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Highly Skilled And Business Migrants: Information Processes And Settlement Outcomes[edit | edit source]

Benson‐Rea, M., & Rawlinson, S. (2003). Highly Skilled and Business Migrants: Information Processes and Settlement Outcomes. International Migration, 41(2), 59–79. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2435.00235

  • Abstract: This paper reports on a research programme that has investigated the migration experiences of highly skilled professional and business migrants to New Zealand. Over a four‐year period, five separate studies have been conducted on the stages in the process of migration. The paper sets out a model of the stages of the migration process and the data and analysis which it has guided. Of particular interest are the information sources available to potential migrants and employers, the cultural sensitivity of settlement processes and the migrants' subsequent ease of access to the labour market. The paper analyses information flows available to migrants at crucial phases in the migration process based on a stages model of the migration process. The model indicates some of the critical steps, interactions, and decisions in the migration process from the individual's point of view. Crucial information gaps are identified and implications are drawn for actors involved at the different stages.
  • Personal drivers behind migration
  • Migrants secure employments
  • Match jobs for migrants
  • Information flow between migrant workers and employers
  • Migration transfer -> abundant to lack
  • Underutilization of migrants -> Access country without immigrating
  • Lack of qualification recognition
  • Integration of skilled immigrants

Modern Approaches To The Educational Process Aimed At Improving The Quality Of Highly Qualified Personnel Training[edit | edit source]

Necheukhina, N. S., Matveeva, V. S., Babkin, I. A., & Makarova, E. N. (2017). Modern approaches to the educational process aimed at improving the quality of highly qualified personnel training. 2017 IEEE VI Forum Strategic Partnership of Universities and Enterprises of Hi-Tech Branches (Science. Education. Innovations) (SPUE), 192–195. https://doi.org/10.1109/IVForum.2017.8246089

  • Abstract: The article deals with the issues of Open Education as a new element of the Russian educational system aimed at improving the quality of education and its availability. The aim of the study is to generalize the existing practices in the use of modern information and legal databases in the educational process. Modern forms and methods of interaction between educational establishments and employers, offering a wide range of functional capabilities are considered. Modern methods of teaching specific disciplines involving online courses by leading specialists contributing to the students' self-study of the most significant topics and assessment of the knowledge gained are reviewed. The article proves the positive effect of the methods under discussion on the quality of education and its availability. A summery review of the existing options and opportunities for cooperation between educational establishments and businesses as well as employers who are interested in targeted trained staff is given. The ways of cooperation between educational institutions and employers aimed at improving the quality of targeted trained highly qualified staff by arranging video-workshops, on-line courses and other elements of Open Education are analyzed. The article concludes on the significance of modern graduates' abilities to use information, reference and legal databases in the process of information search and its evaluation when performing professional tasks. The results of the study, based on specific examples and experience in involving businesses and their facilities for future professionals' training, contribute to the improvement of the quality of education and its availability, which in its turn help enhance competitiveness of graduates on the labor market.
  • Open education platform
  • Target training
  • Cooperation between educational institutions and organizations
  • Only solid theoretical basics
  • Collaboration between education authorities and business representative
  • Research & completing course & diploma projects under supervision of companies' representatives
  • Combine theories to practice

Brain Drain, And Development. Journal Of Economic Literature[edit | edit source]

Docquier, F., & Rapoport, H. (2012). Globalization, Brain Drain, and Development. Journal of Economic Literature, 50(3), 681–730. https://doi.org/10.1257/jel.50.3.681

  • Abstract: This paper reviews four decades of economics research on the brain drain, with a focus on recent contributions and on development issues. We first assess the magnitude, intensity, and determinants of the brain drain, showing that brain drain (or high-skill) migration is becoming a dominant pattern of international migration and a major aspect of globalization. We then use a stylized growth model to analyze the various channels through which a brain drain affects the sending countries and review the evidence on these channels. The recent empirical literature shows that high-skill emigration need not deplete a country's human capital stock and can generate positive network externalities. Three case studies are also considered: the African medical brain drain, the exodus of European scientists to the United States, and the role of the Indian diaspora in the development of India's information technology sector. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of the analysis for education, immigration, and international taxation policies in a global context. ( JEL F02, F22, J24, J61, O15)
  • Governments adjust education systems or policies based on departure of highly skilled
  • Brain drain and HQB mobility may increase global inequality
  • Development policy
  • Bidirectional affects
  • Small economies benefit more from abroad-spillovers

International Mobility Of Highly-Qualified People In APEC[edit | edit source]

Gera, S., & Songsakul, T. (2005). International Mobility of Highly-Qualified People in APEC (No. 0507002; International Trade). University Library of Munich, Germany. https://ideas.repec.org/p/wpa/wuwpit/0507002.html

  • Abstract: An important aspect of the global knowledge-based economy is the emergence of a new trend where certain groups of highly-qualified workers have become increasingly mobile internationally. Reaching the goal of being more innovative economy requires that the highly-qualified workforce is of sufficient quantity and quality to support the expansion of innovative activities by firms. Many industrialized countries compete strategically in attracting these workers. It is necessary that the economic policy discussion surrounding the international mobility of skilled labour must take into consideration the wide variety of ways the migration of labour affects the economy. Numerous drivers, policy and non-policy induced, are at work. Attention must now turn towards the links between these movements and the regulating institutions; the performance in the trade of goods and services, FDI, human capital formation and multinational enterprises location, and income convergence among countries. This paper focuses on four key issues: First, it examines the global trends in the international migratory flows of highly qualified persons (HQPs), focusing on APEC economies. Second, it discusses the fundamental non-policy drivers of the increased HQP flows in the new global economy. Third, it reviews the literature on the economic costs and benefits associated with cross-country movement of HQPs and the main factors conditioning these costs and benefits. Finally, it addresses the question of how policy in APEC economies has adjusted or should adjust to the increased international HQP mobility.
  • Mobility of HQP in a long term may induce wage convergence ** (P39)
  • E-learning may decline need of mobile HQP?
  • Migration and trade are complements at an economic scale
  • Again - brain circulation
  • Higher mobility of HQP could reduce duplication in R&D field (P40)
  • Higher demand for HQP stimulates investment in human capital
  • Wildasin's free mobility model, benefit all nations?
  • Cross-border spillovers -> Canada from US
  • Migration of HQP is zero-sum ?
  • US - Canada, mutual recognition or certification
  • Schengen Agreement in EU
  • Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement (TTTA) between Australia and New Zealand
  • Trans-Tasman Mutual Recognition Arrangement (TTMRA), mobile worker to work on equivalent jobs at a different nation
  • APEC Business Travel Card
  • Points system in Canada
  • Return to education
  • Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials (CICIC)
  • Special tax policies for HQP, reduced income tax...
  • Innovation gap, less absorptive capacity?

The Formation Of Global Citizenship: International Non-Governmental Organisations In Britain[edit | edit source]

Desforges, L. (2004). The formation of global citizenship: international non-governmental organisations in Britain. Political Geography, 23(5), 549–569. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2004.02.001

  • Abstract: Globalisation has changed the formation of contemporary citizenship. At the same time as undermining the role of the nation state in the construction of political participation, new arenas of citizenship are suggestive of an emergent ‘global citizenship’. Analysis of participation in politics at the scale of the global has suggested that civil society associations are strongly implicated in this process. This paper explores the role played by such institutions in the configuration of global citizenship. Through a case study of international development NGOs in the UK, and the relationship they build with the public, the paper suggests that international non-governmental organisations (INGOs) offer a version of global citizenship, which is highly circumscribed by their professional and institutional imperatives. Concerns with the continuing ability of organisations to deliver a professionally determined development agenda means that the role envisioned for the public by INGOs does not necessarily accord with that presented by advocates of the role of global civil society in citizenship. The paper concludes by exploring the implications of these findings for further research on the formation of global citizenship.
  • WTO and UN voice for strong nations
  • ↑ ride over "global south"
  • Idea circumscribed by current form of INGO

Open Content And Open Educational Resources: Enabling Universal Education[edit | edit source]

Caswell, T., Henson, S., Jensen, M., & Wiley, D. (2008). Open Content and Open Educational Resources: Enabling universal education. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v9i1.469

  • Abstract: The role of distance education is shifting. Traditionally distance education was limited in the number of people served because of production, reproduction, and distribution costs. Today, while it still costs the university time and money to produce a course, technology has made it such that reproduction costs are almost non-existent. This shift has significant implications, and allows distance educators to play an important role in the fulfillment of the promise of the right to universal education. At little or no cost, universities can make their content available to millions. This content has the potential to substantially improve the quality of life of learners around the world. New distance education technologies, such as OpenCourseWares, act as enablers to achieving the universal right to education. These technologies, and the associated changes in the cost of providing access to education, change distance education's role from one of classroom alternative to one of social transformer.
  • OpenCourseWare --> MIT
  • Reproduction, distribution cost no long exist much
  • David Wiley - education content should be made free
  • Utah, state funds OCW
  • Open university Netherlands, self-taught network administrator
  • Creative commons license --> Non- commercial works
  • eduCommons software
  • "If educational materials can bring people out of poverty, and information can now be copied and shared with greater ease, there is a moral obligation to do so. Information should be shared, because it is the right thing to do" -- > Open Content And Open Educational Resources: Enabling Universal Education
  • Copyright conflicts
  • "Everyone has the right to education" (United Nations, 1948)

Innovative Technologies As A Means Of The Development Of Future Engineers’ Professional Mobility Abroad[edit | edit source]

Balikaeva, M. B., Chizhevskaya, E. L., Grevtseva, G. Y., Kotlyarova, I. O., & Volkova, M. A. (2018). Innovative technologies as a means of the development of future engineers’ professional mobility abroad. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 441, 012007. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/441/1/012007

  • Abstract: The article discusses the relevance of innovative technologies in development of the future engineers' professional mobility. In the publication the types of innovative technologies are presented in the universities of Germany, the US, Britain, France, Norway, Poland and other countries. The principles and functions of the innovative technologies are defined in some universities abroad. The forms of innovative technologies contribute to the qualities formation at the basis of the future engineers' professional mobility.
  • MIT OpenCourseWare

Temporary Migration And Bilateral Trade Flows[edit | edit source]

Jansen, M., & Piermartini, R. (2009). Temporary Migration and Bilateral Trade Flows. The World Economy, 32(5), 735–753. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9701.2009.01167.x

  • Abstract: Empirical evidence on migration and trade has established that permanent migration promotes trade. This finding has been interpreted as proof for the role of migrants in reducing trade‐related transaction costs such as contract enforcement costs or information costs. This paper contributes to improving our understanding of trade‐related transaction costs by analysing empirically whether temporary migrants, like permanent migrants, have an impact on bilateral trade flows. Temporary migrants can be expected to be less integrated in the host country than permanent migrants. At the same time, their knowledge of the home country can, on average, be expected to be more up‐to‐date. Our findings therefore give insights as to the relative importance of knowledge on the host and the home country for trade‐related transaction costs. Using a gravity approach in our empirical analysis, we find that temporary migration has a positive and significant effect on trade and that temporary migration tends to have a stronger and more significant effect on both imports and exports than permanent migration. Interestingly, the role of temporary migrants in reducing trade costs does not appear to be associated with their skills.
  • NAFTA, temporary work visa, partner countries
  • Germany, guest workers
  • Temporary immigrants, potential to bilateral trade --> imports, taste still not adjected, more knowledge to home country
  • Reduce cost for acquiring information, negotiation
  • Permanent immigrants, exports
  • Only part of immigrants are employed --> global passport and mobility, instead of working visa
  • Lower transaction cost
  • Temporary/permanent immigrants, connection with home country --> Flow of people crossing borders
  • Insignificant interaction, settled immigrant and temporary immigrants
  • Skills do not match with their influence that much
  • Temporary migrants > permanent migrants on bilateral trading

Can Brain Drain Justify Immigration Restrictions[edit | edit source]

Oberman, K. (2013). Can Brain Drain Justify Immigration Restrictions? Ethics, 123(3), 427–455. https://doi.org/10.1086/669567

  • Abstract: This article considers one seemingly compelling justification for immigration restrictions: that they help restrict the brain drain of skilled workers from poor states. For some poor states, brain drain is a severe problem, sapping their ability to provide basic services. Yet this article finds that justifying immigration restrictions on brain drain grounds is far from straightforward. For restrictions to be justified, a series of demanding conditions must be fulfilled. Brain drain does provide a successful argument for some immigration restrictions, but it is an argument that fails to justify restrictions beyond a small minority of cases
  • Freedom to move domestically = freedom to move internationally
  • Philosophical debate on immigration restrictions
  • Repay home country if cost is provided by home country
  • Skilled worker assists compatriots, general duties
  • Global poverty, rich state duties
  • Brain shortage > Brain drain
  • Tax for skilled immigrants for replacement of work in home country
  • Rich state duty to fund poor state for brain drain
  • UDHR
  • Rich state provide assistance, then, immigration restriction (dumping failed duties to migrants)

National Security And U.S. Immigration Policy[edit | edit source]

Totten, R. (2008). National Security and U.S. Immigration Policy, 1776–1790. The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 39(1), 37–64. https://doi.org/10.1162/jinh.2008.39.1.37

