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Authors Christopher Sam
Published 2011
License CC-BY-SA-4.0
Derivative of Renewable Energy Dictionary
Language Kiswahili (sw)
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Jinsi ya kutumia kamusi hili[edit | edit source]

Kamusi hili la kiinsaiklopidia inajumishwa na maneno mapya na tafsiri zenye ushahidi juu ya dhana zinazotumika katika nishati hai. Kamusi hili lina urejevu wa hali ya juu kwa ajili ya matumizi rahisi na kuleta uelewa wa hali ya juu katika kila dhana.

Dhana zote zimepangwa kwa herufi. Kila dhana imechapwa kwa maandishi yaliyokolezwa na herufi kubwa. Dhana nyingine zinaviunganishi pelekezi kuelekea kurasa zenye maelezo zaidi. Dhana inafuatiwa na parenthetical classification reference. Dhana nyingine zina reference zaidi ya moja, hii ni kusaidia njia ambazo dhana husika inaweza kutumika.

Maneno mengine katika tafsiri yako pia katika herufi kubwa. Kuna manenoi ambayo yametafsiriwa sehemu nyingine katika kamusi. Matumizi ya dhana yanayofuata katika tafsiri hiyo hiyo yako katika herufi ndogo.

Kila sehemu ya mpango wa herufi na sehemu inafuatwa na kipelekezi cha kuhariri (edit). Kwa kubofya hapo kutaruhusu kuhariri tafsiri, kuweka kipelekezi au kuongeza neno jipya linalofuata kierufi neno unalo hariri. Hakikisha kufuata muonekano au mpango uliotumika katika neno la awali.

Katika mwisho wa kila tafsiri kuna tafsiri za Kihispania na Kifaransa kwa neno hilo. Matumizi yaliyochaguliwa yanaorodheshwa kwanza, yakifuatiwa na matumizi yasiyo ya mara kwa mara ama yanayofuatia. Dhan iliyochaguliwa ni ambayo inatokea katika sehemu ya lugha nyingine.

Kwa mfano:

ABSORPTANCE (sol) (meas). The ratio between the SOLAR RADIATION absorbed by a surface and the total amount of solar radiation that strikes it.

F - absorptance; coefficient d'absorption
S - coeficiente de absorcion

Second reference

This is a measurement (meas) term used in the field of solar (sol) energy. The term "Solar Radiation" is defined in the "S" section of the dictionary. The primary translation of this term into French is "absorptance," though in some French documents, the term "coefficient d'absorption" may be found. The translation of this term into Spanish is "coeficiente de absorcion."

Tafsiri za vifupisho[edit | edit source]

agri Inayohusiana na kilimo.

alc Alcohol production or alcohol fuels.

ani Inayohusiana na nguvu za mnyama.

arc Zamani. Dhana zilizo za zamani lakini bado zinatumika.

auto Inayohusiana na injini za moto na magari motokaa.

bio Inayohusiana na sayansi ya baiolojia ama vitu vya kibaiolojia.

biocon Relating to bioconversion. Includes methane and woodfuel.

chem Inayohusiana na nyanja za sayansi za kikemikali ma vitu vya kemikali.

constr Inayohusiana na njia za ujenzi, vifaa, na maumbo.

elec Inayohusiana na uzalishaji na matumizi ya umeme.

fos Relating to fossil fuels.

gen General terms, which may apply to various areas of energy, particularly renewable energy technologies.

geo Geothermal power concepts and applications.

heat Inayohusiana na kupasha joto au matumizi ya joto kupusha hewa na kuzalisha nishati nyingine.

hydr Relating to water and the application of water power. Also closed hydraulic systems, which may use fluids other than water.

impl Implement. Tools, utensils, or devices that work in conjunction with other equipment.

meas Measuring instruments, scales, or types of measurement.

ocean Methods or devices for extracting energy from the ocean.

prod Relating to producer gas.

refrig Inayohusiana na vileta baridi/jokofu/friji na njia za kuleta baridi.

sol Inayohusiana na nyanja ya umeme jua.

wind Inayohusiana na nguvu ya upepo na vitu vingine vya mizunguko ya upepo.

A[edit | edit source]

ABSORBENT[edit | edit source]

(refrig). The less VOLATILE of the two working FLUIDS used in an absorption cooling device.

F - absorbant
S - absorbente
ABSORBENT OIL[edit | edit source]

(refrig). A type of oil used in an absorption cooling device.

F - huile absorbante
S - aceite absorbente
ABSORBER PLATE[edit | edit source]

(sol). A dark surface that absorbs SOLAR RADIATION and converts it into heat; a component of a FLAT-PLATE SOLAR COLLECTOR.

F - plaque d'absorption
S - placa de absorcion
ABSORPTANCE[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). The ratio between the SOLAR RADIATION absorbed by a surface and the total amount of solar radiation that strikes it.

F - taux d'absorptivite
S - coeficiente de absorcion
ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONER[edit | edit source]

(sol). An air conditioner designed to use a SOLAR HEATED liquid. Such a system provides space cooling through use of ABSORBER PLATES, VOLATILE FLUIDS, HEAT EXCHANGERS, and CONDENSERS.

F - climatiseur a absorption
S - aire acondicionado por absorcion
ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION[edit | edit source]

(refrig). A cooling system that uses heated liquid to activate the chilling process.

F - refrigeration par absorption
S - refrigeracion por absorcion
AC[edit | edit source]

(elec). Kifupi cha UMEME USIO MKONDO MNYOOFU.

F - CA
S - C.A.
ACCELERATOR[edit | edit source]

(impl). A mechanism that controls the speed of a vehicle or other device.

F - accelerateur
S - acelerador
ACCUMULATION[edit | edit source]

(gen) (elec). The action of collecting or gathering. In electricity, the charging of a BATTERY or the storage of electric POWER.

F - accumulation
S - acumulacion
ACCUMULATOR[edit | edit source]

(gen). A CELL, SOLAR POND, THERMAL MASS, or other device to store ENERGY. :F - accumulateur

S - acumulador
AC-DC[edit | edit source]

(elec). Pertaining to a device that will operate on either ALTERNATING CURRENT or DIRECT CURRENT.

F - CA-CC
S - CA-CC
ACETATE[edit | edit source]

(chem) (sol). A compound composed of the SALTS of ACETIC ACID or the acetylation products of acetic acid, such as CELLULOSE acetate. Certain acetates can be used as GLAZING on SOLAR COLLECTORS.

F - acetate
S - acetato
ACETIC ACID[edit | edit source]

(chem). An important raw material in the chemical industry. It is a by-product of the DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION of wood. It can also be obtained by oxidizing ALCOHOL. The chemical make-up of acetic acid is CH3COOH.

F - acide acetique
S - acido acetico
ACID[edit | edit source]

(bio) (biocon). A compound that dissociates or separates in a water solution to provide hydrogen ions. Acid forms a SALT when mixed with ALKALI, and is important in ANAEROBIC DIGESTION and FERMENTATION.

F - acide
S - acido
ACID DIGESTION[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The "first phase" of BIOGAS production, in which complex molecules are broken down into smaller ones.

