded gasoline. (Syn: gasohol)

F - carburol
S - gasohol
GAS CAP[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: GASHOLDER)

F - cloche a gaz
S - tapa de gas
GAS DIGESTION[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The second stage of BIOGAS generation, during which METHANE ([CH.sub.4]) is produced.

F - digestion de gaz
S - digestion de gas
GASHOLDER[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (1) A container for holding the BIOGAS produced in a DIGESTER. The size of the holder depends on the rates of gas production and gas use. (See also: FLOATING GAS CAP)

F - gazometre
S - gasometro
GASIFICATION[edit | edit source]

(prod). The conversion of wood or coal to COMBUSTIBLE GAS without leaving a combustible residue.

F - gazeification
S - gasificacion
GASIFIER[edit | edit source]

(prod). A special type of furnace in which the air supply to the COMBUSTION ZONE is carefully metered. This promotes the production of COMBUSTIBLE GASES as wood or coal are burned.

F - gazogene
S - gasificador
GAS PRODUCTION RATE[edit | edit source]

(biocon) (meas). The quantity of METHANE generated per unit of time. It generally is expressed as cubic feet/day or cubic meters/day. The figure should be quoted under standard conditions of temperature and pressure.

F - taux de production du gaz
S - tasa de produccion de gas
GAS SCRUBBER[edit | edit source]

(gen). (See: SCRUBBING)

F - epurateur de gaz
S - lavagases
GAS STORAGE CAPACITY[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The maximum amount of METHANE that a BIOGAS DIGESTER is able to store. The amount generally is expressed in cubic feet or cubic meters.

F - capacite de stockage de gaz
S - capacidad de almacenamiento de gas
GAS TURBINE[edit | edit source]

(auto). An ALTERNATIVE COMBUSTION ENGINE in which a gas, under pressure or formed by combustion, is directed against the BLADES of a TURBINE. The ENERGY in the expanding gas is thereby converted into useful mechanical energy.

F - turbine a gaz
S - turbina de gas
GEAR RATIO[edit | edit source]

(gen) (meas). The number of revolutions required of one gear to turn another gear, which generally is of a different size.

F - demultiplication
S - relacion de los engranajes
GENERATOR[edit | edit source]

(elec) (impl). A device that converts mechanical ENERGY into electrical energy.

F - generateur
S - generador
GENGAS[edit | edit source]

(prod). (See: PRODUCER GAS)

F - gaz pauvre de gazogene
S - gengas
GEOPRESSURED RESERVOIR[edit | edit source]

(geo). A GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR consisting of porous sands that contain water or BRINE at high temperatures and pressure.

F - reservoir sous geopression
S - tanque de presion geotermica
GEOTHERMAL[edit | edit source]

(geo). Of or relating to the heat of the Earth's interior.

F - geothermique
S - geotermico
GEOTHERMAL FIELD[edit | edit source]

(geo). A geographical region with known GEOTHERMAL POWER sources that might be tapped to produce ENERGY.

F - zone geothermique
S - zona geotermica
GEOTHERMAL POWER[edit | edit source]

(geo). ENERGY obtained from GEOTHERMAL sources. Geothermal power is tapped in three ways: by using hot water, steam, or DRY STEAM. Each may be used to drive a TURBINE.

F - energie geothermique
S - energia geotermica
GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR[edit | edit source]

(geo). A water reserve created near a HOT DRY ROCK RESERVOIR to develop a potential GEOTHERMAL POWER site.

F - reservoir geothermique
S - tanque geotermico
GEOTHERMAL STEAM[edit | edit source]

(geo). Steam drawn from sources within the Earth.

F - vapeur geothermique
S - vapor geotermico
GEYSER[edit | edit source]

(geo). Natural steam or hot water spouts in active GEOTHERMAL regions.

F - geyser
S - geiser
GIN POLE[edit | edit source]

(wind). A long board or pipe used to improve the leverage in lifting a TOWER for a WINDMILL.

F - fleche de levage
S - mastil grua
GLAZING[edit | edit source]

(impl) (sol). A transparent sheet that admits sunlight to a SOLAR COLLECTOR and then inhibits the escape of heat. Commonly used glazing materials include ACETATE, acrylic, fiber-reinforced plastics, and glass.