  • Abstract: An examination of U.S. immigration policy during the early Republic from a security perspective—a common analytical focus within the field of international relations—reveals the inadequacy of traditional economic and ideological interpretations. Security concerns, based on actual threats from Great Britain and Spain, permeated the arguments both for and against immigration. Those in favor of immigration hoped to strengthen the nation, primarily by providing soldiers and money for the military; those opposed to immigration feared that it would compromise national security by causing domestic unrest and exposing the new nation to espionage and terrorism. These issues are not unlike those that beset contemporary policymakers.
  • Population strengthen security during wars?
  • welcome immigrants at the same time maintain domestic security

The Abolition Of Immigration Restrictions And The Performance Of Firms And Workers: Evidence From Switzerland[edit | edit source]

Beerli, A., Ruffner, J., Siegenthaler, M., & Peri, G. (2018). The Abolition of Immigration Restrictions and the Performance of Firms and Workers: Evidence from Switzerland (No. w25302). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w25302

  • Abstract: [They] study a reform that granted European cross-border workers free access to the Swiss labor market and had a stronger effect on regions close to the border. The greater availability of cross-border workers increased foreign employment substantially. Although many cross-border workers were highly educated, wages of highly educated natives increased. The reason is a simultaneous increase in labor demand: the reform increased the size, productivity, and innovation performance of skill-intensive incumbent firms and attracted new firms, creating opportunities for natives to pursue managerial jobs. These effects are mainly driven by firms that reported skill shortages before the reform.
  • Cross border workers - CBW (highly-skilled)
  • Prior requirements to hire foreign workers abolished
  • Increase in wage and employment with CBW policies
  • Open border, foreigners do not relocate, weaker consumption-side effects
  • Switzerland, opened border at low unemployment and high demand for immigrant workers
  • Firms' voices on recruiting skilled foreign workers
  • No significant evidence of negative effect for local people with CBW
  • Wage growth of highly educated natives --> attract more people to high level of education
  • Different jobs for CBW and natives, attenuate undesired possible effect from marginal productivity
  • Increased sale in highly treated firms
  • Immigration restriction --> skill shortages --> hamper innovation

Equality, Justice And The Problem Of International Borders: The Case Of Canadian Immigration Regulation[edit | edit source]

Bauder, H. (2003). Equality, Justice and the Problem of International Borders: The Case of Canadian Immigration Regulation. ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies, 2(2), 167–182. https://acme-journal.org/index.php/acme/article/view/693

  • Abstract: [He] examines the legitimacy of immigration controls in the context of Canada and this country’s restrictive immigration policies. Despite the fundamental, philosophical arguments against immigration restrictions, the necessity of immigration controls is rarely questioned in Canadian politics. In this paper [He] suggests that there is an incredible cynicism of Canadian immigration policies with respect to this country’s own political principles. The idea of international migration controls is neither sustainable from a larger liberaltheory perspective nor a political-economy viewpoint. [He} suggests that geographers should imagine alternatives to the current systems of immigration control and the regulation of the international movement of people.
  • Nation states threats --> political discourse --> principle of nationality > principle of humanity
  • Immigration regulation contradicts social justice
  • Gap between liberal theory and practices
  • Abolish immigration restriction --> democracy
  • Investor immigrants --> borderless world
  • Abolition of immigration restriction worldwide --> No significant diaspora
  • Principle of community > principle of humanity
  • Very low percentage of current citizen met immigration requirements
  • Economic gain > liberal equality
  • Inherited privilege --> feudal barrier
  • Citizenship and labor exploitations, not abolished, increase competition
  • World Migration Organization (WMO)
  • Rescale immigration restriction to individual

Unequal Access To Foreign Spaces: How States Use Visa Restrictions To Regulate Mobility In A Globalized World[edit | edit source]

Neumayer, E. (2006). Unequal access to foreign spaces: how states use visa restrictions to regulate mobility in a globalized world. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 31(1), 72–84. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-5661.2006.00194.x

  • Abstract: Nation‐states employ visa restrictions to manage the complex trade‐off between facilitating the entrance to their territory by passport holders from certain countries for economic and political reasons and deterring individuals from other countries for reasons of perceived security and immigration control. The resulting system is one of highly unequal access to foreign spaces, reinforcing existing inequalities. Trans‐national mobility is encouraged for passport holders from privileged nations, particularly rich Western countries, at the expense of severe restrictions for others. Visa restrictions manifest states’ unfaltering willingness to monitor, regulate and control entrance to their territory in a globalized world.
  • 9/11
  • Poorer countries open border in hope of brain spill-over
  • Egypt's policy on giving visa at its border, great revenue
  • Tighter immigration restriction may increase illegal transnational movement

The Global University, Area Studies, And The World Citizen: Neoliberal Geography’s Redistribution Of The “World”[edit | edit source]

Looser, T. (2012). THE GLOBAL UNIVERSITY, AREA STUDIES, AND THE WORLD CITIZEN: Neoliberal Geography’s Redistribution of the “World.” Cultural Anthropology, 27(1), 97–117. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1548-1360.2012.01128.x

  • Abstract: In the middle of both recessionary financial constraints and new developments in what are often called “neoliberal” global economics, a number of high‐profile North American universities are creating new campuses in locations around the world. Conceptually different than an older model of study abroad sites, they are also helping to create a new geography of “area,” that includes shifting conceptions of citizenship, sovereignty, and cultural difference. The claims being made about them are large: they are being described as central components within a historical “inflection point” in the very nature of humanity; the reorganization of the university is thus at once part of the reorganization of human geography, and of the categories by which we conceive of social life. This article examines both the new kinds of global social space that these universities are helping to define, and the restructuring of the “global university” itself; both are placed within the context of the neoliberal principles that are motivating the construction of these new world spaces. Indifference is a key element of these principles; this article considers the varied implications of neoliberal indifference. [area studies, neoliberalism, globalization, cities, difference, citizenship and sovereignty, social form]
  • Autonomy may increase competitivity among individual states
  • Citizenship in Special Economic Zone (SEC)
  • Services-defined social life
  • Degree granting global university in major cities
  • Autonomous regions
  • Politics-free citizenship introduced in the article
  • Neutrality of World Citizen
  • Above ideas need support from a borderless world

Knowledge Sharing In Virtual Communities: A Study Of Citizenship Behavior And Its Social-Relational Antecedents[edit | edit source]

Xu, B., Li, D., & Shao, B. (2012). Knowledge Sharing in Virtual Communities: A Study of Citizenship Behavior and Its Social-Relational Antecedents. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 28(5), 347–359. https://doi.org/10.1080/10447318.2011.590121

  • Abstract: A virtual community is a type of online structure that enables Internet users to communicate and collaborate. Users' knowledge contributions are critical to the viability and sustainability of virtual communities. This article studies virtual community members' knowledge sharing from the perspective of citizenship behavior defined as members' spontaneous contribution to the community without expectation of return or reciprocation. The social-relational antecedents of citizenship behavior are explored through an examination of how members' general attitude and desire for relationship building and maintaining, including attachment motivation, social support orientation, and disposition to trust influence their trusting beliefs and citizenship knowledge-sharing behavior. Hypotheses are developed and tested with survey data from Chinese and American users of virtual communities. In general, the results of data analyses support our research model. This article contributes empirically to virtual community research and has practical implications for virtual community development.
  • Share knowledge for enjoyment, or to gain reputation
  • Contribution diminished when receiving certain amount reputation
  • Knowledge receiver may not return the favor back to community

Fairness And Devotion Go Far: Integrating Online Justice And Value Co-Creation In Virtual Communities[edit | edit source]

Chou, E.-Y., Lin, C.-Y., & Huang, H.-C. (2016). Fairness and devotion go far: Integrating online justice and value co-creation in virtual communities. International Journal of Information Management, 36(1), 60–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2015.09.009

  • Abstract: Although building long-term, successful virtual communities is important, rare studies have examined both in- and extra-role value co-creation behaviors from the perspective of social exchange theory and equity theory. Specially, we incorporate five different online justice perceptions into our model and examine the mediating role of “sense of virtual community” between these perceived online justice antecedents and both in- and extra-role online value co-creation behavior (reflected by knowledge contribution and online community citizenship behaviors, respectively). We empirically examine the model using data from 278 members of virtual communities. The results reveal that perceived online justice leads to value co-creation behavior through sense of virtual community. The findings elicit several implications for theory and practice.
  • Citizenship behaviors in a virtual community
  • Concept of collectivistic

Open Source, Openness, And Higher Education[edit | edit source]

Wiley, D. (2006). Open Source, Openness, and Higher Education. Innovate: Journal of Online Education, 3(1). https://www.learntechlib.org/p/104321/

  • Abstract: In this article David Wiley provides an overview of how the general expansion of open source software has affected the world of education in particular. In doing so, Wiley not only addresses the development of open source software applications for teachers and administrators, he also discusses how the fundamental philosophy of the open source movement has characterized the development of open course content (through online repositories such as MERLOT) as well as open access research (through e-journals such as "PLoS Biology"). Wiley concludes that such trends have contributed to a "culture of openness" in the academy, which, in turn, will allow higher education to adapt more fully to the demands of future learners.
  • Open source software, open source education
  • Public library of science (PLoS)
  • Journals made public to redistribute are more likely to be referenced
  • Teachers should be replaced if they do not provide interactivities
  • Peer-review pressure of making course material open online

International Scientist Mobility And The Locus Of Knowledge And Technology Transfer[edit | edit source]

Edler, J., Fier, H., & Grimpe, C. (2011). International scientist mobility and the locus of knowledge and technology transfer. Research Policy, 40(6), 791–805. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2011.03.003

  • Abstract: Despite the growing interest of scholars and policymakers to better understand the determinants for researchers in public science to transfer knowledge and technology to firms, little is known how temporary international mobility of scientists affects both their propensity to engage in knowledge and technology transfer (KTT) as well as the locus of such transfer. Based on a sample of more than 950 German academics from science and engineering faculties, we investigate how the duration and the frequency of scientists’ visits at research institutions outside their home country affect KTT activities. We find that most mobile scientists engage in KTT to firms both in the host and in their home country, suggesting that KTT activities to firms abroad do not substitute or crowd out, but complement KTT to firms in the home country. We further find that the longer research visits abroad are, the higher the likelihood that scientists engage in KTT to firms, again both in the host and the home country. However, the more frequently scientists visit institutions abroad, the more likely they are to engage in KTT to firms only in their home country. Our results therefore provide evidence for the benefits of “brain circulation”. The article contributes to the growing strand of the literature on scientist mobility and on the determinants of industry–science linkages at the individual level.
  • Knowledge and technology transfer (KTT)
  • Brain circulation, host and home country
  • Temporary migration might be beneficial, as workers end up in home country
  • International researchers more productive, engage in KTT more
  • Low satisfactory of international mobility among researchers

Are Firms Superior To Alliances And Markets? An Empirical Test Of Cross-Border Knowledge Building[edit | edit source]

Almeida, P., Song, J., & Grant, R. M. (2002). Are firms superior to alliances and markets? An empirical test of cross-border knowledge building. Organization Science, 13(2), 147–161. https://search.proquest.com/docview/213834712/abstract/62F416222D534FBDPQ/1

  • Abstract: Are multinational corporations (MNCs) superior to strategic alliances and markets in facilitating the flow of knowledge across borders? If so, what are the sources of this superiority? Despite their central importance to the theory and practice of international management, these questions have not been directly tested. This paper seeks to address this gap in empirical research. The findings suggest that the superiority of MNCs stems from the firms' ability to use multiple mechanisms of knowledge transfer flexibly and simultaneously to move, integrate, and develop technical knowledge.
  • Firms are more important than markets in knowledge transfer
  • Multinational corporations (MNCs)
  • Research and Development (R&D)
  • Low transaction cost between firms and alliances

Giving The Market A Microphone: Solutions To The Ongoing Displacement Of U.S. Workers Through The H1B Visa Program[edit | edit source]

Trimbach, S. (2016). Giving the Market a Microphone: Solutions to the Ongoing Discplacement of US Workers through the H1B Visa Program. Nw. J. Int'l L. & Bus., 37, 275.

  • Abstract: In recent years, the H1B visa program has been mired in controversy. Some have pointed out the way the program is used to aid in outsourcing. Others have suggested that employers pay H1B workers less than their U.S. counterparts, effectively allowing employers to import cheaper foreign labor. In fact, these can go hand-in-hand. The less an employer has to pay an H1B worker, the less expensive it is to use the program to outsource jobs. In addition to these problems, this Note identifies one more: while the current structure of the program helps employers bridge a labor gap when there aren’t enough qualified U.S. workers in a field, it simultaneously perpetuates that labor gap so that U.S. workers do not enter the field and employers must continue hiring through the H1B program.
  • Paying H1B workers less prevents native workers entering field
  • Existence of outsourcing firms
  • Outsourcing firms' abuse on H1B workers
  • Outsourcing firms abuse system and limit the number of visas for others
  • Process of green card delayed when change employer
  • Over-qualified H1B candidates
  • Firms game the system to pay lowest
  • Employee not willing to change employer due to process reset (green card)
  • Limited mobility for H1B holders ↑ (Employers prefer)
  • Insufficient and ineffective wage data on H1B workers ( Market does not exist for H1B workers)
  • Increase wages for H1B workers to incentivize US workers
  • Do not reset visa process, could save money when employee switching jobs

The Triad Of Credentialing Processes In Engineer Quality Regulation: Accreditation, Certification, And Licensure/Registration[edit | edit source]

Jang, S., & Yu, F. (2008). The triad of credentialing processes in Engineer Quality Regulation: Accreditation, certification, and licensure/registration. PICMET ’08 - 2008 Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering Technology, 1955–1962. https://doi.org/10.1109/PICMET.2008.4599816

  • Abstract: The engineering licensing law established 100 years ago in USA, which aims at protecting the public security and welfare, combining with the currently hot mutual recognition qualification of engineers for their cross-country mobility are built upon the base of Engineer Quality Regulation. After 100 years’ development, in the field of Engineer Quality Regulation, there is the triad of credentialing processes: Accreditation, Certification, and Licensure/Regulation. The article explains and compares those core special words; points out the concept confusion now in the world in this field; describes the principle of quality assurance reflected in this triad system. The paper focuses on USA model of this triad of credentialing processes, how and why it came to today, its future trend; simply compares USA model with the models of Canada and UK; analyzes the reason why the three countries have different models of Engineer Quality Regulation. China’s model is on the process of forming, there are some problems and confusions needed to study and learn from the international experience.