F - digestion acide
S - digestion de acido
ACID HYDROLYSIS[edit | edit source]

(chem) (alc). A chemical process that uses ACID to convert STARCH to sugar. This is the "first phase" in ETHANOL production.

F - hydrolysation acide
S - hidrolisis de acido
ACROMETER[edit | edit source]

(gen) (meas). An instrument used to measure the density of gases.

F - acrometre
S - acrometro
ACTINOMETER[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). An instrument used to measure DIRECT RADIATION from the sun.

F - actinometre
S - actinometro
ACTIVE DRIED YEAST[edit | edit source]

(alc). YEAST that has been dried, but in which the yeast cells still can be activated.

F - levure seche active
S - levadura activa secada
ACTIVE SOLAR HEATING[edit | edit source]

(sol). Warming an interior space with heat collected mechanically through SOLAR COLLECTORS. The collection and distribution of this warm air requires additional external ENERGY to operate pumps, motors, valves, etc.

F - chauffage solaire actif
S - calefaccion solar activa
ADAPTED SEED[edit | edit source]

(biocon). INOCULUM used during the START-UP of a BIOGAS DIGESTER that has been obtained from another digester with similar FEEDSTOCK composition and operating under similar conditions.

F - germe adapte
S - semilla adaptada
ADOBE[edit | edit source]

(constr) (sol). Sun-dried brick of clay and straw. Also the clay and soil used for making such bricks. Adobe is high in THERMAL MASS and is useful in low-cost building construction.

F - adobe
S - adobe
ADSORPTION[edit | edit source]

(chem). The process through which carbonaceous materials are able to compress and hold on their surfaces large quantities of gas. Also, the physical adhesion of molecules to the surfaces of solids without causing a chemical reaction.

F - adsorption
S - adsorcion
AEOLIAN[edit | edit source]

(wind). (See: EOLIAN)

F - eolien, - ienne
S - eolico
AEROBIC[edit | edit source]

(bio). Pertaining to micro-organisms that require FREE OXYGEN to live.

F - aerobie
S - aerobio
AEROBIC BACTERIA[edit | edit source]

(bio) (biocon). BACTERIA living on FREE OXYGEN that is derived from the air. Aerobic bacteria break down ORGANIC MATTER during COMPOSTING.

F - bacteries aerobies
S - bacteria aerobia
AEROBIC DECOMPOSITION[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: AEROBIC BACTERIA)

F - decomposition aerobie
S - descomposicion aerobia
AFFORESTATION[edit | edit source]

(gen). Forest crops established by purposeful planting on land previously not used for tree crops.

F - boisement
S - conversion en bosque
AFTERBURNER[edit | edit source]

(gen). An air pollution abatement device that removes undesirable organic gases through incineration.

F - postcombustion
S - quemador auxiliar
AIR BRAKES[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). Longitudinal SHUTTERS that are sometimes incorporated in PATENT SAILS to reduce the speed of SAIL rotation in strong winds.

F - freins d'ailes
S - frenos de aire
AIR DIFFUSER[edit | edit source]

(gen). A device that delivers air into a room to mix with the room air.

F - diffuseur d'air
S - difusor de aire
AIRFOIL[edit | edit source]

(wind). A curved surface designed to create aerodynamic LIFT forces when air flows around it.

F - voilure d'aile
S - plano aerodinamico
AIR-GAS RATIO[edit | edit source]

(chem). The ratio of the air volume to the gas volume. It can be adjusted to change the character of combustion.

F - rapport air-gaz
S - relacion de aire-gas
AIR HEATING SYSTEM[edit | edit source]

(sol). A SOLAR HEATING system, which heats air in a SOLAR COLLECTOR and uses the heated air as the HEAT-TRANSFER MEDIUM to the rest of the system.

F - chauffage d'air, systeme de
S - sistema de calefaccion del aire
AIR-TYPE COLLECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). A SOLAR COLLECTOR designed to use air as its HEAT-TRANSFER MEDIUM.

F - capteur a air
S - colector solar tipo aire
AIR VELOCITY[edit | edit source]

(wind). (See: WIND VELOCITY)

F - vitesse d'ecoulement de l'air
S - velocidad del aire
ALBEDO[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). The ratio of the amount of light reflected by a surface to the light falling onto it.

F - albedo
S - albedo
ALCOHOL[edit | edit source]

(chem). A class of compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which occurs widely in nature and is used in solvents, antifreezes, chemical manufacture, and as a fuel. Alcohol commonly is obtained by FERMENTATION. (See also: BUTYL ALCOHOL, ETHYL ALCOHOL, and METHYL ALCOHOL)

F - alcool
S - alcohol
ALCOHOL CONDENSER[edit | edit source]

(alc). (See: CONDENSER)

F - condenseur d'alcool
S - condensador de alcohol
ALCOHOL STILL[edit | edit source]

(alc). (See: STILL)

F - alambic de distillation
S - alambique de alcohol
ALCOHOL VAPOR[edit | edit source]

(alc). ALCOHOL in its gaseous state.

F - vapeur d'alcool
S - vapor de alcohol
ALGAE[edit | edit source]

(bio) (biocon) (gen). Fresh and saltwater aquatic plants, usually microscopic in size, but including seaweed. They are valuable in waste treatment, as a protein source for humans, as animal feed, and as a FEEDSTOCK for BIOGAS DIGESTERS.

F - algues
S - algas
ALKALI[edit | edit source]

(chem) (biocon). Any of various BASES, which neutralize ACIDS to form SALTS. Bases are important in maintaining the chemical balance in a BIOGAS DIGESTER.

F - alcali
S - alcali
ALKALINE BATTERY[edit | edit source]

(elec). A BATTERY that uses sodium or potassium hydroxide as an electrolyte, and nickel-oxide flakes and powdered iron or nickel-cadmium for its active plates.

F - accumulateur alcalin
S - pila alcalina
ALKANE[edit | edit source]

(chem). A general name for hydrocarbons of the METHANE series.

F - paraffine
S - alcano
ALTERNATING CURRENT[edit | edit source]

(elec). An electric current that periodically reverses its direction. Generally abbreviated as ac.

F - courant alternatif
S - courriente continua
ALTERNATIVE COMBUSTION ENGINES[edit | edit source]

(auto). Alternatives to the spark ignition and the diesel combustion engines. Among the more developed designs are the GAS TURBINE and STIRLING ENGINES.

F - substituts aux moteurs a combustion
S - motores de combustion alterna
ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES[edit | edit source]

(gen). Sources of ENERGY different from those generally employed by a user. The term usually refers to RENEWABLE ENERGY sources such as SOLAR ENERGY, WIND ENERGY, GEOTHERMAL POWER, HYDROPOWER, etc. The use of alternative energy sources is attractive because of the [1] high price and limited availability of petroleum-based fuels; [2] the pollution that is associated with the burning of FOSSIL FUELS; and [3] the expense and dangers of nuclear power.

F - sources d'energie de substitution
S - fuentes alternas de energia
ALTERNATOR[edit | edit source]

(elec). A GENERATOR that changes mechanical ENERGY into electrical energy (ALTERNATING CURRENT) by the rotation of its ROTOR. Alternators are used in motor vehicles to recharge and minimize the drain on the BATTERY. They are also commonly adapted to be driven by WINDMILLS or by STEAM TURBINES and WATER TURBINES.