F - vitrification
S - vidriado
GLOBAL RADIATION[edit | edit source]

(sol). The combination of DIFFUSED RADIATION, DIRECT RADIATION, and REFLECTED RADIATION. (See: SOLAR RADIATION)

F - rayonnement global
S - radiacion global
GLUCOSE[edit | edit source]

(chem) (alc). The most common sugar, which is derived from STARCH during the ETHANOL production process.

F - glucose
S - glucosa
GOBAR GAS[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: BIOGAS)

F - bio-gaz
S - gas gobar
GOVERNOR[edit | edit source]

(gen) (impl). A device that regulates the speed of an engine or other device under varying conditions of load and pressure. Also a device for regulating the FLOW or pressure of a FLUID passing through a device.

F - regulateur
S - regulador
GRAIN ALCOHOL[edit | edit source]

(alc). ETHANOL made from grain by DISTILLATION.

F - alcool de grains
S - alcohol de granos
GRAM CALORIE[edit | edit source]

(gen). The amount of ENERGY required to raise one gram of water one degree CELSIUS.

F - calorie [2]
S - caloria-gramo
GRAMLAXMI GAS[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: BIOGAS)

F - bio-gaz
S - gas gramlaxmi
GRATE[edit | edit source]

(impl) (heat). A frame of metal bars that holds fuel above the floor of a firebox. It usually is used in a boiler, GASIFIER, fireplace, or stove.

F - grille
S - parilla
GRAVITY CONVECTION]] heat).[edit | edit source]

(See: NATURAL CONVECTION)

F - convection par pesanteur
S - conveccion por gravedad
GUIDE VANES[edit | edit source]

(hydr) (impl). Surfaces that direct water to the appropriate parts of TURBINE BLADES or BUCKETS so as to increase POWER output.

F - aubes directrices
S - alabe director
GUSSET[edit | edit source]

(constr) (wind). A triangular metal brace for reinforcing a corner or angle. It is commonly used in TOWER construction.

F - gousset
S - esquinero
GUST[edit | edit source]

(wind). A sudden, brief increase in WIND VELOCITY that is then followed by calmer air.

F - rafale
S - rafaga
GUYED TOWER[edit | edit source]

(impl) (wind). A WINDMILL TOWER that is supported by GUY WIRES.

F - pylone haubanne
S - torre atirantada
GUY WIRE[edit | edit source]

(wind) (impl). A cable that stabilizes a structure and keeps it in position. For example, wires attached to a WINDMILL TOWER so that it cannot move or shake from the force of the wind.

F - hauban
S - retenida de alambre

H[edit | edit source]

HARNESS[edit | edit source]

(ani). The gear or tackle, other than a YOKE, used on draft animals to pull a vehicle or drive an implement. It differs from a yoke, which joins together draft animals.

F - harnais
S - arnes
HEAD[edit | edit source]

(hydr) (meas). [1] The vertical distance from the point where water enters an intake to the point where the water leaves a HYDROPOWER device. It is generally measured in feet or meters. The product of the head times the FLOW is a measurement of potential POWER. [2] The vertical distance a liquid must be pumped from its source to its point of use or storage.

F - chute d'eau [1]-[2]
S - altura
HEADER[edit | edit source]

(sol). The pipe that runs across the top of an ABSORBER PLATE to gather or distribute HEAT TRANSFER FLUID from or to the grid pipes that run across the absorber surface. Some headers run along the bottom of the absorber plate.

F - entree-sortie
S - tubo colector
HEADRACE[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A CANAL or conduit that feeds water into a mill, WATER WHEEL, or TURBINE.

F - bief d'amont
S - canal de llegada
HEAD WATER[edit | edit source]

(hydr). The water upstream of a DAM or a HYDROPOWER plant.

F - eau d'amont
S - aguas arriba
HEAT CAPACITY[edit | edit source]

(heat) (meas). The amount of heat required to raise by one degree the temperature of a unit mass of a substance.

F - capacite thermique
S - capacidad calorifica
HEAT ENERGY[edit | edit source]

(heat). ENERGY in the form of heat.