The International Mobility Of Talent And Its Impact On Global Development[edit | edit source]

Solimano, A. (2006). The International Mobility of Talent and its Impact on Global Development.

  • Abstract: Human talent is a key economic resource and a source of creative power in science, technology, business, arts and culture and other activities. Talent has a large economic value and its mobility has increased with globalization, the spread of new information technologies and lower transportation costs. Well educated and/or talented people are often more internationally mobile than unskilled workers. Immigrants with high human capital face more favourable immigration policies in receiving countries, typically high per capita income economies short of information technology experts, scientists, medical doctors and other types of talent. The purpose of this paper is to review analytical and policy issues related to the international mobility of talented individuals, examining the main types of talent who move internationally, their specific traits and characteristics and the implications of this mobility for source and destination countries and for global development.
  • Fields with diminishing returns are less attractive
  • Individual contribution in teamwork is hard to be detected
  • Most able people may skip higher education
  • Social marginal product & private marginal product
  • Brain gain when workers come back and contribute
  • In increasing returns, higher global mobility will worsen inequality (if people do not return to source country)
  • Bologna process -- European agreements on recognition cross nations

An Overview Of U.S. Accreditation[edit | edit source]

Eaton, J. S. (2006). An Overview of U.S. Accreditation. Council for Higher Education Accreditation. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED494266

  • Abstract: This publication provides a general description of the key features of U.S. accreditation of higher education and recognition of accrediting organizations. Accreditation in the United States is about quality assurance and quality improvement. It is a process to scrutinize higher education institutions and programs. Accreditation is private (nongovernmental) and nonprofit--an outgrowth of the higher education community and not of government. It is funded primarily by the institutions and programs that are accredited. Accreditation has a complex relationship with government, especially in relation to funding higher education. It adds value to society through assuring quality, enabling government to make sound judgments about the use of public funds, aiding the private sector in decisions about financial support and easing transfer of credit. Recognition in the United States is about scrutiny of the quality and effectiveness of accrediting organizations. It is carried out by the higher education enterprise through the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA), a private body, and by the United States Department of Education (USDE). CHEA recognition is funded by institutional dues; USDE recognition is funded by the U.S. Congress. The goals of the two recognition processes are different. CHEA assures that accrediting organizations contribute to maintaining and improving academic quality. USDE assures that accrediting organizations contribute to maintaining the soundness of institutions and programs that receive federal funds. The two recognition processes are similar: self-evaluation based on standards, site visit and report, award of recognition status. Recognition adds value to society as a vital part of accreditation accountability or "accrediting the accreditors."
  • Decentralization
  • Non-governmental accreditation, governmental recognition.

A Proposed Framework For Accreditation Of Online Continuing Medical Education[edit | edit source]

Bamidis, P. D., Nikolaidou, M. M., Konstantinidis, S. T., & Pappas, C. (2007). A Proposed Framework for Accreditation of Online Continuing Medical Education. Twentieth IEEE International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS’07), 693–700. https://doi.org/10.1109/CBMS.2007.10

  • Abstract: Continuing medical education tends to be considered compulsory in most countries although it is described by the Union of European Medical Specialists as an ethical duty. Accreditation of CME and allocation of credits is not yet mandatory in the EU but it is important for providers of educational activities to meet certain quality criteria so as to be prepared for future requirements. Many software platforms and learning management systems (LMS) can be used to support Web-based courses for online CME. Certain standards like SCORM, define the set of specifications that enables cross-system workflows. Updates and extensions of SCORM specifications enable further enhancements. The current research proposes a framework for the accreditation of online CME courses through the enhancement of the SCORM model and the use of metadata, using a SCORM-compliant open source LMS platform, namely, moodle. The model assumes the definition of learning objects and learning outcomes for a specific target audience of the course and the design of an instructional module incorporating several types of learning material.
  • Accreditation for e-learning and online education

Internationalization And Quality Assurance: Towards Worldwide Accreditation?[edit | edit source]

Van Damme, D. (2000). Internationalization and quality assurance: Towards worldwide accreditation? European Journal for Education Law and Policy, 4(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009994906190

  • Abstract: This paper addresses two very closely related issues, namely the integration of the quality dimension in internationalization policies in higher education and the adaptation of quality assurance policies and practices to an increasingly international environment. Through an analysis of some issues and challenges in internationalization on the one hand and an overview of recent developments in quality assurance on the other, our objective is to question how internationalization and quality assurance can be integrated. Internationalization policies and practices are lacking a quality assurance dimension and quality assurance approaches are too much confined to national contexts. Can quality assurance give answers to the challenges facing internationalization and can the introduction of an international dimension give a solution to issues in the field of quality assurance. This paper then focuses on the concept of multiple accreditation and the development of worldwide mutual accreditation networks among institutions as a possible avenue for future progress.

Recognizing Contributors: An Experiment On Public Goods[edit | edit source]

Savikhin Samek, A., & Sheremeta, R. M. (2014). Recognizing contributors: an experiment on public goods. Experimental Economics, 4(17), 673–690. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10683-013-9389-1

  • Abstract: [They] experimentally investigate the impact of recognizing contributors on public good contributions. [They] vary recognizing all, highest or lowest contributors. Consistent with previous studies, recognizing all contributors significantly increases contributions relative to the baseline. Recognizing only the highest contributors does not increase contributions compared to not recognizing contributors, while recognizing only the lowest contributors is as effective as recognizing all contributors. These findings support our conjecture that aversion from shame is a more powerful motivator for giving than anticipation of prestige.
  • Social recognition
  • Prestige or shame driven
  • Altruism

Champions of Revealing—The Role Of Open Source Developers In Commercial Firms[edit | edit source]

Henkel, J. (2009). Champions of revealing—the role of open source developers in commercial firms. Industrial and Corporate Change, 18(3), 435–471. https://doi.org/10.1093/icc/dtn046

  • Abstract: The link between firms engaging in open source software (OSS) development and the OSS community is established by individual developers. This linkage might entail a principal-agent issue due to the developer's double allegiance to firm and OSS community, and expose the firm to the risk of losing intellectual property. Using both interviews and a large-scale survey, I substantiate the importance of the developer's role. However, neither interview data nor regression analysis show indications of commercially harmful revealing behavior induced by “Free Software ideology.” Management, on the other hand, sometimes seems to be overly concerned about openness. I conclude that a more positive stance towards openness will allow firms to better share in the benefits of open innovation processes.
  • Management took over-restrictive stance on OSS
  • Firms reveal partial code to be recognized and gain from other contributes, diminishing returns

The Impact of Skilled Foreign Workers on Firms: An Investigation of Publicly Traded U.S. Firms[edit | edit source]

Ghosh, A., Mayda, A. M., & Ortega, F. (2014). The Impact of Skilled Foreign Workers on Firms: An Investigation of Publicly Traded U.S. Firms (SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 2534712). Social Science Research Network. https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2534712

  • Abstract: Many U.S. businessmen are vocally in favor of an increase in the number of H-1B visas. Is there systematic evidence that this would positively affect firms' productivity, sales, employment or profits? To address these questions we assemble a unique dataset that matches all labor condition applications (LCAs) – the first step towards H-1B visas for skilled foreign-born workers in the U.S. – with firm-level data on publicly traded U.S. firms (from Compustat). Our identification is based on the sharp reduction in the annual H-1B cap that took place in 2004, combined with information on the degree of dependency on H-1B visas at the firm level as in Kerr and Lincoln (2010).The main result of this paper is that if the cap on H-1B visas were relaxed, a subset of firms would experience gains in average labor productivity, firm size, and profits. These are firms that conduct R&D and are heavy users of H-1B workers – they belong to the top quintile among filers of LCAs. These empirical findings are consistent with a heterogeneous-firms model where innovation enhances productivity and is subject to fixed costs.
  • Firms would like cap of H1B visas raised
  • H1B workers are critical and beneficial to R&D
  • Non-linear relation between H1B caps and firm outcomes, relate it to the case of Disney (Outsourcing), abusing H1B system
  • H1B caps are low currently
  • Ethic diversity leads to more productivity -> Denmark
  • Immigration concentration is not equal to ethic diversity
  • H1B worker benefits high tech firms more -> STEM
  • Subsets of firms will benefit if H1B caps are loosen

How Much Does Immigration Boost Innovation? American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics[edit | edit source]

Hunt, J., & Gauthier-Loiselle, M. (2010). How Much Does Immigration Boost Innovation? American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, 2(2), 31–56. https://doi.org/10.1257/mac.2.2.31

  • Abstract: We measure the extent to which skilled immigrants increase innovation in the United States. The 2003 National Survey of College Graduates shows that immigrants patent at double the native rate, due to their disproportionately holding science and engineering degrees. Using a 1940-2000 state panel, we show that a 1 percentage point increase in immigrant college graduates' population share increases patents per capita by 9-18 percent. Our instrument for the change in the skilled immigrant share is based on the 1940 distribution across states of immigrants from various source regions and the subsequent national increase in skilled immigration from these regions. (JEL J24, J61, O31, O33)
  • Positive spillover from immigrants

Think different: Increasing online community participation using uniqueness and group dissimilarity[edit | edit source]

Ludford, P. J., Cosley, D., Frankowski, D., & Terveen, L. (2004). Think different: increasing online community participation using uniqueness and group dissimilarity. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 631–638. https://doi.org/10.1145/985692.985772

  • Abstract: Online communities can help people form productive relationships Unfortunately, this potential is not always fulfilled: many communities fail, and designers don't have a solid understanding of why. We know community activity begets activity. The trick, however, is to inspire participation in the first place. Social theories suggest methods to spark positive community participation. We carried out a field experiment that tested two such theories. We formed discussion communities around an existing movie recommendation web site, manipulating two factors: (1) similarity - we controlled how similar group members' movie ratings were; and (2) uniqueness - we told members how their movie ratings (with respect to a discussion topic) were unique within the group. Both factors positively influenced participation. The results offer a practical success story in applying social science theory to the design of online communities.

The End of Money and the Future of Civilization[edit | edit source]

Greco, T. (2009). The End of Money and the Future of Civilization. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Beyond Money: Toward an Economy of Well-Being. Psychological Science in the Public Interest[edit | edit source]

Diener, E., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Beyond Money: Toward an Economy of Well-Being. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 5(1), 1–31. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0963-7214.2004.00501001.x

International migration, border controls and human rights: Assessing the relevance of a right to mobility[edit | edit source]

Pécoud, A., & Guchteneire, P. de. (2006). International migration, border controls and human rights: Assessing the relevance of a right to mobility. Journal of Borderlands Studies, 21(1), 69–86. https://doi.org/10.1080/08865655.2006.9695652

  • Abstract: This article discusses the arguments in favor of and against a right to mobility. It argues that contemporary migration and border policies are largely restrictive but still fail to meet their proclaimed objectives which call for alternative approaches to international human flows. From a human rights perspective, tight border controls are accompanied by major challenges; including trafficking, the asylum crisis, and the death and vulnerability of irregular migrants; which ultimately threaten the moral foundations of liberal democracies. In this context, a right to mobility may constitute a relevant answer and the article examines the implications of such a right in terms of world justice, social cohesion, economic wealth, security, and border/migration governance.
  • Non-liberalization is the exception
  • Cost of internal immigration control
  • Cost report from IMO (International Organization for Migration
  • Minimal protection of personhood
  • Benign neglect for employers
  • Tighter border control increase illegal business -> self-perpetuating -> leads to even tighter control
  • Free choice of employment
  • Immigration tend to stay permanently with strict policy
  • Development aid to poor country -> does not appear to be useful
  • Development itself does not improve equality, accept immigrants is more acceptable?
  • Border control reinforces racism? (P12, Hayter, 2000)
  • Free migration reduces flows (P12, Rodrik, 2002)
  • Smart borders other than barriers (P14, Andreas 2003)
  • Liberal immigration policy -> more attention on actual threats to security

Death at the Border: Efficacy and Unintended Consequences of US Immigration Control Policy[edit | edit source]

Cornelius, W. A. (2001). Death at the Border: Efficacy and Unintended Consequences of US Immigration Control Policy. Population and Development Review, 27(4), 661–685. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2695182

  • Abstract:

Redrawing the Line: Borders and Security in the Twenty-First Century[edit | edit source]