F - alternateur
S - alternador
ALUMINIZED MYLAR[edit | edit source]

(constr) (sol). A very strong, thin sheet of plastic material coated with aluminum. Used as a reflective surface for SOLAR COOKERS.

F - Mylar aluminise
S - Milar aluminizado
AMBIENT[edit | edit source]

(gen). Referring to undisturbed environmental surroundings, particularly to air and temperature.

F - ambiant
S - ambiente
ANAEROBES[edit | edit source]

(bio). (See: ANAEROBIC BACTERIA)

F - anaerobies
S - anaerobes
ANAEROBIC[edit | edit source]

(bio). Pertaining to micro-organisms that can live in an airless environment.

F - anaerobie
S - anaerobio
ANAEROBIC BACTERIA[edit | edit source]

(bio) (biocon). BACTERIA, known as ANAEROBES, that can live in an airless environment by obtaining oxygen through the DECOMPOSITION of compounds.

F - bacteries anaerobies
S - bacteria anaerobia
ANAEROBIC DIGESTER[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: BIOGAS DIGESTER)

F - digesteur anaerobie
S - digestor anaerobio
ANAEROBIC DIGESTION[edit | edit source]

(bio) (biocon). The DECOMPOSITION of ORGANIC MATTER by ANAEROBIC BACTERIA. This process involves ACID-forming BACTERIA and METHANE-forming bacteria.

F - digestion anaerobie
S - digestion anaerobia
ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION[edit | edit source]

(bio) (biocon). (See: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION)

F - fermentation anaerobie
S - fermentacion anaerobia
ANAEROBIC ORGANISMS[edit | edit source]

(bio) (biocon). (See: ANAEROBIC BACTERIA)

F - organismes anaerobies
S - organismos anaerobios
ANCHOR[edit | edit source]

(wind) (impl). A rod or stake driven into the ground, to which GUY WIRES for a WINDMILL TOWER are attached.

F - ancrage
S - ancla
ANDIRON[edit | edit source]

(impl). Raised metal bars placed on a fireplace hearth to support firewood for burning. Andirons allow air to pass under the burning wood for more EFFICIENT combustion.

F - chenets
S - morillo
ANEMOMETER[edit | edit source]

(wind) (meas). An instrument for measuring WIND SPEED.

F - anenometre
S - anemometro
ANGLE OF ATTACK[edit | edit source]

(wind). The angle between the CHORD of an AIRFOIL and the wind. It is considered in WINDMILL ROTOR design.

F - angle d'attaque
S - angulo de ataque
ANGLE OF INCIDENCE[edit | edit source]

(sol). (See: INCIDENT ANGLE)

F - angle incident
S - angulo de incidencia
ANGLE OF REFLECTION[edit | edit source]

(sol). (See: INCIDENT ANGLE)

F - angle de reflexion
S - angulo de reflexion
ANHYDROUS[edit | edit source]

(alc) (biocon). Free from moisture. The term applies to oxides, SALTS, and other substances that do not contain water.

F - anhydre
S - anhidro
ANHYDROUS ALCOHOL[edit | edit source]

(alc). ALCOHOL that is almost completely free from water. Alcohol must be ANHYDROUS to be mixed with gasoline to form GASAHOL. Alcohol and water cannot be separated beyond 199.99 PROOF. At that CONCENTRATION, they form an AZEOTROPE and vaporize at the same temperature.

F - alcool anhydre
S - alcohol etilico anhidro
ANIMAL-DRAWN[edit | edit source]

(ani). (See: ANIMAL-POWERED)

F - animal de trait
S - traccion animal
ANIMAL-POWERED[edit | edit source]

(ani). Driven or impelled by animals.

F - traction animale
S - impulsado por animales
ANIMAL WASTE CONVERSION[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The process of directly burning or obtaining ENERGY PRODUCTS from animal wastes.

F - conversion des dechets animaux
S - conversion de los desechos animales
ANNUAL LOAD FRACTION[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). That portion of annual heating that is supplied to a building by SOLAR ENERGY.

F - part de la charge annuelle
S - fraccion de la carga anual
ANNULAR SAIL[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A ring-like SAIL with radial SHUTTERS.

F - aile annulaire
S - aspa circular
ANTICLOCK SAIL[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A SAIL ROTOR that runs counterclockwise when observed from the front of the WINDMILL.

F - aile a rotation positive
S - aspa sinistrorsa
AQUATIC BIOMASS[edit | edit source]

(biocon). BIOMASS grown in fresh or saltwater, including ALGAE, seaweed, etc.

F - biomasse aquatique
S - biomasa acuatica
AQUEDUCT[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A CHANNEL or trough built to convey water For irrigation, to operate a HYDROPOWER plant, or for household use. The water in aqueducts generally flows by means of gravity, although pumps may also be used.

F - aqueduc
S - acueducto
AQUIFER[edit | edit source]

(hydr). Any geological formation containing water, especially one that supplies the water for wells, springs, etc.

F - aquifere
S - acuifera
ARTICULATED WINDMILL[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A WINDMILL constructed to provide maximum EFFICIENCY in winds of various speeds and from different directions.

F - eolienne articulee
S - molino de viento articulado
ASH BOX[edit | edit source]

(heat). A removable box below the [[#GRATE]] in a [[#WOOD STOVE]] or a [[#PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR]] that collects ash residue from combustion.

F - cendrier
S - caja de cenizas
ASYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR[edit | edit source]

(elec) (wind). An electrical GENERATOR that produces ALTERNATING CURRENT, matching an existing POWER source so the two sources can be combined to power one LOAD. These generators are often used with WINDMILLS to provide power to buildings that already receive power from an electric utility.

F - generateur asynchrone
S - generador asincronico
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE[edit | edit source]

(gen). The pressure exerted by the Earth's atmosphere at any given point, generally measured on a scale based on the pressure of air at sea level.

F - pression atmospherique
S - presion atmosferica
ATRIUM[edit | edit source]

(sol). An unroofed, partially roofed, or fully roofed courtyard or room in a dwelling, which allows sunlight to reach adjoining rooms. It is often used for PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING.

F - atrium
S - atrio
ATTENUATION[edit | edit source]

(alc). The fall in SPECIFIC GRAVITY of the WORT during FERMENTATION. This is caused by the weakening of BACTERIA or FUNGI in a CULTURE.

F - attenuation
S - atenuacion
AUGER[edit | edit source]

(impl) (alc). A rotating, screw-type device that moves material through a tube. In ALCOHOL production, it is used to transfer grains from storage to the grinding site, and from the grinding site to the COOKER.

F - vrille d'alimentation
S - barrena
AUTOMATIC DAMPER[edit | edit source]

(impl). A device that automatically maintains the FLOW of hot or cold air into a room.

F - registre automatique
S - regulador de tiro automatico
AUTOMATIC TRACKING[edit | edit source]

(sol). The use of a device that allows SOLAR COLLECTORS to "track" or follow the sun during the day without manual adjustment.