F - energie thermique
S - energia calorifica
HEAT EXCHANGER[edit | edit source]

(heat) (impl). A device, such as a coiled copper tube immersed in a tank of water which is used to transfer heat from one FLUID to another through a separating wall. A CONDENSER is one type of heat exchanger.

F - echangeur de chaleur
S - termopermutador
HEAT GAIN[edit | edit source]

(heat). The increase of heat in a space resulting from DIRECT RADIATION and from the heat given off by such other sources as THERMAL MASS, a stove, a fireplace, humans, or animals.

F - apport de chaleur
S - ganancia calorifica
HEATING VALUE[edit | edit source]

(heat) (meas). The amount of heat produced by the complete combustion of a specific amount of fuel. This is a measure of FUEL EFFICIENCY.

F - pouvoir calorifique
S - valor calorifico
HEAT LOSS[edit | edit source]

(heat). An unwanted decrease in the amount of heat contained in a space. Heat is usually lost through CONVECTION.

F - perte de chaleur
S - perdida calorifica
HEAT PUMP[edit | edit source]

(heat) (impl). A mechanical device that transfers heat from a heat source to a HEAT SINK. This process causes the source to cool and the sink to become warmer.

F - pompe a chaleur
S - bomba calorifica
HEAT RATE TRANSFER COEFFICIENT[edit | edit source]

(heat) (meas). The rate at which heat is transferred per hour, per unit surface, per degree of temperature difference.

F - coefficient de transmission de chaleur
S - coeficiente de transferencia del consumo calorifico
HEAT-REFLECTIVE GLASS[edit | edit source]

(sol). A type of glass designed to reflect SOLAR RADIATION.

F - verre a pouvoir reflechissant thermique
S - vidrio reflector de calor
HEAT SINK[edit | edit source]

(sol). A body that is capable of accepting and storing heat. It therefore may also act as a heat source.

F - puits de chaleur
S - sumidor de calor
HEAT TAX[edit | edit source]

(heat). Referring to the HEAT ENERGY that becomes unavailable for further use whenever ENERGY is converted from one form to another.

F - chaleur perdue
S - gravamen calorifico
HEAT TRANSFER FLUID[edit | edit source]

(sol). (See: HEAT TRANSFER MEDIUM)

F - fluide caloporteur
S - fluido de termotransferencia
HEAT TRANSFER MEDIUM[edit | edit source]

(sol). The FLUID that is heated in a SOLAR COLLECTOR for conducting heat to another place or substance.

F - caloporteur
S - medio de termotransferencia
HELICAL SAIL WINDMILL[edit | edit source]

(wind). The name for a particular type of HORIZONTAL-AXIS, SAIL ROTOR WINDMILL. It usually is used for low-lift water pumping.

F - eolienne a ailes helicoidales
S - molino con aspas helicoidales
HELIO-ELECTRICAL PROCESS[edit | edit source]

(sol). A process by which PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES convert SOLAR ENERGY into electricity.

F - processus helioelectrique
S - proceso helioelectrico
HELIOSTAT[edit | edit source]

(sol) (impl). A solar-focusing instrument consisting of a mirror mounted on an AXIS that is moved by clockwork. The heliostat reflects sunbeams in one direction, usually to a central ABSORBER located in a TOWER.

F - heliostat
S - heliostato
HELIOTHERMAL[edit | edit source]

(sol). [1] A process that uses SOLAR RADIATION to produce heat. [2] A device that absorbs RADIATION on a blackened surface and converts it into heat.

F - heliothermique
S - heliotermico
HELIOTHERMAL PROCESS[edit | edit source]

(sol). A process by which SOLAR ENERGY is used to provide THERMAL ENERGY for space heating, space cooling, and domestic water heating.

F - processus heliothermique
S - proceso heliotermico
HELIOTHERMOMETER[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). An instrument that measures heat from the sun.

F - heliothermometre
S - heliotermometro
HELIOTROPIC[edit | edit source]

(sol) (impl). Turning toward light. It describes devices that TRACK the sun, following its movement across the sky.