Andreas, P. (2003). Redrawing the Line: Borders and Security in the Twenty-first Century. International Security, 28(2), 78–111. https://doi.org/10.1162/016228803322761973

Migration of highly skilled persons from developing countries: Impact and policy[edit | edit source]

B. Lindsay Lowell, A. F. (2002). Migration of highly skilled persons from developing countries: Impact and policy - Synthesis report [Working paper]. http://www.ilo.org/global/topics/labour-migration/publications/WCMS_201706/lang--en/index.htm

  • Emigration stimulates sending countries (P6)
  • Migration policies to improve poorer countries (P11, DFID, 2000)
  • Flow of HQP generate HQP (P12, Mountford, 1997), stimulate domestic education
  • Brain waste
  • Policies promote return migration (P14, Haque and Kahn, 1997)
  • Remittance from expatriate in India (P15, Khadria, 2001)
  • Brightest stay permanent, least return (P17)
  • Failure of institution on educating and training, migrants limited to specific occupations (P20)
  • Business always tries to reduce their cost
  • International competitivity requires global mobility (P21)
  • Strengthen domestic education system in source countries (P24)
  • Policies to retain skilled worker (P24)
  • Encourage return migrants (P25)
  • Type J visa ensure workers return to source country (P25)
  • The UK Department of Health Guidelines on the International Recruitment of Nurses (1999)
  • Home country post job for potential return workers (P26)
  • Dual nationality and citizenship (P26)
  • Negative "head-hunting" effect (P26)
  • Bilateral agreement target shortage in receiving and surplus in source countries (P26) -> not good for short term?
  • Page numbers are for browser not the actual page number **
  • P28

Can A Brain Drain Be Good For Growth In The Source Economy?[edit | edit source]

Mountford, A. (1997). Can a brain drain be good for growth in the source economy? Journal of Development Economics, 53(2), 287–303. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3878(97)00021-7

  • Abstract: This paper analyzes the interaction between income distribution, human capital accumulation and migration. It shows that when migration is not a certainty, a brain drain may increase average productivity and equality in the source economy even though average productivity is a positive function of past average levels of human capital in an economy. It is also shown how the temporary possibility of emigration may permanently increase the average level of productivity of an economy.

Fiscal Policy, Human Capital, And Canada-US Labor Market Integration[edit | edit source]

Wildasin, D. (2003). Fiscal Policy, Human Capital, and Canada-US Labor Market Integration (No. 889; IZA Discussion Papers). Institute of Labor Economics (IZA). https://ideas.repec.org/p/iza/izadps/dp889.html

  • Abstract: This paper analyzes some of the implications of North American labor market integration for fiscal policy. The economies of Canada and the US are both characterized by highly integrated internal markets for goods and services as well as for labor and capital, and subnational governments in both economies play an important role in the financing and provision of public goods and services, including higher education. Despite theoretical insights from traditional trade theory that suggest that “trade and migration are substitutes”, labor markets in both the US and Canada exhibit substantial and persistent interregional migration, with gross migration rates that greatly exceed net migration rates, especially for highly-educated workers. High gross migration rates are consistent with the hypothesis that education contributes to skill-specialization and worker heterogeneity, and that mobility provides a form of insurance for investment in risky human capital. Mobility also constrains the ability of competitive governments to engage in redistributive financing of human capital investment, and recent trends in both the US and Canada reveal a diminishing level of financial support for public-sector institutions by subnational governments. The implications of labor market integration for the efficiency of resource allocation, for income determination, and for fiscal competition are important for evaluations of tax and education policies both at the subnational and at the international levels.

The Consequences Of Increased Labour Mobility Within An Integrating North America[edit | edit source]

Harris, R., & Schmitt, N. (2003). The consequences of increased labour mobility within an integrating North America. North American linkages: Opportunities and challenges for Canada, 313-52.

  • Abstractː

The Brain Drain: Curse Or Boon?[edit | edit source]

Commander, S. J., Kangasniemi, M., & Winters, L. A. (2003). The Brain Drain: Curse or Boon? (SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 422547). Social Science Research Network. https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=422547

Estimating Development Effort In Free/Open Source Software Projects By Mining Software Repositories: A Case Study Of OpenStack[edit | edit source]

Robles, G., González-Barahona, J. M., Cervigón, C., Capiluppi, A., & Izquierdo-Cortázar, D. (2014). Estimating development effort in Free/Open source software projects by mining software repositories: a case study of OpenStack. Proceedings of the 11th Working Conference on Mining Software Repositories, 222–231. https://doi.org/10.1145/2597073.2597107

Enhancing Labor Mobility In ASEAN: Focus On Lower-skilled Workers[edit | edit source]

Orbeta, A. J. C. (2013). Enhancing Labor Mobility in ASEAN: Focus on Lower-skilled Workers (Working Paper No. 2013–17). PIDS Discussion Paper Series. https://www.econstor.eu/handle/10419/126934

  • Abstract: It is clear from data that worker movements in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), like elsewhere, are dominated by unskilled and semiskilled workers. It is also well-known that movements of these types of workers are dominated by irregular migration mainly because of lack of avenues for legal migration for them (Abella 2006). Yet discussions either globally (within and outside GATS) and regionally such as under AFAS/AEC are all focused on professionals and highly skilled workers. This attitude continues even if both back-of-the-envelope and systematic calculations using general equilibrium models show that movements of workers, in general, and lower-skilled workers, in particular, are beneficial not only for sending but for host country citizens as well (Walmsley et al. 2007).The paper provides recommendations based on known initiatives/measures to facilitate freer labor movements in ASEAN. The focus is lower-skilled workers because existing discussion such as the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) Blueprint does not yet cover them. To achieve this, the paper provides a description of (a) the policy and institutional arrangements, both at the national and regional level, that currently govern the cross-country labor movement within ASEAN for both skilled and unskilled workers; and (b) the analytical framework that supports the discussions in deriving the recommendations. The paper also pointed out that not only can existing arrangements be extended to cover lower-skilled workers but also that there are already experiences on these types of worker movements.

The Future Of Globalization. Cooperation And Conflict[edit | edit source]

HIRST, P., & THOMPSON, G. (2002). The Future of Globalization. Cooperation and Conflict, 37(3), 247–265. https://doi.org/10.1177/0010836702037003671

  • Abstract: This article considers the future of `globalization', conceived here as processes promoting international interconnectedness. Three questions are examined. First, is contemporary globalization unusual compared to past episodes such as 1850-1914? Then there was rapid growth in trade, capital flows and migration comparable to or greater than today. There was also a policy backlash and the widespread adoption of protectionist policies. Second, are contemporary globalization processes undermining national economies and thus hollowing out states? On the contrary, the major states are reinforced in their role of international actors. However, both the global economy and national governments will face crucial challenges during this century, the chief of which is climate change. Such changes will tend to foster conflict and thus reinforce the role of the state, but in a context where governance at every level will be harder to achieve. Third, is economic globalization likely to increase or decrease? Evidence about the effects of borders and the limits to trade expansion are presented, which indicate that we could be close to the limits of feasible globalization.

Green Card Problems Persist For High Skill Immigrants - NFAP Policy Brief[edit | edit source]

Anderson, S. (2012). Still Waiting: Green Card Problems Persist for High Skill Immigrants - NFAP Policy Brief (SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 2084209). Social Science Research Network. https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2084209

  • Abstract: Over the past several months, skilled foreign nationals have seen no improvement in their prospects for obtaining green cards and, in fact, wait times are likely to increase in employment-based immigration categories, according to a new report released by the National Foundation for American Policy (NFAP), an Arlington, Va.-based policy research group. An earlier analysis by the National Foundation for American Policy concluded (in October 2011) that wait times for employment-based green cards sponsored today can last 5 years or even decades, depending on the category and country of origin. And now, according to the U.S. Department of State, a wait time may be developing for prospective immigrants in the employment-based first preference (EB-1) category (outstanding researchers and professors, aliens of extraordinary ability), which previously had no backlog. Moreover, in another new development, skilled foreign nationals from countries other than China and India in the employment-based second preference (EB-2), for persons of “exceptional ability” and “advanced degree” holders, will soon experience backlogs. And for at least the rest of Fiscal Year 2012, the U.S. Department of State is not accepting new green card applications for nationals of China and India in the EB-2 category.

Feasible Globalizations[edit | edit source]

Rodrik, D. (2002). Feasible Globalizations (No. w9129). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w9129

  • Abstract: The nation-state system, democratic politics, and full economic integration are mutually incompatible. Of the three, at most two can be had together. The Bretton Woods/GATT regime was successful because its architects subjugated international economic integration to the needs and demands of national economic management and democratic politics. A renewed 'Bretton-Woods compromise' would preserve some limits on integration, while crafting better global rules to handle the integration that can be achieved. Among 'feasible globalization,' the most promising is a multilaterally negotiated visa scheme that allows expanded (but temporary) entry into the advanced nations of a mix of skilled and unskilled workers from developing nations. Such a scheme would likely create income gains that are larger than all of the items on the WTO negotiating agenda taken together, even if it resulted in a relatively small increase in cross-border labor flows.
  • incentives for skilled workers to return (P25)

Globalisation, International Labour Migration And The Rights of Migrant Workers[edit | edit source]

Wickramasekara, P. (2008). Globalisation, International Labour Migration and the Rights of Migrant Workers. Third World Quarterly, 29(7), 1247–1264. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20455108

  • Abstract: The aim of the paper is to highlight the gaps between policy and practice in the current discourse on international migration and its links with development. It contends that a major cause of the limited development impact of migration is the 'closed door policy' of major destination countries on the admission of low-skilled migrant workers from developing countries. The paper addresses the weak foundations and major consequences of this policy: the denial of labour demand, channelling a large part of flows to irregular migration, consequent exploitation and violation of rights of migrant workers, and accelerated brain drain from developing countries. While there is increasing emphasis on temporary migration policies and programmes for low skilled labour, achievements on the ground have been quite limited. The movement towards a global migration regime which can address current pressing issues has also not progressed beyond broad consultative forums. There is an imperative needfor fresh approaches and bold initiatives to promote international labour mobility for the welfare of the global community.

The Effect Of The H-1B Quota On The Employment And Selection Of Foreign-Born Labor[edit | edit source]

Mayda, A. M., Ortega, F., Peri, G., Shih, K., & Sparber, C. (2018). The effect of the H-1B quota on the employment and selection of foreign-born labor. European Economic Review, 108, 105–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroecorev.2018.06.010

  • Abstract: The H-1B program allows skilled foreign-born individuals to work in the United States. The annual quota on new issuances of H-1B status fell from 195,000 to 65,000 in fiscal year 2004. This cap did not apply to new employees of colleges, universities, and non-profit research institutions. Existing H-1B holders seeking to renew their status were also exempt from the quota. Using a triple difference approach, this paper demonstrates that cap restrictions significantly reduced the hiring of new H-1B workers in for-profit firms relative to what would have occurred in an unconstrained environment. Declines were most pronounced at the top and bottom quintiles of the wage distribution. Restrictions did not reduce hiring of new H-1B workers from India, in computer-related occupations, or at firms using the H-1B program intensively.

H-1B Cap[edit | edit source]

H-1B Cap | Quota, Timeline, Premium Processing, Exemptions. (n.d.). SGM Law Group. Retrieved February 22, 2021, from https://www.immi-usa.com/h1b-visa/h-1b-cap/

America’s New Immigrant Entrepreneurs: Part I[edit | edit source]

Wadhwa, V., Saxenian, A., Rissing, B. A., & Gereffi, G. (2007). America’s New Immigrant Entrepreneurs: Part I (SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 990152). Social Science Research Network. https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=990152

  • Abstract: This purpose of this research was to assess the contribution of skilled immigrants in the creation of engineering and technology businesses and intellectual property in the United States. We found there was at least one immigrant key founder in 25.3% of all engineering and technology companies established in the U.S. between 1995 and 2005 inclusive. We estimate that together, this pool of immigrant-founded companies was responsible for generating more than $52 billion in 2005 sales and creating just under 450,000 jobs as of 2005. This research shows that immigrants have become a significant driving force in the creation of new businesses and intellectual property in the U.S. and that their contributions have increased over the past decade.

Strengthening Wage Protections For The Temporary And Permanent Employment Of Certain Aliens In The United States[edit | edit source]

Strengthening Wage Protections for the Temporary and Permanent Employment of Certain Aliens in the United States. (2020, October 8). Federal Register. https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2020/10/08/2020-22132/strengthening-wage-protections-for-the-temporary-and-permanent-employment-of-certain-aliens-in-the

  • Abstract: The Department of Labor (DOL or the Department) is amending Employment and Training Administration (ETA) regulations governing the prevailing wages for employment opportunities that United States (U.S.) employers seek to fill with foreign workers on a permanent or temporary basis through certain employment-based immigrant visas or through H-1B, H-1B1, or E-3 nonimmigrant visas. Specifically, DOL is amending its regulations governing permanent labor certifications and Labor Condition Applications (LCAs) to incorporate changes to the computation of wage levels under the Department's four-tiered wage structure based on the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) wage survey administered by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The primary purpose of these changes is to update the computation of prevailing wage levels under the existing four-tier wage structure to better reflect the actual wages earned by U.S. workers similarly employed to foreign workers. This update will allow DOL to more effectively ensure that the employment of immigrant and nonimmigrant workers admitted or otherwise provided status through the above-referenced programs does not adversely affect the wages and job opportunities of U.S. workers.