F - poursuite automatique
S - aparato de seguimiento automatico
AUXILIARY GENERATOR[edit | edit source]

(gen) (elec). A small, engine-driven GENERATOR that supplements a RENEWABLE ENERGY POWER source.

F - generateur auxiliaire
S - generador auxiliar
AVAILABLE ENERGY[edit | edit source]

(gen) (meas). That part of the total ENERGY produced by a system that can be applied usefully. EFFICIENCY is a measure oF available energy.

F - energie disponible
S - energia disponible
AVERAGE WIND SPEED[edit | edit source]

(wind) (meas). The most common WIND VELOCITY over a specified period of time.

F - vitesse moyenne du vent
S - velocidad promedio del viento
AXIS[edit | edit source]

(gen). An imaginary line passing through the center of a body, about which the body rotates. (Plural: axes)

F - axe de rotation
S - axis
AXLE[edit | edit source]

(gen). A supporting member that carries a wheel. It either rotates with the wheel to transmit mechanical POWER, or allows the wheel to rotate freely on it.

F - essieu
S - eje
AZEOTROPE[edit | edit source]

(chem) (alc). The chemical term for two liquids that, at a certain CONCENTRATION, boil at the same temperature. For example, ETHANOL and water cannot be separated further than 199.9 PROOF because at this concentration they form an azeotrope and vaporize together.

F - azeotrope
S - azeotrope

B[edit | edit source]

S LAW[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A law stating that the VAPOR PRESSURE of a liquid is lowered when a non-VOLATILE substance is dissolved in it. The pressure is lowered by an amount proportional to the CONCENTRATION of the solution.

F - loi de von Babo
S - ley de Babo
BACKPUFFING[edit | edit source]

(gen). The emission of smoke through cooking holes or other openings in a wood-burning or CHARCOAL stove. It occurs when poor DRAFT in the CHIMNEY causes air to pass back down into the stove.

F - retour de fumee
S - contracorriente de humo
BACK STAYS[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). Support bars across the back of the SAILS of a WINDMILL.

F - galhaubans
S - soporte posterior
BACK WATERING[edit | edit source]

(hydr). The braking effect caused by the immersion in water of the lowest BLADES of an OVERSHOT WATER WHEEL.

F - frein d'immersion
S - remanso
BACTERIA[edit | edit source]

(bio). Any of numerous single-celled micro-organisms occurring in a wide variety of forms, existing either as free-living organisms or as parasites, having a wide range of biochemical properties. Bacteria are necessary for DIGESTION and FERMENTATION. (Singular: bacterium)

F - bacteries
S - bacteria
BACTERIAL DECOMPOSITION[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The chemical breakdown of ORGANIC MATTER by micro-organisms.

F - decomposition bacterienne
S - descomposicion bacteriana
BAFFLE[edit | edit source]

(gen). A metal plate or other artificial obstruction used to check or deflect the FLOW of FLUIDS.

F - deflecteur
S - desviador
BAGASSE[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The fibrous residue remaining after the extraction of the juice from sugar cane. It may be used as a fuel.

F - bagasse
S - bagazo
BANCO[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: LORENA STOVE)

F - banco
S - banco
BANKI TURBINE[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A WATER TURBINE with curved BLADES, GUIDE VANES, and a hallow interior. Water passing through it propels the RUNNER both on entering and leaving. This turbine operates well under a wide HEAD range and FLOW rates.

F - turbine de Banki
S - turbina de Banki
BAROMETER[edit | edit source]

(meas). A device used to measure ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE.

F - barometre
S - barometro
BASES[edit | edit source]

(alc) (chem). Compounds that dissociate in water solution to form HYDROXYL ions. Bases react with ACIDS to form SALTS, and can be used to maintain the proper pH (POTENTIAL HYDROGEN) balance in an ALCOHOL STILL.

F - bases
S - bases
BATCH DIGESTION[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A process of BIOGAS production in which the material to be digested is loaded into the DIGESTER at the start of the process. A SEED may also be added at this time. The digester is then sealed and the contents left to FERMENT. At completion, the digested SLUDGE is removed and the tank reloaded. Daily gas production varies during the process. It is slow at the start, increases, and finally declines toward the end of the DIGESTION cycle.

F - digestion a charge initiale
S - digestion por tandas
BATCH DISTILLATION[edit | edit source]

(alc). A batch DISTILLATION process of ALCOHOL production in which the material to be distilled is loaded into a STILL at the start of the process. The entire volume is heated and left to distill. At completion, the distilled MASH is removed and the still reloaded. Daily alcohol production varies during the process. It is slow at the start, increases, and finally declines toward the end of the distillation cycle.

F - distillation a charge initiale
S - destilacion intermitente
BATCH FEED[edit | edit source]

(gen). A DIGESTER or STILL in which ORGANIC MATTER is loaded, allowed to generate gas or FERMENT, and then removed. The digester or still then is cleaned and prepared for a fresh load of BIOMASS.

F - alimentation initiale unique
S - alimentacion por tandas
BATCH-LOADING DIGESTER[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: BATCH FEED)

F - digesteur a chargement unique
S - digestor de carga intermitente
BATCH PROCESSING[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: BATCH FEED)

F - traitement de charges uniques
S - elaboracion por tandas
Batteries|BATTERY[edit | edit source]

(elec). A group of two or more CELLS or ACCUMULATORS electrically connected in series or parallel. Batteries are used to store electrical ENERGY.

F - batterie
S - bateria
BATTERY CUT-OUT[edit | edit source]

(wind) (impl). An automatic switch that disconnects a BATTERY during its charge if the voltage of the wind charger falls below or rises above that of the battery, within certain limits. A battery cut-out is a battery protection device.

F - coupe-circuit de batterie
S - interruptor de bateria
BEARING[edit | edit source]

(gen). A machine part that supports and guides a shaft, pivot, or wheel that slides, rotates, or oscillates in or on it.

F - palier
S - cojinete
BEARING ANGLE[edit | edit source]

(sol). (See: SOLAR AZIMUTH)

F - azimut
S - marcacion
BEAUFORT SCALE[edit | edit source]

(meas) (wind). A scale of WIND VELOCITIES ranging from 0 to 12 as follows:

Code Number (mph) Description
0 less than 1 calm
1 1-3 light air
2 4-7 light breeze
3 8-12 gentle breeze
4 13-18 moderate breeze
5 19-24 fresh breeze
6 25-31 strong breeze
7 32-38 moderate gale; near gale
8 39-46 gale
9 47-54 strong gale
10 55-63 whole gale (or storm)
11 64-74 violent storm
12 over 74 hurricane
F - Beaufort, echelle de
S - escala de Beaufort
BEER COLUMN[edit | edit source]

(alc). (See: STRIPPING COLUMN)

F - colonne a biere
S - columna de cerveza
BERM[edit | edit source]

(constr). A manmade mound or small hill of earth built up against a house to stop the INFILTRATION of hot or cold air.

F - banquette
S - monticulo
BEVEL GEAR[edit | edit source]

(gen). One of a pair of gears used to connect two shafts whose AXES intersect.

F - engrenage conique
S - engranaje biselado
BICYCLE ADAPTER[edit | edit source]

(gen) (impl). A device that can be attached to a bicycle to supply POWER to pump water, generate electricity, etc.