F - heliotropique
S - heliotropico
HORIZONTAL AIR MILL[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). (See: HORIZONTAL-AXIS WINDMILL)

F - moulin a vent a arbre horizontal
S - molino de aire horizontal
HORIZONTAL AXIS SAIL ROTOR[edit | edit source]

(wind). A WIND MACHINE with cloth sails in which the WIND SHAFT is situated on a horizontal plane.

F - eolienne a ailes en toile sur axe horizontal
S - rotor de eje horizontal
HORIZONTAL AXIS WINDMILL[edit | edit source]

(wind). A WINDMILL driven by a ROTOR on a horizontal WIND SHAFT.

F - eolienne a arbre horizontal
S - molino de eje horizontal
HORIZONTAL WATERMILL[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A WATERMILL driven by a horizontal wheel mounted on a vertical shaft. (Syn: Greek Mill; Norse Mill)

F - moulin a eau horizontal
S - molino hidraulico horizontal
HORIZONTAL WATER WHEEL[edit | edit source]

(hydr). (See: HORIZONTAL WATERMILL)

F - roue hydraulique horizontale
S - rueda hidraulica horizontal
HORSEPOWER[edit | edit source]

(gen). A unit of POWER equal to 33,000 FOOT POUNDS per minute, 550 foot pounds per second, or 746 WATTS.

F - cheval-vapeur
S - potencia util
HOT DRY ROCK[edit | edit source]

(geo) A system for using GEOTHERMAL POWER. A hole is drilled and the deep rock cracked. This may be done hydraulically, as is done in conventional oil fields, or with explosives. Water is injected into the fractured rock, allowed to heat, and then withdrawn as steam for use as an ENERGY source.

F - roche chaude et seche
S - roca seca caliente
HOT WATER RESERVOIR[edit | edit source]

(geo). (See: GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR)

F - reservoir d'eau chaude
S - tanque de agua caliente
HOUR ANGLE[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). The angular displacement of the sun east or west of the local meridian due to the rotation of the Earth on its AXIS at 15 [degrees] per hour (morning [+] afternoon [-]).

F - angle horaire
S - angulo hora
HUB EXTENSION[edit | edit source]

(wind). A piece of pipe that sticks out from the front of the hub of a ROTOR on a WINDMILL. It provides a place to attach GUY WIRES to strengthen the BLADES or SAILS.

F - rallonge de moyeu
S - extension del cubo
HUMIDIFIER[edit | edit source]

(gen). A mechanical means for increasing the relative humidity in an enclosed area by injecting water vapor into the air.

F - humidificateur
S - humidificador
HUMUS[edit | edit source]

(biocon). Well-decomposed organic soil material consisting of the residues from plant and animal matter together with the cell substances of soil organisms and various inorganic materials.

F - humus
S - humus
HYBRID GENERATOR[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A two-stage BIOGAS DIGESTER design consisting of a larger batch-fed, ACID-producing, cold phase, and a smaller CONTINUOUS-FEED, METHANE-producing, heated phase. Alternatively, any digester that separates acid and methane production.

F - generateur hybride
S - generador hibrido
HYBRID POWER SYSTEM[edit | edit source]

(gen). A system, such as one might find within a home, that derives its heating, lighting, and other ENERGY from several interconnected sources. One or more of these sources generally would come from RENEWABLE ENERGY.

F - energie heterogene, systeme d'
S - sistema de energia hibrida
HYBRID SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM[edit | edit source]

(sol). A heating or cooling system that uses both ACTIVE SOLAR HEATING and PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING methods in its design. At least one of the system's significant THERMAL ENERGY FLOWS is by natural means, and at least one is by forced means.

F - energie solaire heterogene, systeme d'
S - sistema de energia solar hibrida
HYDRATE[edit | edit source]

(chem). A solid material resulting from the combination under pressure of a gas with water.

F - hydrate
S - hidrato
HYDRAULIC RAM[edit | edit source]

(hydr) (impl). A water pump that uses the ENERGY of descending water to raise a part of the water to a height greater than that of the source. It requires no other power than the energy from the descending water.