The Effects Of Labor Market Competition With Immigrants On The Wages And Employment Of Natives[edit | edit source]

Raphael, S., & Ronconi, L. (2007). THE EFFECTS OF LABOR MARKET COMPETITION WITH IMMIGRANTS ON THE WAGES AND EMPLOYMENT OF NATIVES: What Does Existing Research Tell Us? Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race, 4(2), 413–432. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1742058X07070233

  • Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the current debate among economists pertaining to the effects of recent immigration on the earnings and employment of native-born workers. Since much of this debate revolves around methodological differences in research design, we devote much of our effort to discussing the various strategies that researchers have used to isolate immigrant competition effects, and attempt to clarify the strengths and weaknesses of each strategy. Our overall assessment is that the central tendency of the research evidence suggests that recent immigration has had only a modest effect on the labor market prospects of native-born Americans. Some potential hypotheses that may explain this lack of a large impact are capital accumulation and the imperfect substitutability between natives and immigrants.
  • Minimum effect from foreign workers on locals

US Immigration Policy And The Case For Family Unity. Journal On Migration And Human Security[edit | edit source]

Gubernskaya, Z., & Dreby, J. (2017). US Immigration Policy and the Case for Family Unity. Journal on Migration and Human Security, 5(2), 417–430. https://doi.org/10.1177/233150241700500210

  • Abstract: As the Trump administration contemplates immigration reform, it is important to better understand what works and what does not in the current system. This paper reviews and critically evaluates the principle of family unity, a hallmark of US immigration policy over the past 50 years and the most important mechanism for immigration to the United States. Since 1965, the United States has been admitting a relatively high proportion of family-based migrants and allowing for the immigration of a broader range of family members. However, restrictive annual quotas have resulted in a long line of prospective immigrants waiting outside of the United States or within the United States, but without status. Further policy changes have led to an increasing number of undocumented migrants and mixed-status families in the United States. Several policies and practices contribute to prolonged periods of family separation by restricting travel and effectively locking in a large number of people either inside or outside of the United States. On top of that, increasingly aggressive enforcement practices undermine family unity of a large number of undocumented and mixed-status families. Deportations — and even a fear of deportation —cause severe psychological distress and often leave US-born children of undocumented parents without economic and social support. A recent comprehensive report concluded that immigration has overall positive impact on the US economy, suggesting that a predominantly family-based migration system carries net economic benefits. Immigrants rely on family networks for employment, housing, transportation, informal financial services, schooling, childcare, and old age care. In the US context where there is nearly no federal support for immigrants' integration and limited welfare policies, family unity is critical for promoting immigrant integration, social and economic well-being, and intergenerational mobility. Given the benefits of family unity in the US immigrant context and the significant negative consequences of family separation, the United States would do well to make a number of changes to current policy and practice that reaffirm its commitment to family unity. Reducing wait times for family reunification with spouses and children of lawful permanent residents, allowing prospective family-based migrants to visit their relatives in the United States while their applications are being processed, and providing relief from deportation and a path to legalization to parents and spouses of US citizens should be prioritized. The cost to implement these measures would likely be minor compared to current and projected spending on immigration enforcement and it would be more than offset by the improved health and well-being of American families.

The Impact Of Immigrants On Host Country Wages, Employment And Growth[edit | edit source]

Friedberg, R. M., & Hunt, J. (1995). The Impact of Immigrants on Host Country Wages, Employment and Growth. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9(2), 23–44. https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.9.2.23

  • Abstract: The popular belief that immigrants have a large adverse impact on the wages and employment opportunities of the native-born population of the receiving country is not supported by the empirical evidence. A 10 percent increase in the fraction of immigrants in the population reduces native wages by 0-1 percent. Even those natives who are the closest substitutes with immigrant labor do not suffer significantly as a result of increased immigration. There is no evidence of economically significant reductions in native employment. The impact on natives' per capita income growth depends crucially on the immigrants' human capital levels.

The Global Mobility Divide: How Visa Policies Have Evolved Over Time[edit | edit source]

Mau, S., Gülzau, F., Laube, L., & Zaun, N. (2015). The Global Mobility Divide: How Visa Policies Have Evolved over Time. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 41(8), 1192–1213. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2015.1005007

  • Abstract: While visa policies are the major instrument for regulating and controlling the global flow of people, little is known about how they have changed over time. Accordingly, scholars have expressed the need for large-N data-sets which cover more than one point in time. This article takes up this challenge and presents for the first time a global overview of the changes in visa waiver policies based on a newly created database containing the visa waiver policies of over 150 countries for 1969 and 2010. We find that, on average, visa-free mobility has increased over the past 40 years. However, not everybody has benefited from these developments. In fact, visa waivers are increasingly unequally divided: while citizens of OECD countries and rich countries have gained mobility rights, mobility rights for other regions have stagnated or even diminished, in particular for citizens from African countries. Overall, we find a clear bifurcation in mobility rights, leading to a ‘global mobility divide’.

Quotas And Quality: The Effect Of H-1B Visa Restrictions On The Pool Of Prospective Undergraduate Students From Abroad[edit | edit source]

Kato, T., & Sparber, C. (2011). Quotas and Quality: The Effect of H-1B Visa Restrictions on the Pool of Prospective Undergraduate Students from Abroad. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 95(1), 109–126. https://doi.org/10.1162/REST_a_00245

  • Abstract: In October 2003, the United States drastically reduced the number of H-1B visas available for foreign-born workers. Such restrictions could make U.S. colleges less attractive to foreign students considering an American education as a pathway to U.S. employment. Citizens from five countries are de facto exempt from the visa restrictions, however. Our difference-in-difference estimates show that restrictive immigration policy reduced SAT scores of international applicants by about 1.5% and decreased the number of SAT score reports sent by international students at the top quintile of the SAT score distribution. Restrictive immigration policy disproportionately discourages high-ability international students from pursuing education in the United States.

Outsourcing America’s Technology And Knowledge Jobs: High-Skill Guest Worker Visas Are Currently Hurting Rather Than Helping Keep Jobs At home[edit | edit source]

Hira, R. (2007). Outsourcing America’s technology and knowledge jobs: High–skill guest worker visas are currently hurting rather than helping keep jobs at home. Economic Policy Institute Briefing Paper, 187, 1-8.

  • Abstract: This briefing paper focuses on two key policy mechanisms for high-skill labor mobility and immigration, the H-1B and the L-1 guest worker visas. In practice these programs not only fail to meet their policy goals, they actually work against them. And more importantly, the vast expansion of the H-1B program passed by the U.S. Senate last year will make the programs even more harmful. If these H-1B provisions were to be signed into law, the consequences are obvious: they would directly lead to more offshore outsourcing of jobs, displacement of American technology workers, decreased wages and job opportunities for those same workers, and the discouragement of young people from entering science and engineering fields. Instead of expanding these non-immigrant work-permit programs, Congress should focus on repairing them so that they serve their intended purposes.
  • H1B used as cheap labor program (P3)
  • Low incentives for natives to work since peers are over-qualified for this field
  • Prevailing wage met but not the market wage (P4)
  • Violation by employees (P4)

Migration Of Skilled Workers And Innovation: A European Perspective[edit | edit source]

Bosetti, V., Cattaneo, C., & Verdolini, E. (2015). Migration of skilled workers and innovation: A European Perspective. Journal of International Economics, 96(2), 311–322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinteco.2015.04.002

  • Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of skilled migration on two measures of innovation, patenting and bibliometric data, in a panel of 20 European countries between 1995 and 2008. The empirical findings show that a larger pool of migrants in the skilled professions is associated with higher levels of knowledge creation. Skilled migrants contribute both to the creation of “private” knowledge, measured by the number of patent applications through the Patent Cooperation Treaty, and to more “public” basic research, measured by the number of citations to published articles. This finding is robust, in that it uses both an occupation-based and an education-based index of skilled migration, as well as an instrumental variable estimation accounting for the endogeneity of the skilled migrants indicator and to a number of robustness checks. Our results suggest that policy efforts aiming at attracting skilled migrants to Europe and employing them in skilled professions, such as those put forward in the Europe 2020 Strategy, will indeed foster EU competitiveness in innovation.

Transatlantic Roundtable On High–skilled Migration And Sending Countries Issues[edit | edit source]

Ouaked, S. (2002). Transatlantic Roundtable on High–skilled Migration and Sending Countries Issues. International Migration, 40(4), 153–166. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2435.00209

  • Abstract: Globalization and the advent of the knowledge economy have created a new context where there is a greater demand for the highly skilled, especially in the information technology (IT) industry. High–skilled migration has become increasingly more complex, even if in recent years the term “brain drain” has become a generic reference to “high–skilled migration” of all types. It has also become clear that brain mobility does not automatically translate into “brain drain”, and that impacts vary by the types of skills held by migrants.

Open Borders[edit | edit source]

Kennan, J. (2013). Open borders. Review of Economic Dynamics, 16(2), L1–L13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.red.2012.08.003

  • Abstract: There is a large body of evidence indicating that cross-country differences in income levels are associated with differences in productivity. If workers are much more productive in one country than in another, restrictions on immigration lead to large efficiency losses. The paper quantifies these losses, using a model in which efficiency differences are labor-augmenting, and free trade in product markets leads to factor price equalization, so that wages are equal across countries when measured in efficiency units of labor. The estimated gains from removing immigration restrictions are huge. Using a simple static model of migration costs, the estimated net gains from open borders are about the same as the gains from a growth miracle that more than doubles the income level in less-developed countries.

Aliens And Citizens: The Case For Open Borders[edit | edit source]

Carens, J. H. (1987). Aliens and Citizens: The Case for Open Borders. The Review of Politics, 49(2), 251–273. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1407506

  • Abstract: Many poor and oppressed people wish to leave their countries of origin in the third world to come to affluent Western societies. This essay argues that there is little justification for keeping them out. The essay draws on three contemporary approaches to political theory - the Rawlsian, the Nozickean, and the utilitarian - to construct arguments for open borders. The fact that all three theories converge upon the same results on this issue, despite their significant disagreements on others, strengthens the case for open borders and reveals its roots in our deep commitment to respect all human beings as free and equal moral persons. The final part of the essay considers communitarian objections to this conclusion, especially those of Michael Walzer.

Working for Free? Motivations for Participating in Open-Source Projects[edit | edit source]

Alexander Hars, S. O. (2002). Working for Free? Motivations for Participating in Open-Source Projects. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 6(3), 25–39. https://doi.org/10.1080/10864415.2002.11044241

  • Abstractː The success of the Linux operating system has demonstrated the viability of open-source software, an alternative form of software development that challenges traditional assumptions about software markets. Understanding why developers participate in open-source projects is crucial for assessing the impact of open-source software. Their motivations fall into two broad categories: internal factors (e.g., intrinsic motivation, altruism) and external rewards (e.g., expected future returns, personal needs). The results of a survey administered to open-source programmers are summarized.
  • Self marketing, attract recruitment from profit sectors (P4)
  • Personal needs driving OS contributors (P4)

Making People Illegal: What Globalization Means for Migration and Law[edit | edit source]

Fornalé, E. (2011). Catherine Dauvergne, Making People Illegal: What Globalization Means for Migration and Law. Human Rights Law Review, 11(3), 600–603. https://doi.org/10.1093/hrlr/ngr018

  • During the last few years, the phenomenon of international migration has become a matter of concern, highlighting several critical issues pertinent to the relationship between the protection of migrants in an ‘illegal’ situation and the implementation of international human rights standards. This book constitutes a valuable contribution to the recent academic debate highlighting the positive influence of migration law to understanding globalisation, bringing together diverse areas of research. The author, arguing that ‘migration law function[s] almost as a laboratory setting for testing globalization's hypotheses’ (p. 2), addresses the sensitive subject of the interpretation of the concept of sovereignty, emphasising the existing gap between the principles agreed by governments to be implemented at the national level and the reality of individuals’ lives. Globalisation challenges the traditional notion of human rights by advancing an individual-centred...

The Cost of Belonging: Citizenship Construction in the State of Qatar[edit | edit source]

Babar, Z. R. (2014). The Cost of Belonging: Citizenship Construction in the State of Qatar. The Middle East Journal, 68(3), 403–420. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/551180

  • Abstractː In Qatar, processes of constructing citizenship have been strongly state-driven over the past four decades. This article reviews the primary influences on Qatari citizenship laws, including historical and contemporary social contexts that have impacted the development of relevant legislation. The article argues that the existing financial privileges of Qatari citizenship as well as the presence of a dominant nonnational population have led to an ever more restrictive legal environment around access to citizenship.

Immigrants, Taxes, and Welfare in the United States[edit | edit source]

Simon, J. L. (1984). Immigrants, Taxes, and Welfare in the United States. Population and Development Review, 10(1), 55–69. https://doi.org/10.2307/1973162

  • Abstractː It has long been recognized that societies may benefit from the immigration of unattached young persons in the prime of life. Nevertheless, immigrants--typically young men and women who arrive without aged dependents and with a relatively small number of children already born--are not generally greeted with open arms in the United States and elsewhere. An investigation of the balance of transfers between immigrants and natives in the United States shows that, from the time of entry until about 12 years later, immigrants use substantially less in the way of public services; subsequently, use by immigrants becomes roughly equal to that by natives. On the contribution side after about three to five years immigrant families pay as much in taxes as do native families; thereafter they pay substantially more. The net balance of these two forces is positive in every year with respect to natives' income
  • 10-15 years immigrant take in as much social services as natives
  • Part of immigrants have no children, or no dependent elders, surplus for community

Free Mobility within the Gulf Cooperation Council[edit | edit source]

Babar Z. (2011). Free Mobility within the Gulf Cooperation Council. Center for International and Regional Studies. CIRS Occasional Paper.