F - adaptateur de bicyclette
S - adaptador de bicicleta
Pedal power|BICYCLE GENERATOR[edit | edit source]

(elec). A small GENERATOR that produces DIRECT CURRENT (dc) electricity through PEDAL POWER.

F - generateur a pedalier
S - generador accionado por bicicleta
BIOCONVERSION[edit | edit source]

(chem) (gen). The conversion of ORGANIC WASTE into ENERGY PRODUCTS through the action of micro-organisms. Chemically, this is the reduction of complex organic compounds into simpler, more stable forms.

F - bioconversion
S - bioconversion
Biofuel|BIOGAS[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The gaseous mixture produced during ANAEROBIC DIGESTION, composed chiefly of METHANE and carbon dioxide.

F - bio-gaz
S - biogas
BIOGAS DIGESTER[edit | edit source]

(biocon). An airtight vessel in which ANAEROBIC DIGESTION takes place and from which METHANE may be drawn off.

F - digesteur de bio-gaz
S - digestor de biogas
BIOGAS GENERATOR[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: BIOGAS DIGESTER)

F - generateur de bio-gaz
S - generador de biogas
BIOGAS PLANT[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: BIOGAS DIGESTER)

F - reacteur de bio-gaz
S - planta de biogas
BIOLOGICAL ENERGY CONVERSION[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The use of BIOMASS to convert one form of ENERGY into another.

F - conversion biologique de l'energie
S - conversion biologica de energia
BIOMASS[edit | edit source]

(bio). Plants and plant materials, trees, crop residues, wood and bark residues, and animal manures. Any ORGANIC MATTER that can be used in BIOCONVERSION processes.

F - biomasse
S - biomasa
BIOMASS ENERGY[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The ENERGY that is released from BIOMASS when it is eaten, burned, or otherwise used as or converted into fuel.

F - energie de la biomasse
S - energia de biomasa
BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The ORGANIC MATTER used to produce ENERGY PRODUCTS through BIOCONVERSION.

F - biomasse d'alimentation
S - alimento seco de la biomasa
BIOMASS FUELS[edit | edit source]

(biocon). Fuels, such as METHANE, produced from BIOMASS.

F - combustibles de la biomasse
S - combustibles de biomasa
BIOMASS YIELD[edit | edit source]

(biocon) (meas). The amount of BIOMASS that can be produced in a given areA. It usually is expressed in weight units per area measurement per unit of time.

F - production de biomasse
S - produccion de biomasa
BIOMONITORING[edit | edit source]

(biocon (meas). A pollution-control method in which living organisms are used to test the EFFLUENT from a DIGESTER to determine whether it is safe to discharge the effluent into a body of water. It may also be used to test the quality of waters downstream from a digester discharge point.

F - controle biologique
S - biocontrol
BITUMEN[edit | edit source]

(fos). Any naturally-occurring hydrocarbon, especially solid hydrocarbons such as asphalt, wax, pitch, and Gilsonite.

F - bitume
S - bitumen
BLACKBODY[edit | edit source]

(sol). A surface that completely absorbs all SOLAR RADIATION that strikes it.

F - corps noir
S - cuerpo negro
BLADE[edit | edit source]

(hydr) (impl) (wind). [1] The curved surface of certain types of WATER TURBINES (i.e., CROSS-FLOW TURBINES). Water striking the blades causes the turbine to rotate. Some turbines, such as the PELTON WHEEL, have cups instead of blades. [2] A single, extended surface of a WINDMILL ROTOR.

F - [1] aube; [2] pale
S - [1] paleta; [2] aspa
BLADE ANGLE]] [1][edit | edit source]

(wind). The angle of a CHORD of a WINDMILL BLADE with the ROTOR plane of rotation. [2] (hydr). The INCIDENT ANGLE of a TURBINE BLADE.

F - [1] angle de pale; [2] angle d'aube
S - [1] angulo del aspa; [2] angulo de la paleta
BORE HOLE[edit | edit source]

(gen). A deep, vertical hole in the earth. Usually used to describe a well.

F - trou de sondage
S - pozo de sondeo
BRACE SOLAR STEAM COOKER[edit | edit source]

(sol). (See: INSULATED STEAM COOKER)

F - rechaud a vapeur solaire Brace
S - portahornillo de vapor solar Brace
BRAKE[edit | edit source]

(gen). A device used to slow or stop motion, especially by contact friction.

F - frein
S - freno
Brazing|BRAZING[edit | edit source]

(gen). A process by which two pieces of metal are joined using a nonferrous alloy with a lower melting point than either of the two metals being joined.

F - brasage
S - soldadura con laton
BREAST BEAM[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). The main lateral beam below the WIND SHAFT.

F - poutrelle maitresse
S - viga de costado
BREAST WHEEL[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A sophisticated type of WATER WHEEL into which water enters below the top of the wheel and is kept in the BUCKETS until being discharged at or near the lowest point on the wheel. Breast wheels generally operate best with HEADS amounting to less than the diameter of the wheel. High breast wheels (where the water enters above the center shaft) can approach 65 percent ENERGY CONVERSION EFFICIENCY. (Syn: breast-shot wheel)

F - roue de poitrine
S - rueda de costado
BREEZE[edit | edit source]

(wind). In general, any light to moderate wind. (See also: BEAUFORT SCALE)

F - brise
S - brisa
S DRIED GRAIN[edit | edit source]

(alc). (See: DISTILLER'S GRAIN).

F - grains secs de brasserie
S - grano seco de destilacion
BREWING MASH[edit | edit source]

(alc). Crushed or ground FEEDSTOCK mixed with warm water in preparation for FERMENTATION during the production of ETHANOL.

F - mout de brassage
S - mosto
BRINE[edit | edit source]

(refrig). A heavy SALT solution used in REFRIGERATION.

F - saumure
S - salmuera
BRIQUETTE[edit | edit source]

(fos). A type of fuel that has been finely ground and compressed in pressure molds. It is usually made from low-grade coal, coke, CHARCOAL, or BIOMASS, and is mixed with a binder such as STARCH, tar, cement, pitch, or asphalt.

F - briquette
S - briqueta
BRITISH THERMAL UNIT[edit | edit source]

(heat) (meas). The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree FAHRENHEIT under stated conditions of temperature and pressure. It is a standard unit for measuring quantity of HEAT ENERGY. Generally abbreviated as BTU.

F - British thermal unit
S - unidad termica britanica
BUBBLE CAP[edit | edit source]

(alc). A perforated cap on the plates of a DISTILLATION COLUMN, used to ensure that the vapor and condensed liquid mix thoroughly.

F - cloche de barbotage
S - casquete de burbujeo
BUBBLE CHAMBER[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A safety device attached to a BIOGAS DIGESTER to ensure that the gas is free of air, since an air and gas mixture would be explosive. The gas is "bubbled" through a container of water before being used or stored. If LIMEWATER is used instead of water, the bubble chamber can also be used to SCRUB the gas. In addition, the bubble chamber serves as a SPARK ARRESTER.