F - belier hydraulique
S - ariete hidraulico
HYDRAULIC RETENTION TIME[edit | edit source]

(biocon) (meas). The number of days an average volume of SLURRY remains in a BIOGAS DIGESTER.

F - duree de retention hydraulique
S - periodo de retention hidraulica
HYDROELECTRIC[edit | edit source]

(hydr). Relative to a system in which the potential ENERGY of falling water is harnessed by releasing it from DAMS or through a PENSTOCK downward through WATER TURBINES.

F - hydro-electrique
S - hidroelectrico
HYDROLOGIC CYCLE[edit | edit source]

(hydr). The cycle in which water passes through different states. It begins as atmospheric water vapor. It then becomes a liquid through precipitation. Next it flows along the ground surface, where it is useful as an energy source. Finally, it returns to its original form through evaporation and transpiration.

F - cycle hydrologique
S - ciclo hidrologico
HYDROLOGY[edit | edit source]

(hydr). The science of water systems on or beneath the Earth's surface.

F - hydrologie
S - hidrologia
HYDROLYSIS[edit | edit source]

(alc) (chem). The chemical process that breaks complex organic molecules into simple molecules. For example, STARCH and CELLULOSE can be hydrolyzed by ACIDS or ENZYMES to produce simple sugars, which can be FERMENTED to form ETHANOL.

F - hydrolyse
S - hidrolisis
HYDROMETER[edit | edit source]

(impl) (meas). An instrument used to determine the density or SPECIFIC GRAVITY of FLUIDS.

F - hydrometre
S - hidrometro
HYDROPOWER[edit | edit source]

(hydr). POWER produced by falling water. The term is used to identify a type of electricity-generating station or any energy output in which the main mover is driven by FLOWing water.

F - puissance hydraulique
S - potencia hidraulica
HYDROPOWER SYSTEM[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A system in which the potential ENERGY of FLOWing water is used to create electricity or to mechanically drive machines, by impounding it behind DAMS and then diverting it through a CHANNEL to a WATER TURBINE.

F - systeme de puissance hydraulique
S - sistema de potencia hidraulica
HYDROXYL[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A monovalent group consisting of a hydrogen atom and an oxygen atom linked together. Most BASES contain hydroxyl groups. (See also: BASE)

F - hydroxyle
S - hidroxilo
HYGROMETER[edit | edit source]

(impl) (meas) (sol). A device for measuring the humidity of the air. It is used in designing SOLAR HEATING and SOLAR COOLING systems.

F - hygrometre
S - higrometro

I[edit | edit source]

IMPERMEABLE DRY ROCK[edit | edit source]

(geo). Rock systems in GEOTHERMAL regions where the heat is contained almost entirely in impermeable rock.

F - roche seche impermeable
S - roca seca impermeable
IMPULSE TURBINE[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A TURBINE driven by high velocity JETS of water or steam that are produced by forcing the water or steam through a nozzle.

F - turbine a action
S - turbina de impulsion
INCIDENT ANGLE[edit | edit source]

(sol) (hydr). [1] The angle between the sun's rays and a line perpendicular (normal) to the irradiated surface. The incident angle determines both the intensity of the DIRECT RADIATION component striking the surface and the ability of the surface to reflect, transmit, or ABSORB the sun's rays. [2] In the case of HYDROPOWER devices, the angle between the water intake and a line perpendicular to the BUCKETS.

F - angle d'incidence
S - angulo incidente
INCIDENT RADIATION[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). The quantity of RADIANT ENERGY striking a surface per unit time and unit area.

F - rayonnement incident
S - radiacion de incidencia
INDIAN-TYPE DIGESTER[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A BIOGAS DIGESTER primarily designed to produce METHANE. These digesters usually have FLOATING GAS CAPS.

F - digesteur type indien
S - digestor de tipo indio
INDIRECT CONVERSION[edit | edit source]

(sol). The indirect use of SOLAR ENERGY from such sources as solar-produced winds, thermal currents in air and water, and wave action.

F - conversion indirecte
S - conversion indirecta
INDIRECT SOLAR ENERGY[edit | edit source]

(sol). A system in which SOLAR ENERGY is COLLECTED and used through mechanical means.