  • Abstractː Stipulations within the formal protocols of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) established free movement of nationals as an essential component of the region’s movement towards full economic integration. This paper analyzes the protocols within the broader construct that stresses human emancipation and freedom of mobility as fundamental human rights. Throughout the GCC, states face the peculiar dilemma of supporting full freedom of mobility for citizens while also severely limiting and curtailing the mobility of the dominant, non-national population. This paper questions how normative debates on the freedom of movement apply to the Gulf region and examines the policy and practice of strictly managing the movement of international migrants while at the same time freeing up movement for citizenry. This paper proposes that in the GCC, the regional political economy and the processes of regionalization and globalization have combined to tighten controls over mobility and migration.
  • Nationals prefer a public jobs with high payment and shorter hours (P25)

Budget of the United States Government[edit | edit source]

The White House. (n.d.). Budget of the United States Government. Retrieved March 25, 2021, from https%3A%2F%2Fwww.govinfo.gov%2Fapp%2Fcollection%2Fbudget

Population and Housing Unit Estimates[edit | edit source]

US Census Bureau, U. C. (n.d.). Population and Housing Unit Estimates. The United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 25, 2021, from https://www.census.gov/popest

From brain drain to brain circulation: Transnational communities and regional upgrading in India and China[edit | edit source]

Saxenian, A. (2005). From brain drain to brain circulation: Transnational communities and regional upgrading in India and China. Studies in comparative international development, 40(2), 35-61.

  • Abstractː By 2000, over one-third of Silicon Valley's high-skilled workers were foreign-born, and overwhelmingly from Asia. These U.S.-educated engineers are transforming developmental opportunities for formerly peripheral regions as they build professional and business connections to their home countries. In a process more akin to "brain circulation" than "brain drain," these engineers and entrepreneurs, aided by the lowered transaction costs associated with digitization, are transferring technical and institutional know-how between distant regional economies faster and more flexibly than most large corporations. This article examines how Chinese- and Indian-born engineers are accelerating the development of the information technology industries in their home countries--initially by tapping the low-cost skill in their home countries, and over time by contributing to highly localized processes of entrepreneurial experimentation and upgrading, while maintain close ties to the technology and markets in Silicon Valley. However, these successful models also raise several questions about the broader relevance of brain circulation outside of several key countries, and regions of those countries, within the global South.
  • Brain drain post war to World third countries (P2)
  • Cultural and linguistic barriers for firms to expand (P5)
  • Returning entrepreneurs created role models for subsequent firms (P6)
  • Returning entrepreneurs advices regional government to reform infrastructures (P8)
  • Silicon Valley seek talent back in firms from source countries (P21)
  • Political frictions stop start-up firms (P22)]

Immigrants in a Booming Economy: Analysing Their Earnings and Welfare Dependence[edit | edit source]

Barrett, A., & McCarthy, Y. (2007). Immigrants in a Booming Economy: Analysing Their Earnings and Welfare Dependence. LABOUR, 21(4–5), 789–808. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9914.2007.00389.x

  • Ireland's exceptional economic growth in recent years has led to an influx of immigrants. Given the favourable economic climate into which these immigrants are arriving, it is interesting to ask how their earnings and welfare dependence compare with the native population. Using data from a nationally representative sample drawn in 2004 immigrants are found to earn 18 per cent less than natives, controlling for education and years of work experience. However, this single figure hides differences across immigrants from English‐speaking and non‐English‐speaking countries. On average, immigrants are half as likely to have been in receipt of social welfare payments in the previous 12 months relative to natives.

Myths about Immigrants[edit | edit source]

Passel, J. S., & Fix, M. (1994). Myths about Immigrants. Foreign Policy, 95, 151–160. https://doi.org/10.2307/1149429

  • Illegal immigrant is a net cost, but actions are not successful

Immigrants Contribute Greatly to U.S. Economy, Despite Administration’s “Public Charge” Rule Rationale[edit | edit source]

Sherman, A., Trisi, D., Stone, C., Gonazales, S., & Parrott, S. (2019). Immigrants Contribute Greatly to U.S. Economy, Despite Administration’s “Public Charge” Rule Rationale. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. https://www.jstor.org/stable/resrep27232

The Economic Benefits from Immigration[edit | edit source]

Borjas, G. J. (1995). The Economic Benefits from Immigration. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9(2), 3–22. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2138164

Dramatically Bringing down the Cost of Education with OER: How Open Education Resources Unlock the Door to Free Learning. Center for American Progress[edit | edit source]

Wiley, D., Green, C., & Soares, L. (2012). Dramatically Bringing down the Cost of Education with OER: How Open Education Resources Unlock the Door to Free Learning. Center for American Progress. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED535639

  • Abstractː The nation is in the midst of a revolution in education. For the first time in human history, tools to enable everyone to attain all the education they desire are available. And best of all this education is available at almost no cost. The key to this sea of change in learning is open education resources, or OER. OER are educational materials produced by one party that are licensed to be used free of charge by others. OER come in many forms--from curriculum to homework assignment to textbooks. And OER exist for all levels of education, from kindergarten through college. OER are already being used by learners for self study, by teachers to enhance classroom learning, and by education providers to bring down the cost of instruction. Clearly, open education resources hold some of the answers to maintaining the quality of learning material while significantly reducing the cost of education. With this brief the authors seek to provide a substantive understanding of OER and at the same time inform the emerging public debate over their use in public education. Finally the authors provide key suggestions for how policymakers can best structure the use of OER.
  • Taxpayers paid for the grants towards faculty already.

Wealth inequality is a barrier to education and social mobility[edit | edit source]

Breno et al. (2017). Wealth inequality is a barrier to education and social mobility | VOCEDplus, the international tertiary education and research database. https://www.voced.edu.au/content/ngv:78316

  • Abstractː The US wealth gap is fueling an education and upward mobility gap. Wealth, along with income, can buy educational achievement through more books, tutors, and private schools. But wealth also offers a level of security that income (and financial aid, like Pell grants) can’t. Young people in families with more wealth can focus on the academic challenges of higher education instead of the financial ones. Because education is a key way to escape poverty and gain economic independence, increasing access to wealth can mean increasing access to opportunity.

YouMagine. (2021). Syringe Pump. YouMagine. https://www.youmagine.com/designs/syringe-pump[edit | edit source]

MyMiniFactory. (2021). 3D Printable syringe pump by Joshua Pearce. https://www.myminifactory.com/object/3d-print-syringe-pump-6927, https://www.myminifactory.com/object/3d-print-syringe-pump-6927[edit | edit source]

Open-Source Syringe Pump Library[edit | edit source]

Wijnen, B., Hunt, E. J., Anzalone, G. C., & Pearce, J. M. (2014). Open-Source Syringe Pump Library. PLOS ONE, 9(9), e107216. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107216

  • Abstractː This article explores a new open-source method for developing and manufacturing high-quality scientific equipment suitable for use in virtually any laboratory. A syringe pump was designed using freely available open-source computer aided design (CAD) software and manufactured using an open-source RepRap 3-D printer and readily available parts. The design, bill of materials and assembly instructions are globally available to anyone wishing to use them. Details are provided covering the use of the CAD software and the RepRap 3-D printer. The use of an open-source Rasberry Pi computer as a wireless control device is also illustrated. Performance of the syringe pump was assessed and the methods used for assessment are detailed. The cost of the entire system, including the controller and web-based control interface, is on the order of 5% or less than one would expect to pay for a commercial syringe pump having similar performance. The design should suit the needs of a given research activity requiring a syringe pump including carefully controlled dosing of reagents, pharmaceuticals, and delivery of viscous 3-D printer media among other applications.

Mobility of highly qualified manpower: A feasibility study on the possibilities to construct internationally comparable indicators[edit | edit source]

Åkerblom, M., & Finland, S. (1999, December). Mobility of highly qualified manpower: A feasibility study on the possibilities to construct internationally comparable indicators. In workshop of OECD Focus Group on Human Resources and Mobility. Paris (Vol. 10).

[edit | edit source]

Riehle, D., Riemer, P., Kolassa, C., & Schmidt, M. (2014). Paid vs. Volunteer Work in Open Source. 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 3286–3295. https://doi.org/10.1109/HICSS.2014.407

  • Abstractː Many open source projects have long become commercial. This paper shows just how much of open source software development is paid work and how much has remained volunteer work. Using a conservative approach, we find that about 50% of all open source software development has been paid work for many years now and that many small projects are fully paid for by companies. However, we also find that any non-trivial project balances the amount of paid developer with volunteer work, and we suggest that the ratio of volunteer to paid work can serve as an indicator for the health of open source projects and aid the management of the respective communities.

SourceForge. (2021b). FreeCAD Download Statistics by OS: All Files. https://sourceforge.net/projects/free-cad/files/stats/os?dates=2002-03-17+to+2021-04-11[edit | edit source]

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Homestyler. (2021). Easy online 3D home design tool with affordable 4K render. Homestyler. https://www.homestyler.com/pricing[edit | edit source]

Home Designer. (2021). Home Designer | Home Design Software for DIY. https://www.homedesignersoftware.com/#products[edit | edit source]

Nova Depvelopment. (2021). Virtual Architect Professional Home Design 10. https://www.novadevelopment.com/software/-507744[edit | edit source]

Sweet Home 3D. (2021). Sweet Home 3D - Draw floor plans and arrange furniture freely. http://www.sweethome3d.com/[edit | edit source]

SourceForce. (2021c). FreeCAD Download Statistics by OS: All Files. https://sourceforge.net/projects/free-cad/files/stats/os?dates=2002-03-17+to+2021-04-11[edit | edit source]

Amazon. (2021). Amazon.com: Sweet Home 3D [PC Download]: Software. https://www.amazon.com/Emmanuel-Puybaret-eTeks-Sweet-Download/dp/B00NLVKPDM/ref=sr_1_2?dchild=1&keywords=sweet+home+3d&qid=1618165506&sr=8-2[edit | edit source]

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SourceForge. (2021d). OpenShot Video Editor Download Statistics by OS: All Files. https://sourceforge.net/projects/openshot-video-editor.mirror/files/stats/os?dates=2020-04-16+to+2021-04-11[edit | edit source]

CyberLink. (2021). PowerDirector Video Editing | Buy CyberLink Video Editing Software Today. https://www.cyberlink.com/store/powerdirector-video-editing-software/buy_en_US.html?affid=2581_1572_540[edit | edit source]

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GitHub. (2021b). FreeCAD/FreeCAD. GitHub. https://github.com/FreeCAD/FreeCAD[edit | edit source]

GitHub. (2021c). OpenShot/openshot-qt. GitHub. https://github.com/OpenShot/openshot-qt[edit | edit source]

Adoption, Improvement, and Disruption: Predicting the Impact of Open Source Applications in Enterprise Software Markets[edit | edit source]

Brydon, M., & Vining, A. R. (2008). Adoption, Improvement, and Disruption: Predicting the Impact of Open Source Applications in Enterprise Software Markets. Journal of Database Management (JDM), 19(2), 73–94. https://doi.org/10.4018/jdm.2008040104

  • Abstractː This article develops a model of open source disruption in enterprise software markets. It addresses the question: Is free and open source software (FOSS) likely to disrupt markets for commercial enterprise software? The conventional wisdom is that open source provision works best for low-level system-oriented technologies, while large, complex enterprise business applications are best served by commercial software vendors. The authors challenge the conventional wisdom by developing a two-stage model of open source disruption in enterprise software markets that emphasizes a virtuous cycle of adoption and lead-user improvement of the software. The two stages are an initial incubation stage (the I-Stage) and a subsequent snowball stage (the S-Stage). Case studies of several FOSS projects demonstrate the model’s ex post predictive value. The authors then apply the model to SugarCRM, an emerging open source CRM application, to make ex ante predictions regarding its potential to disrupt commercial CRM incumbents.
  • Forced some commercial product to go free (P2)
  • Firms participate in FOSS to sell related products and subsidize its FOSS base (P9)
  • Users prefer the flexibility and possibility to innovate the product (P10)
  • Users of business software are mostly only knowledgeable on how to configure the software to support their needs, while users of FOSS are at the same time fluent in programming (P10)
  • Benefits in participating in FOSS for firms exceeds the loss they may face in keeping the product closed-source (P11)

GrabOpener. (2021). Unique Cool One-Handed Beer Bottle & Can Opener | GrabOpener. https://gropener.com/[edit | edit source]

YouMagine. (2021). Smart One Handed Bottle Opener. YouMagine. https://www.youmagine.com/designs/smart-one-handed-bottle-opener[edit | edit source]