F - chambre a bulles
S - camara de burbujas
BUCKET[edit | edit source]

(hydr). Cup-shaped containers or BLADES attached to a WATER WHEEL.

F - auget
S - cangilon
BUCKET ANGLE[edit | edit source]

(hydr). The INCIDENT ANGLE of BUCKETS on a WATER WHEEL.

F - angle d'auget
S - angulo de los cangilones
BUCKET CHAIN[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A chain loop with BUCKETS attached to it at regular intervals. The chain runs over sprocket wheels. As each bucket passes by a water source, water fills the bucket, providing POWER and propelling the chain further along.

F - noria a godets
S - transportador de cangilones
BUFFER CAPACITY[edit | edit source]

(biocon) (chem). The capacity of a solution to resist pH (POTENTIAL HYDROGEN) changes when small amounts of ACID or ALKALI are added. In the case of DIGESTED SLUDGE, the ammonium and bicarbonate ions are mainly responsible for buffering.

F - pouvoir tampon
S - capacidad amortiguadora
BUTANOL[edit | edit source]

(alc). (See: BUTYL ALCOHOL).

F - butanol
S - butanol
BUTYL ALCOHOL[edit | edit source]

(alc) (chem). An ALCOHOL obtained by the FERMENTATION of sugar or cornstarch. The chemical equivalent of butyl alcohol is C4H9OH. (Syn: butanol)

F - alcool butylique
S - alcohol butilico

C[edit | edit source]

C[edit | edit source]

(meas). Abbreviation for CELSIUS.

F - C
S - C
CALCIUM HYDROXIDE[edit | edit source]

(biocon) (chem). A solution that is often used in BUBBLE CHAMBERS to SCRUB BIOGAS. It is commonly known as LIMEWATER.

F - hydrate de calcium
S - hidroxido de calcio
CALORIE[edit | edit source]

(gen). The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree CELSIUS at ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE.

F - calorie [1]
S - caloria
CAM[edit | edit source]

(gen). An eccentric projection on a revolving shaft, shaped to produce variable or reciprocating motion in another contacted or engaged part.

F - came
S - leva
CANAL[edit | edit source]

(gen) (hydr). An artificial watercourse uniting rivers, lakes, or seas for purposes of inland navigation, irrigation, or conveyance of water to a HYDROPOWER device.

F - canal
S - canal
CANISTER[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A piece of metal placed at the outer end of a ROTOR SPAR to hold the SAIL in place.

F - douille
S - chapa de fijacion
CAP[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). The revolving top of a TOWER MILL or SMOCK MILL.

F - calotte
S - cumbrera
CAPACITY FACTOR[edit | edit source]

(elec) (meas). The total KILOWATT HOURS of ENERGY consumed divided by the total KILOWATTS produced by an electricity-generating plant. Generally calculated on an annual basis.

F - facteur de capacite
S - factor de capacidad
CAPACITY OF THE WIND[edit | edit source]

(wind) (meas). The total amount of dirt and dust particles of a given kind that can be sustained per unit volume of air by a wind of a given velocity.

F - capacite du vent
S - capacidad del viento
CARBOHYDRATE[edit | edit source]

(alc) (chem). Sugars, STARCHES, CELLULOSE, and other similar compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen only. Carbohydrates are excellent FEEDSTOCK for an ALCOHOL STILL.

F - hydrates de carbone
S - carbohidrato
CARBON-TO-NITROGEN RATIO[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The proportion of carbon to nitrogen in the material being placed in a BIOGAS DIGESTER. This ratio is important for maintaining biogas production. 25:1 is the optimal C/N ratio.

Material Nitrogen Carbon-Nitrogen
Name Content Ratio
Cow dung 1.7% 25 to 1
Poultry manure 6.3% No carbon
Grass 4.0% 12 to 1
Sheep manure 3.75% No carbon
Urine 15-18% 8 to 1
Wheat straw 0.3% 128 to 1
Potato tops 1.5% 25 to 1
Tomato 3.3% 128 to 1
F - rapport carbone-azote
S - proporcion de carbon a nitrogeno
CARBURETOR[edit | edit source]

(auto). A device for mixing and controlling the amount of air and fuel supplied to a gasoline engine.

F - carburateur
S - carburador
CASING[edit | edit source]

(sol). The framework housing the components of a FLAT-PLATE COLLECTOR. It is generally made of metal and lined with material for THERMAL insulation. Inlet and outlet openings are provided.

F - enveloppe
S - envoltura
CATCHMENT APRON[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A projecting slope on the downstream side of a SLUICE or dam, which is provided to withstand the force of falling water.

F - pente de captage
S - plataforma colectora
CELL[edit | edit source]

(elec). A device that generates electricity, traditionally consisting of two plates or conducting surfaces placed in an electrolytic FLUID.

F - element
S - celula
CELLULASE[edit | edit source]

(bio) (alc). Any of several ENZYMES found in FUNGI, BACTERIA, and lower animals that cause CELLULOSE to break down in water. These enzymes are needed for ALCOHOL DISTILLATION.

F - cellulase
S - celulase
CELLULOSE[edit | edit source]

(chem) (alc). The main POLYSACCHARIDE in living plants. Cellulose forms the skeletal structure of plant cell walls and can be HYDROLYZED to form GLUCOSE.

F - cellulose
S - celulosa
CELLULOSIC BIOMASS[edit | edit source]

(biocon). BIOMASS that contains vegetable matter.

F - biomasse cellulosique
S - biomasa celulosica
CELSIUS[edit | edit source]

(meas). The international temperature scale in which water freezes at 0 [degrees] and boils at 100 [degrees]. To convert from degrees Celsius to degrees FAHRENHEIT, multiply the temperature in degrees Celsius by 9/5 (or 1.8) and add 32. To convert from degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius, subtract 32 from the Fahrenheit temperature and then multiply by 5/9. Abbreviated as C. (Syn: centigrade)

F - Celsius
S - Celsio
CENTIGRADE[edit | edit source]

(meas). (See: CELSIUS).

F - centigrade
S - centigrado
CENTRIFUGAL FORCE[edit | edit source]

(gen). The inertial force repelling a body away from the center of the curvature of a curved path along which it is moving, or away from the AXIS around which it rotates. The opposite of CENTRIPETAL FORCE.

F - force centrifuge
S - centrifuga, fuerza
CENTRIPETAL FORCE[edit | edit source]

(gen). A force attracting a body toward the center of the curvature of a curved path along which it is moving, or toward the AXIS around which it rotates. The apposite of CENTRIFUGAL FORCE.

F - force centripete
S - centripeta , fuerza
CHALK ADOBE[edit | edit source]

(constr). A method of making ADOBE bricks in which chalk is added to the clay, straw, and water. Chalk adobe is useful as a THERMAL MASS.

F - adobe a la chaux
S - mezcla de adobe y creta
CHANNEL[edit | edit source]

(hydr). The bed of a stream or waterway. (See also: CANAL)

F - chenal [1]
S - cauce
CHARCOAL[edit | edit source]

(fos) (gen). A dark-colored or black porous form of CARBON made from vegetable or animal substances. Charcoal commonly is made by charring wood in a KILN or RETORT from which air is partially excluded. It is used for FUEL, and in various mechanical, artistic, and chemical processes. By using DISTILLATION and retorts to produce charcoal, several valuable products can be collected that would otherwise be lost, including COMBUSTIBLE GASES, CREOSOTE OIL, METHANOL, soluble tar, and combustible pitch.