F - energie solaire indirecte
S - energia solar indirecta
INDIRECT SOLAR GAIN[edit | edit source]

(sol) . A PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING system in which heat is stored between the COLLECTING and the distributing surfaces (e.g., TROMBE WALL).

F - apport solaire indirect
S - ganancia solar indirecta
INDIRECT SOLAR HEATING[edit | edit source]

(sol). A method of solar heating in which SOLAR RADIATION is COLLECTED in FLAT PLATE or CONCENTRATING COLLECTORS that are mounted on a roof, a wall, or apart from a building. Pumps or fans are used to circulate HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS through the collectors and then back to a heat storage medium.

F - chauffage solaire indirect
S - calefaccion solar indirecta
INDUCTION MOTOR[edit | edit source]

(elec) (wind). A common type of motor, which, when modified slightly and driven by the rotary action of a WINDMILL or TURBINE, provides ALTERNATING CURRENT (ac).

F - moteur a induction
S - motor de induccion
INFILTRATION[edit | edit source]

(heat). The unchecked movement of outdoor air into a building through cracks around windows and doors or in walls, roofs, and floors. Infiltration generally refers to cold air during the winter and hot air during the summer.

F - infiltration
S - infiltracion
INFLUENT[edit | edit source]

(biocon). BIOMASS mixed with water for use in a BIOGAS DIGESTER.

F - affluent
S - influente
INFRARED RADIATION[edit | edit source]

(sol). Electromagnetic RADIATION from the sun or a warm body that has wavelengths longer than the red end of the visible spectrum. Infrared radiation is experienced as heat.

F - radiation infrarouge
S - radiacion infraroja
INOCULATION[edit | edit source]

(biocon). Adding a SEED of ANAEROBIC BACTERIA to a BIOGAS GENERATOR.

F - inoculation
S - inoculacion
INOCULUM[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A sample of partially DIGESTED SLURRY, and its associated BACTERIA, that is added at the start of DIGESTION to a BIOGAS DIGESTER. It provides sufficient micro-organisms for the digestion process to proceed at a satisfactory rate. Without this seeding, there generally is a prolonged wait before a digester begins producing gas. (Syn: seed)

F - inoculum
S - inoculum
INSOLATION[edit | edit source]

(sol). The rate at which ENERGY from the sun reaches the Earth's surface. Insolation generally is measured in BTU/square feet (meters)/day.

F - insolation
S - insolacion
INSULATED STEAM COOKER[edit | edit source]

(sol). A small, insulated cooking box in which steam acts as the heating agent. Water heated to steam by a SOLAR COLLECTOR flows into the box, condenses, and drips back into the COLLECTOR.

F - rechaud a vapeur isole
S - cocinilla aislada de vapor
INTEGRATED HEATING[edit | edit source]

(sol). A method of SOLAR HEATING in which SOLAR RADIATION is intercepted and absorbed by a massive exterior wall or roof pond, which usually doubles as a heat storage container. Heat flows to the rooms by CONDUCTION, or natural CONVECTION. This is a form of PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING.

F - chauffage integre
S - calefaccion solar integrada
INTEGRATED SYSTEM[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A system in which the outputs of one activity are used as inputs in other related activities. For example, a BIOGAS system in which the EFFLUENT is used as a nutrient to enrich an aquaculture environment. In exchange, BIOMASS from the aquaculture may be used as INFLUENT to the DIGESTER.

F - systeme integre
S - sistema integrado
INVERTER[edit | edit source]

(elec) (wind). A device that converts DIRECT CURRENT (dc) to ALTERNATING CURRENT (ac). It often is used with WIND GENERATORS.

F - onduleur
S - invertidor
IRRIGATION WHEEL[edit | edit source]

(hydr). (See: NORIA)

F - roue hydraulique d'irrigation
S - rueda de irrigacion
ISOLATED SOLAR GAIN[edit | edit source]

(sol). A PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING system in which heat is collected in one area to be used in another. (See also: SOLAR GREENHOUSE)

F - apport solaire isole
S - ganancia solar aislada
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Authors Christopher Sam
Published 2022
License CC-BY-SA-4.0
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