Amazon. (2021). Amazon.com: 3 Pieces Magnetic Bottle Openers Can Opener Classic Beer Opener Stainless Steel Small Bottle Opener Can Tapper with Magnet for Camping and Traveling HANCELANT: Kitchen & Dining. https://www.amazon.com/Magnetic-Openers-Stainless-Traveling-HANCELANT/dp/B08K8F35L5/ref=sr_1_1_sspa?dchild=1&keywords=bottle+opener&qid=1618532274&sr=8-1-spons&psc=1&smid=A2ATOXETW3JDYW&spLa=ZW5jcnlwdGVkUXVhbGlmaWVyPUExQVMyRE1HNkZJRFFPJmVuY3J5cHRlZElkPUEwNDg5MDUxMlZOVzBPOTZWS0xTNSZlbmNyeXB0ZWRBZElkPUEwNjcyODU0MTNEVVc5NDZNQTVaMyZ3aWRnZXROYW1lPXNwX2F0ZiZhY3Rpb249Y2xpY2tSZWRpcmVjdCZkb05vdExvZ0NsaWNrPXRydWU=[edit | edit source]

Amazon. (2021). Amazon.com: Norpro, Brown Can Punch Bottle Opener: Kitchen & Dining. https://www.amazon.com/Norpro-400-Punch-Bottle-Opener/dp/B08ZCQNM89/ref=bmx_9?pd_rd_w=W6oSf&pf_rd_p=b56a886c-2bb4-4e74-b4cf-23d7a76693c8&pf_rd_r=EK9MTETQ62C25XXXQ615&pd_rd_r=dce688af-cdec-4d01-aa10-d0d408b45a24&pd_rd_wg=DoXti&pd_rd_i=B000PSFH5U&th=1[edit | edit source]

YouMagine. (2021). YouMagine – YouMagine - Where makers collaborate on 3D designs 🚀. YouMagine. https://www.youmagine.com[edit | edit source]

MyMiniFactory. (2021). Discover STL files for 3D printing ideas and high-quality 3D printer models. | MyMiniFactory. https://www.myminifactory.com/, https://www.myminifactory.com/[edit | edit source]

HATCHBOX. (2021). BLACK PLA FILAMENT - 1.75MM, 1KG SPOOL. HATCHBOX 3D. https://www.hatchbox3d.com/products/3d-pla-1kg1-75-blk[edit | edit source]

IRS. (2021). Exempt Organizations Annual Reporting Requirements - Form 990, Schedules A and B: Reporting Value of Volunteer Time | Internal Revenue Service. https://www.irs.gov/charities-non-profits/exempt-organizations-annual-reporting-requirements-form-990-schedules-a-and-b-reporting-value-of-volunteer-time[edit | edit source]

Amazon. (2021). Design House 181594 3-Pack Hinge 4", Satin Nickel - - Amazon.com. https://www.amazon.com/Design-House-181594-3-Pack-Nickel/dp/B072J7BBFY/ref=sr_1_8?dchild=1&keywords=hinge&qid=1618587781&refinements=p_36%3A1253528011&rnid=1243644011&s=hi&sr=1-8[edit | edit source]

Amazon. (2021). Amazon Basics Square Door Hinges, 3.5 Inch x 3.5 Inch, 12 Pack, Oil Rubbed Bronze - - Amazon.com. https://www.amazon.com/AmazonBasics-Square-3-5-Door-Hinges/dp/B07GDRHSRS/ref=sr_1_1_sspa?dchild=1&keywords=hinge&qid=1618587781&refinements=p_36%3A1253528011&rnid=1243644011&s=hi&sr=1-1-spons&psc=1&spLa=ZW5jcnlwdGVkUXVhbGlmaWVyPUEyUklGQUhHVlMyS1pBJmVuY3J5cHRlZElkPUEwMzMzMDgwMlRJTU9UNlE2VzJRWiZlbmNyeXB0ZWRBZElkPUEwNzg1MzI0MkxEOEFIOFU0MDZFTCZ3aWRnZXROYW1lPXNwX2F0ZiZhY3Rpb249Y2xpY2tSZWRpcmVjdCZkb05vdExvZ0NsaWNrPXRydWU=[edit | edit source]

Amazon. (2021). Amazon.com: BiKase ElastoKASE Quick Release Universal Phone Holder for Bars 22mm to 40mm (7/8" to 1.5"): Sports & Outdoors. https://www.amazon.com/BiKase-ElastoKASE-Release-Universal-Holder/dp/B08S3V4WWY/ref=pd_rhf_se_s_sspa_dk_rhf_search_pt_sub_1_4/140-6272016-3723754?_encoding=UTF8&pd_rd_i=B08S3V4WWY&pd_rd_r=5c9bcd80-69b6-4380-8671-d604888ff6c3&pd_rd_w=XWASu&pd_rd_wg=ZrsPF&pf_rd_p=64abbaf3-4e98-439e-8170-525a86a0c2a8&pf_rd_r=RPNEKQ9ENZV0C5JRNK4M&psc=1&refRID=RPNEKQ9ENZV0C5JRNK4M&spLa=ZW5jcnlwdGVkUXVhbGlmaWVyPUFJOENBQUY5RjZNM00mZW5jcnlwdGVkSWQ9QTA4MzU3MjYxNlJFQTMzVFQ3UEVDJmVuY3J5cHRlZEFkSWQ9QTA3MjIyMTIzUDRENDJYRFJSVzBFJndpZGdldE5hbWU9c3BfcmhmX3NlYXJjaF9wZXJzb25hbGl6ZWQmYWN0aW9uPWNsaWNrUmVkaXJlY3QmZG9Ob3RMb2dDbGljaz10cnVl[edit | edit source]

Amazon. (2021). Amazon.com: Bovon Bike Phone Mount, 360 Rotation Silicone Bicycle Phone Holder, Universal Motorcycle Handlebar Mount Compatible with iPhone 12 Pro/12 mini/Se/11 Pro Max/XR/XS Max/8, Galaxy S20, 4.0"-6.7" Phones: Automotive. https://www.amazon.com/BOVON-Silicone-Motorcycle-Handlebar-Universal/dp/B07D5SVD7Y/ref=sxin_10?ascsubtag=amzn1.osa.0ac4dd8e-1310-4377-80a3-2efe53e12998.ATVPDKIKX0DER.en_US&creativeASIN=B07D5SVD7Y&cv_ct_cx=bicycle+phone+holder&cv_ct_id=amzn1.osa.0ac4dd8e-1310-4377-80a3-2efe53e12998.ATVPDKIKX0DER.en_US&cv_ct_pg=search&cv_ct_we=asin&cv_ct_wn=osp-single-source-earns-comm&dchild=1&keywords=bicycle+phone+holder&linkCode=oas&pd_rd_i=B07D5SVD7Y&pd_rd_r=d8a90e88-932f-468a-89ad-7605d7fda440&pd_rd_w=pZ2sY&pd_rd_wg=ikErg&pf_rd_p=97edcd33-ae52-416a-820f-978f86b3258a&pf_rd_r=6FNQTP2R02V1B7B9C80G&qid=1618587945&sr=1-2-64f3a41a-73ca-403a-923c-8152c45485fe&tag=interesting_things_os-20[edit | edit source]

YouMagine. (2021). Hinge - Scharnier. YouMagine. https://www.youmagine.com/designs/hinge-scharnier[edit | edit source]

YouMagine. (2021). Bicycle phone holder. YouMagine. https://www.youmagine.com/designs/bicycle-phone-holder[edit | edit source]

Arduino. (2021). Arduino - Home. https://www.arduino.cc/[edit | edit source]

ecommerceDB. (2021). arduino.cc revenue | ecommerceDB.com. http://www.ecommercedb.com/en/store/arduino.cc?q=%2Fen%2Fstore%2Farduino.cc[edit | edit source]

OpenCV. (2021). OpenCV. OpenCV. https://opencv.org/[edit | edit source]

SourceForge. (2021). OpenCV Download Statistics by OS: All Files. https://sourceforge.net/projects/opencvlibrary/files/stats/os?dates=2001-03-15+to+2021-04-16[edit | edit source]

SourceForge. (2021). SourceForge - Download, Develop and Publish Free Open Source Software. https://sourceforge.net/[edit | edit source]

SourceForge. (2021). Sweet Home 3D Download Statistics by OS: All Files. https://sourceforge.net/projects/sweethome3d/files/stats/os?dates=2005-11-07+to+2021-04-16[edit | edit source]

MyMiniFactory. (2021). 3D Printable Phone Stand by Snuffy. https://www.myminifactory.com/object/3d-print-phone-stand-12681, https://www.myminifactory.com/object/3d-print-phone-stand-12681[edit | edit source]

Amazon. (2021). Amazon.com: Cell Phone Stand,licheers Phone Stand for Desk, Foldable Phone Holder Compatible with All 4-7 Inch Moboile Phones Tablets(Black). https://www.amazon.com/Adjustable-licheers-Multi-Angle-Compatible-Stand-Black/dp/B07M9B6NGX/ref=sr_1_22_sspa?dchild=1&keywords=phone+stand&qid=1618775262&sr=8-22-spons&psc=1&spLa=ZW5jcnlwdGVkUXVhbGlmaWVyPUEzTzZYN1kxVDRFRU03JmVuY3J5cHRlZElkPUEwNjQ0NjM3MVJFMUhYSlZPVTExTSZlbmNyeXB0ZWRBZElkPUEwMTEyMjY0M01RWVNTR0tTQUdHNyZ3aWRnZXROYW1lPXNwX210ZiZhY3Rpb249Y2xpY2tSZWRpcmVjdCZkb05vdExvZ0NsaWNrPXRydWU=[edit | edit source]

Amazon. (2021). Amazon.com: Mayten Adjustable Cell Phone Stand Universal Foldable Mobile Phone Dock,Compatible for iPhone12 iPhone11 Pro Xs Max 8 7 6,Switch,iPad Mini,Samsung GalaxyS10,Google Nexus,Kindle-White. https://www.amazon.com/Mayten-Adjustable-Universal-Dock%EF%BC%8CCompatible-Kindle-White/dp/B08DFY8F4V/ref=sr_1_11?dchild=1&keywords=phone+stand&qid=1618775237&sr=8-11[edit | edit source]

FOSS/FLOSS[edit | edit source]

Estimating development effort in Free/Open source software projects by mining software repositories: a case study of OpenStack[edit | edit source]

Robles, G., González-Barahona, J. M., Cervigón, C., Capiluppi, A., & Izquierdo-Cortázar, D. (2014). Estimating development effort in Free/Open source software projects by mining software repositories: a case study of OpenStack. Proceedings of the 11th Working Conference on Mining Software Repositories, 222–231. https://doi.org/10.1145/2597073.2597107

  • Abstract: Because of the distributed and collaborative nature of free / open source software (FOSS) projects, the development effort invested in a project is usually unknown, even after the software has been released. However, this information is becoming of major interest, especially ---but not only--- because of the growth in the number of companies for which FOSS has become relevant for their business strategy. In this paper we present a novel approach to estimate effort by considering data from source code management repositories. We apply our model to the OpenStack project, a FOSS project with more than 1,000 authors, in which several tens of companies cooperate. Based on data from its repositories and together with the input from a survey answered by more than 100 developers, we show that the model offers a simple, but sound way of obtaining software development estimations with bounded margins of error.
  • Identifying full time contributor (P2)
  • Rest contributor has small impact (P2)
  • Two possible measures to identify full time contributor (P2)
  • OpenStack

Effort estimation of FLOSS projects: a study of the Linux kernel. Empirical Software Engineering[edit | edit source]

Capiluppi, A., & Izquierdo-Cortázar, D. (2013). Effort estimation of FLOSS projects: a study of the Linux kernel. Empirical Software Engineering, 18(1), 60–88. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10664-011-9191-7

  • Abstract: Empirical research on Free/Libre/Open Source Software (FLOSS) has shown that developers tend to cluster around two main roles: “core” contributors differ from “peripheral” developers in terms of a larger number of responsibilities and a higher productivity pattern. A further, cross-cutting characterization of developers could be achieved by associating developers with “time slots”, and different patterns of activity and effort could be associated to such slots. Such analysis, if replicated, could be used not only to compare different FLOSS communities, and to evaluate their stability and maturity, but also to determine within projects, how the effort is distributed in a given period, and to estimate future needs with respect to key points in the software life-cycle (e.g., major releases). This study analyses the activity patterns within the Linux kernel project, at first focusing on the overall distribution of effort and activity within weeks and days; then, dividing each day into three 8-hour time slots, and focusing on effort and activity around major releases. Such analyses have the objective of evaluating effort, productivity and types of activity globally and around major releases. They enable a comparison of these releases and patterns of effort and activities with traditional software products and processes, and in turn, the identification of company-driven projects (i.e., working mainly during office hours) among FLOSS endeavors. The results of this research show that, overall, the effort within the Linux kernel community is constant (albeit at different levels) throughout the week, signalling the need of updated estimation models, different from those used in traditional 9am–5pm, Monday to Friday commercial companies. It also becomes evident that the activity before a release is vastly different from after a release, and that the changes show an increase in code complexity in specific time slots (notably in the late night hours), which will later require additional maintenance efforts.