F - charbon de bois
S - carbon
CHARCOAL GAS[edit | edit source]

(prod). (See: PRODUCER GAS)

F - gaz de charbon de bois
S - gas de carbon
CHIMNEY[edit | edit source]

(constr). A vertical passage or FLUE through which smoke and gases escape from a stove or fireplace.

F - cheminee
S - chimenea
CHIMNEY CAP[edit | edit source]

(constr). A cone, usually made of sheet metal, placed pointed end up slightly above the top of a CHIMNEY. It prevents rain and debris from falling into the chimney.

F - mitre
S - sombrerete de chimenea
CHINESE-TYPE DIGESTER[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A BIOGAS DIGESTER that is primarily designed to produce fertilizer. Usually a FIXED-DOME DIGESTER.

F - digesteur type chinois
S - digestor de tipo chino
CHORD[edit | edit source]

(wind). The distance from the LEADING EDGE to the TRAILING EDGE of an AIRFOIL. The term refers to WINDMILL BLADE design.

F - profondeur de l'aile
S - profundidad del aspa
CHULA[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A small, wood-burning stove, usually made of mud, clay, brick, or metal. The term is widely used in South Asia.

F - chula
S - chula
CIRCULAR FOCUSING COLLECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). (See: COMPOUND PARABOLIC COLLECTOR)

F - capteur circulaire a concentration
S - colector circular de enfoque
CISTERN[edit | edit source]

(hydr). An artificial reservoir or watertight tank for storing water or other liquids.

F - citerne
S - cisterna
CLAMPS[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). Wooden splints bolted to the sides of the STOCKS, locking the SAIL assembly in the POLL END.

F - eclisses
S - prensas
CLEARNESS INDEX[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). A SOLAR ENERGY concept introduced to express the ratio of a particular hour, day, or month's SOLAR RADIATION on a horizontal surface to the EXTRATERRESTRIAL SOLAR RADIATION on that same surface for the same period of time. It is useful in calculating DIFFUSE RADIATION and RADIATION falling on a tilted surface.

F - indice de clarte
S - indice de claridad
CLERESTORY[edit | edit source]

(sol). A vertical window that is placed high in a wall near the eaves for light, HEAT GAIN, and ventilation.

F - lanterneau
S - claraboya
CLOSED-LOOP SYSTEM[edit | edit source]

(sol). A SOLAR HEATING system in which distilled water, antifreeze, and/or corrosion inhibitors are circulated through the COLLECTORS and storage tanks in a closed loop. Heat picked up from the collectors by the circulating FLUIDS is transferred to the water in the storage tanks through the closed loop or other HEAT EXCHANGERS.

F - circuit ferme, systeme de
S - sistema de ciclo cerrado
C/N[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: CARBON TO NITROGEN RATIO)

F - C/N
S - C/N
COAL GASIFICATION[edit | edit source]

(prod). The combustion of coal to form a gas suitable for use as a fuel. This is usually done in a PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR.

F - gazeification du charbon
S - gasificacion del carbon
COB ADOBE[edit | edit source]

(constr). A type of ADOBE in which corn cobs are added to clay, water, and straw. Adobe bricks are reinforced by this addition of cobs during the brick-making process. Cob adobe is a useful THERMAL MASS.

F - adobe a la rafle de mais
S - mezcla de paja, arcilla, agua y mazorcas
COLLECTION[edit | edit source]

(sol). The act of trapping SOLAR RADIATION.

F - captation
S - captacion
COLLECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). A device to trap SOLAR RADIATION and convert it into usable heat. The term collector frequently refers to an insulated frame containing a panel made from an ABSORBER PLATE and GLAZING. More broadly, a well-designed building with windows facing the equator may also be considered a collector, as can other solar devices that capture SOLAR RADIATION in the form of heat.

F - capteur
S - colector
COLLECTOR EFFICIENCY[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). The ratio of SOLAR ENERGY absorbed by a COLLECTOR to the RADIANT ENERGY falling on the collector.

F - rendement d'un collecteur
S - eficiencia del colector
HEAT-EXCHANGER CORRECTION FACTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). An index that indicates how much useful SOLAR ENERGY is lost during the exchange of heat from the COLLECTOR to the storage tank in LIQUID-BASED SOLAR HEATING SYSTEMS.

F - coefficient de correction capteur-echangeur de chaleur
S - factor de correccion del colector/termopermutador
COLLECTOR-HEAT REMOVAL EFFICIENCY FACTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). The ratio of actual useful HEAT GAIN of a FLAT-PLATE SOLAR COLLECTOR to the heat gain if the entire COLLECTOR PLATE were at the same temperature as the inlet FLUID.

F - coefficient de rendement capteur-echangeur de chaleur
S - factor de eficiencia del colector-termoextractor
COLLECTOR PLATE[edit | edit source]

(sol). A metal sheet in a SOLAR COLLECTOR whose primary function is to absorb as much as possible of the SOLAR RADIATION reaching it through the GLAZING, while losing as little heat as possible as it transfers the retained heat to the HEAT TRANSFER MEDIUM.

F - plaque collectrice
S - placa colectora
COLLECTOR TILT ANGLE[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). The angle between the plane of the horizon and the surface of a SOLAR COLLECTOR, generally used to maximize the COLLECTION of SOLAR RADIATION.

F - inclinaison d'un capteur
S - angulo de inclinacion del colector
COMBUSTIBLE GAS[edit | edit source]

(biocon) (prod). Gas that will burn. This includes BIOGAS, PRODUCER GAS, and other VOLATILE FLUIDS.

F - gaz combustible
S - gas combustible
COMBUSTION CHAMBER[edit | edit source]

(heat). The place in a stove where fuel is burned.

F - chambre de combustion
S - camara de combustion
COMBUSTION ZONE[edit | edit source]

(prod). The section in a PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR in which the FEEDSTOCK is burned.

F - zone de combustion
S - zona de combustion
COMMON SAIL[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A WINDMILL SAIL that is covered with a canvas cloth.

F - aile de moulin
S - aspa comun
COMPOSTED SLUDGE[edit | edit source]

(biocon). SLUDGE that has been rendered relatively PATHOGEN-free through COMPOSTING. It generally can be used safely as fertilizer.

F - boues compostees
S - composte de lodos cloacales
COMPOSTING[edit | edit source]

(biocon). AEROBIC DECOMPOSITION of ORGANIC MATTER. The resulting material is used as a fertilizer.

F - compostage
S - composte
COMPOUND PARABOLIC COLLECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). A type of SOLAR COLLECTOR using parabolic REFLECTORS.

F - capteur parabolique compose
S - colector parabolico compuesto
CONCENTRATING COLLECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). A SOLAR COLLECTOR that uses REFLECTORS to concentrate DIRECT RADIATION from the sun onto a narrow ABSORBER PLATE to produce intense heat.

F - capteur a concentration
S - colector concentrador
CONCENTRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY[edit | edit source]

(sol). A series of lenses or mirrors used to concentrate SOLAR RADIATION onto PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS, which convert the sunlight into electricity. The concentrated sunlight increases the output of each cell, thus reducing the total number of cells required to produce a given amount of electricity. (See also: PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY)

F - groupe photovoltaique de concentration
S - conjunto concentrador fotovoltaico
CONCENTRATING THERMAL COLLECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). (See: CONCENTRATING COLLECTOR)

F - capteur thermique a concentration
S - colector termico concentrador
CONCENTRATION[edit | edit source]

(gen). The amount of a substance contained in a FLUID per unit volume.

F - concentration
S - concentracion
CONDENSER[edit | edit source]

(gen) (impl). A device used to change a vapor into a liquid. This can be done either by exposing to air a tube that contains vapor, or by passing the tube through a WATER JACKET.

F - condenseur
S - condensador
CONDUCTION[edit | edit source]

(heat). Heat transfer from direct contact between a hot body and a cold body.

F - conduction
S - conduccion
CONING[edit | edit source]

(wind). The practice of tilting up the WIND SHAFT of a WIND MACHINE at a small angle.

F - fuseler
S - movimiento de la pala
CONTINUOUS DIGESTION[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The continuous feeding of BIOMASS into a BIOGAS DIGESTER, with the removal of an equivalent volume of EFFLUENT. The process is usually started with the addition of a SEED. It may take several DETENTION TIMES before the process becomes steady. For many purposes, this is a more EFFICIENT and convenient process than BATCH DIGESTION. Processes involving daily addition and removal are more properly described as semi-continuous.

F - digestion en continu
S - digestion continua
CONTINUOUS FLOW DIGESTER[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A DIGESTER into which BIOMASS may be loaded and gas and EFFLUENT recovered without discontinuing digestion.

F - digesteur a flux continu
S - digestor de circulacion continua
CONTINUOUS PROCESSING[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: CONTINUOUS DIGESTION)

F - traitement en continu
S - proceso continuo
CONTINUOUS STILL[edit | edit source]

(alc). An ALCOHOL STILL into which MASH may be loaded and ALCOHOL recovered without discontinuing alcohol production.

F - alambic a distillation continue
S - alambique continuo
CONTROLLED BURNING ATMOSPHERE[edit | edit source]

(fos). An atmosphere in which oil or natural gas is burned with just enough oxygen to prevent all the carbon from being consumed. The recovered carbon may be used as a fuel.

F - atmosphere a combustion controlee
S - atmosfera de combustion controlada
CONVECTION[edit | edit source]

(heat). The transfer of heat between one location or surface and another by the motion of a heat-carrying FLUID. Also, the transfer of heat within a fluid by movements within the fluid.

F - convection
S - conveccion
CONVECTION AIR COOLER[edit | edit source]

(refrig). A non-electric cooler that depends on the natural circulation of air.

F - refroidisseur par convection d'air
S - enfriador de aire por conveccion
CONVERSION PROCESS[edit | edit source]

(gen). A process through which ENERGY is converted from one form to another, such as RADIANT ENERGY into heat or electric energy.

F - conversion
S - proceso de conversion
COOKER[edit | edit source]

(alc). A heated tank with an AGITATOR that heats the MASH as part of the ALCOHOL production process.

F - chaudiere de cuisson
S - caldera de coccion
COOKING[edit | edit source]

(alc). A heating and stirring process that breaks down STARCH granules, thus making the starch available for the liquefaction and SACCHARIFICATION steps of the ALCOHOL manufacturing process.

F - cuisson
S - coccion
COOK STOVE[edit | edit source]

(biocon). An apparatus in which fuel is burned to produce heat for cooking.

F - cuisiniere
S - estufa
CO-PRODUCT[edit | edit source]

(alc). Substances resulting from the production of ETHANOL by FERMENTATION.

F - coproduit
S - coproducto
CORRUGATED METAL SOLAR COLLECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). A type of SOLAR COLLECTOR that uses a corrugated metal as its ABSORBER PLATE. The metal is usually painted with FLAT BLACK PAINT.

F - capteur solaire en tole ondulee
S - colector solar de metal corrugado
COVER[edit | edit source]

(sol). (See: GLAZING)

F - revetement
S - revestimiento
COVER PLATE[edit | edit source]

(sol). The transparent material placed over a COLLECTOR-ABSORBER PLATE so that heat loss to the atmosphere is reduced and a greater fraction of the SOLAR RADIATION is collected as useable heat.

F - plaque de couverture
S - placa revestidora
CREOSOTE OIL[edit | edit source]

(gen). A by-product from CHARCOAL production by DISTILLATION. It may be used as a preservative to protect wood from termites, moisture, etc.

F - huile de creosote
S - aceite de creosota
CRETAN SAIL WINDMILL[edit | edit source]

(wind). (See: CRETAN WINDMILL)

F - moulin a ailes cretois
S - molino de viento con aspas cretanas
CRETAN WINDMILL[edit | edit source]

(wind). A type of HORIZONTAL AXIS SAIL ROTOR WINDMILL generally having four fixed, triangular SAILS. Cretan windmills are used primarily for low-lift water pumping.

F - moulin a vent cretois
S - molino de viento cretano
CROSS[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A cruciform iron support for the sail assembly, used as an alternative to the POLL END.

F - croix
S - aspa de hierro
CROSS-FLOW TURBINE[edit | edit source]

(hydr). (See: BANKI TURBINE)

F - turbine a ecoulement radial
S - turbina con rodete de tambor
CROSSWIND[edit | edit source]

(wind). Winds blowing crosswise to the direction of the wind stream.

F - vent de travers
S - viento de costado
CULTURE[edit | edit source]

(bio). A preparation containing micro-organisms that are growing on a medium.

F - bouillon de culture
S - cultivo
CUP ANEMOMETER[edit | edit source]

(wind) (meas). An ANEMOMETER with three or four cups that rotate with the wind to measure wind speed.

F - anemometre a coquilles
S - anemometro de tazas
CUPS[edit | edit source]

(hydr). Bowl shaped BLADES found on PELTON WHEELS and other types of IMPULSE TURBINES.

F - godets
S - tazas
CURB[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). In SMOCK MILLS and TOWER MILLS, the circular timber rim or wall plate supporting the revolving cap.

F - chemin de glissement
S - apoyo circular
CURRENT[edit | edit source]

(elec). The FLOW of electrons through a conductor.

F - courant
S - corriente
CUT-IN SPEED[edit | edit source]

(wind). The WIND VELOCITY at which a WIND MACHINE is activated.

F - vitesse d'enclenchement
S - velocidad de accionamiento
CUT-OUT SPEED[edit | edit source]

(wind). The WIND VELOCITY at which a WIND MACHINE turns out of the wind. (See also: BATTERY CUT-OUT)

F - vitesse de disjonction
S - velocidad de interrupcion
CYLINDER[edit | edit source]

(hydr). In hydraulic systems, a short, hollow metal tube containing a piston, piston rod, and end seals, and fitted with a system to allow the entrance and exit of FLUIDS.

F - cylindre
S - cilindro