Effort estimation by characterizing developer activity[edit | edit source]

Amor, J. J., Robles, G., & Gonzalez-Barahona, J. M. (2006). Effort estimation by characterizing developer activity. Proceedings of the 2006 International Workshop on Economics Driven Software Engineering Research, 3–6. https://doi.org/10.1145/1139113.1139116

  • Abstract: During the latest years libre (free, open source) software has gained a lot of attention from the industry. Following this interest, the research community is also studying it. For instance, many teams are performing quantitative analysis on the large quantity of data which is publicly available from the development repositories maintained by libre software projects. However, not much of this research is focused on cost or effort estimations, despite its importance (for instance, for companies developing libre software or collaborating with libre software projects), and the availability of some data which could be useful for this purpose. Our position is that classical effort estimation models can be improved from the study of these data, at least when applied to libre software. In this paper, we focus on the characterization of developer activity, which we argue can improve effort estimation. This activity can be traced with a lot of detail, and the resulting data can also be used for validation of any effort estimation model.
  • Better estimation than size of code (P1)

A Systematic Review of Software Development Cost Estimation Studies[edit | edit source]

Jorgensen, M., & Shepperd, M. (2007). A Systematic Review of Software Development Cost Estimation Studies. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 33(1), 33–53. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSE.2007.256943

  • Abstract: This paper aims to provide a basis for the improvement of software-estimation research through a systematic review of previous work. The review identifies 304 software cost estimation papers in 76 journals and classifies the papers according to research topic, estimation approach, research approach, study context and data set. A Web-based library of these cost estimation papers is provided to ease the identification of relevant estimation research results. The review results combined with other knowledge provide support for recommendations for future software cost estimation research, including: 1) increase the breadth of the search for relevant studies, 2) search manually for relevant papers within a carefully selected set of journals when completeness is essential, 3) conduct more studies on estimation methods commonly used by the software industry, and 4) increase the awareness of how properties of the data sets impact the results when evaluating estimation methods

How to estimate the contribution of an individual to a software project?[edit | edit source]

How to estimate the contribution of an individual to a software project? (n.d.). Stack Overflow. Retrieved February 26, 2021, from https://stackoverflow.com/questions/2437881/how-to-estimate-the-contribution-of-an-individual-to-a-software-project

An empirical validation of software cost estimation models[edit | edit source]

Kemerer, C. F. (1987). An empirical validation of software cost estimation models. Communications of the ACM, 30(5), 416–429. https://doi.org/10.1145/22899.22906

  • Abstract: Practitioners have expressed concern over their inability to accurately estimate costs associated with software development. This concern has become even more pressing as costs associated with development continue to increase. As a result, considerable research attention is now directed at gaining a better understanding of the software-development process as well as constructing and evaluating software cost estimating tools. This paper evaluates four of the most popular algorithmic models used to estimate software costs (SLIM, COCOMO, Function Points, and ESTIMACS). Data on 15 large completed business data-processing projects were collected and used to test the accuracy of the models' ex post effort estimation. One important result was that Albrecht's Function Points effort estimation model was validated by the independent data provided in this study [3]. The models not developed in business data-processing environments showed significant need for calibration. As models of the software-development process, all of the models tested failed to sufficiently reflect the underlying factors affecting productivity. Further research will be required to develop understanding in this area.

Cost models for future software life cycle processes: COCOMO 2.0. Annals of Software Engineering[edit | edit source]

Boehm, B., Clark, B., Horowitz, E., Westland, C., Madachy, R., & Selby, R. (1995). Cost models for future software life cycle processes: COCOMO 2.0. Annals of Software Engineering, 1(1), 57–94. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02249046

  • Abstract: Current software cost estimation models, such as the 1981 Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO) for software cost estimation and its 1987 Ada COCOMO update, have been experiencing increasing difficulties in estimating the costs of software developed to new life cycle processes and capabilities. These include non-sequential and rapid-development process models; reuse-driven approaches involving commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) packages, re-engineering, applications composition, and applications generation capabilities; object-oriented approaches supported by distributed middleware; and software process maturity initiatives. This paper summarizes research in deriving a baseline COCOMO 2.0 model tailored to these new forms of software development, including rationale for the model decisions. The major new modeling capabilities of COCOMO 2.0 are a tailorable family of software sizing models, involving Object Points, Function Points, and Source Lines of Code; nonlinear models for software reuse and re-engineering; an exponentdriver approach for modeling relative software diseconomies of scale; and several additions, deletions and updates to previous COCOMO effort-multiplier cost drivers. This model is serving as a framework for an extensive current data collection and analysis effort to further refine and calibrate the model's estimation capabilities.

The Linux Foundation Releases First-Ever Value of Collaborative Development Report[edit | edit source]

The Linux Foundation Releases First-Ever Value of Collaborative Development Report. (2015, September 30). Linux Foundation. https://linuxfoundation.org/press-release/the-linux-foundation-releases-first-ever-value-of-collaborative-development-report/

Quantifying the Value of Open Source Hard-ware Development[edit | edit source]

Pearce, J. M. (2015). Quantifying the Value of Open Source Hard-ware Development. Modern Economy, 6(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.4236/me.2015.61001

  • Abstract: With the maturation of digital manufacturing technologies like 3-D printing, a new paradigm is emerging of distributed manufacturing in both scientific equipment and consumer goods. Hardware released under free licenses is known as free and open source hardware (FOSH). The availability of these FOSH designs has a large value to those with access to digital manufacturing methods and particularly for scientists with needs for highly-customized low-volume production products. It is challenging to use traditional funding models to support the necessary investment of resources in FOSH development because of the difficulty in quantifying the value of the result. In order to overcome that challenge and harvest the current opportunity in both low-cost scientific equipment and consumer products, this article evaluates the following methods to quantify the value of FOSH design including: 1) downloaded substitution valuation; 2) avoided reproduction valuation and 3) market savings valuation along with additional benefits related to market expansion, scientific innovation acceleration, educational enhancement and medical care improvement. The strengths and weaknesses of these methods are analyzed and the results show that the methods are relatively straight-forward to institute, based on reliable freely-available data, and that they minimize assumptions. A case study of a syringe pump with numerous scientific and medical applications is presented. The results found millions of dollars of economic value from a relatively simple scientific device being released under open-licenses representing orders of magnitude increase in value from conventional proprietary development. The inescapable conclusion of this study is that FOSH development should be funded by organizations interested in maximizing return on public investments particularly in technologies associated with science, medicine and education.

The Linux Kernel Open Source Project on Open Hub[edit | edit source]

The Linux Kernel Open Source Project on Open Hub : Estimated Cost Page. (n.d.). Retrieved February 28, 2021, from https://www.openhub.net/p/linux/estimated_cost

How nonprofits grow: A model[edit | edit source]

James, E. (1983). How nonprofits grow: A model. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 2(3), 350-365.

  • Abstract: When nonprofit organizations operate in a field of service that might otherwise be provided by government or by for‐profit organizations, such as schools, hospitals, or museums, their decisions on the type and amount of services to be delivered are motivated by factors that are quite distinctive. Because they must operate on a break‐even basis with revenues raised on a voluntary basis, nonprofit organizations typically take on activities from which they derive no satisfaction in order to subsidize activities that they regard as of higher value. As a result, the mix of services they offer and the charges they impose will generally be quite different from those of a government institution or a for‐profit organization.

Accounting for the value of volunteer contributions[edit | edit source]

Mook, L., Sousa, J., Elgie, S., & Quarter, J. (2005). Accounting for the value of volunteer contributions. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 15(4), 401–415. https://doi.org/10.1002/nml.79

  • Abstractː There is a need for an accounting paradigm that properly illustrates the value that nonprofits generate. Much of that value comes from volunteer contributions, which are significant but for the most part are not included in financial accounting statements, even though our research indicates that they account for almost a third of the value added by these organizations. This article reports the results of two studies related to measuring volunteer value in the accounting of nonprofits and then draws some policy implications from the research. The first study, a survey of 156 nonprofits in Canada, found that although about one‐third of the sample kept records of volunteer hours, only 3 percent included a value for them in their accounting statements. The second study, of nonprofit accountants, found that they did not feel that financial accounting statements properly represented the contribution of their organizations. A series of policy recommendations are presented, including suggestions for revising the regulations of accounting bodies for imputing volunteer value and creating accounting statements that better represent the contribution of nonprofits.

Engineers Without Borders USA[edit | edit source]

Mission & History. (n.d.). Engineers Without Borders USA. Retrieved March 3, 2021, from https://www.ewb-usa.org/mission-and-history/

Engineers Without Borders USA[edit | edit source]

Financials. (n.d.). Engineers Without Borders USA. Retrieved March 3, 2021, from https://www.ewb-usa.org/financials/

Green Card for Immigrant Investors[edit | edit source]

Green Card for Immigrant Investors | USCIS. (2020, June 16). https://www.uscis.gov/green-card/green-card-eligibility/green-card-for-immigrant-investors

Software Piracy: Estimation of Lost Sales and the Impact on Software Diffusion[edit | edit source]

Givon, M., Mahajan, V., & Muller, E. (1995). Software Piracy: Estimation of Lost Sales and the Impact on Software Diffusion. Journal of Marketing, 59(1), 29–37. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299505900103

  • Software piracy by users has been identified as the worst problem facing the software industry today. Software piracy permits the shadow diffusion of a software parallel to its legal diffusion in the marketplace, increasing its user base over time. Because of this software shadow diffusion, a software firm loses potential profits, access to a significant proportion of the software user base, opportunities for cross-selling, and marketing its other products and new generations of the software. However, shadow diffusion may influence the legal diffusion of the software. Software pirates may influence potential software users to adopt the software, and some of these adopters may become buyers. A diffusion modeling approach is suggested to track shadow diffusion and the legal diffusion of a software over time. The approach enables management to estimate (1) the pirated adoptions over time and (2) the percentage of legal adoptions due to the influence of pirates. The modeling approach is applied to study the diffusion of two types of software (spreadsheets and word processors) in the United Kingdom. The results suggest that although six of every seven software users utilized pirated copies, these pirates were responsible for generating more than 80% of new software buyers, thereby significantly influencing the legal diffusion of the software. The implications of these results are discussed.

Average Price Paid for a Learning Management System[edit | edit source]

Menard, J. (2020). Average Price Paid for a Learning Management System. LISTedTECH. https://www.listedtech.com/blog/average-cost-of-an-lms

LISTedTECH: Higher EdSystems & EdTech Intelligence[edit | edit source]

LISTedTECH. (n.d.). LISTedTECH: Higher EdSystems & EdTech Intelligence. LISTedTECH. Retrieved March 20, 2021, from https://www.listedtech.com

Mathematica Price for Colleges & Universities: Individual License Options[edit | edit source]

WOLFRAM. (2021). Mathematica Price for Colleges & Universities: Individual License Options. https://www.wolfram.com/mathematica/pricing/colleges-universities/

NX Cloud Connected Products[edit | edit source]

Siemens. (2020). NX Cloud Connected Products. http://web.archive.org/web/20210305204203/https://www.dex.siemens.com/plm/nx-cloud-connected-products?viewState=ListView&cartID=&portalUser=&store=&cclcl=en_US&selected=plm

MoodleCloud[edit | edit source]

Moodle. (2020). MoodleCloud. Moodle. https://moodle.com/moodlecloud/

Compare Office 365 Education Plans[edit | edit source]

Microsoft. (2021). Compare Office 365 Education Plans. https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/microsoft-365/academic/compare-office-365-education-plans

HOUR town: Paul Glover and the genesis and evolution of Ithaca HOURS[edit | edit source]

Jacob, J., Brinkerhoff, M., Jovic, E., & Wheatley, G. (2004). HOUR town: Paul Glover and the genesis and evolution of Ithaca HOURS. International Journal of Community Currency Research, 8, 29-41.

  • Abstractː Ithaca HOURS are, arguably, the most successful of the local currency experiments of the last two decades. At the height of their popularity in the mid-1990s, perhaps as many as 2,000 of Ithaca and region’s 100,000 residents were buying and selling with HOURS. The high profile of HOURS in the Ithaca community has prompted a series of articles, television news segments and documentaries, primarily for the popular media. Though constituting valuable documentation of an intrinsically interesting phenomenon, these reports has tended to be fragmentary and ahistorical, thus lacking in context in terms of the longitudinal evolution of the Ithaca region’s political economy. The present study attempts to remedy these lacunae in our understanding of the genesis and evolution of Ithaca HOURS by presenting a systematic account of Ithaca’s experiment with local currencies over the past decade and a half through the person of Paul Glover, the individual most closely associated with the founding and developing of HOURS. The article follows the activist career of Glover through the end of 2003, thus placing HOURS in the context of Ithaca’s activist community’s efforts to push the local polity and economy in the direction of ecological sustainability
  • P3

The social and cultural capital of community currency: an Ithaca HOURS case study survey[edit | edit source]

Jacob, J., Brinkerhoff, M., Jovic, E., & Wheatley, G. (2004). The social and cultural capital of community currency: an Ithaca HOURS case study survey. International Journal of Community Currency Research, 8(4), 42-56.

  • Abstractː In this article the authors report and analyze the data from an interview survey of 42 Ithaca HOURS community currency users. The theoretical context for the study is social capital, and the survey seeks to answer questions centering around the extent the interviewees participate in networks of reciprocity, trust and support. The survey results indicate that the respondents highly value their experiences buying and selling with HOURS, and that it does in fact function as a social capital resource for them. Nevertheless, on average, the respondents’ use of HOURS was modest at best, with $300 to $350, exchanged in the 12 months prior to the survey. Since the exchange in HOURS is dwarfed by the mainstream economy’s circulation of federal dollars, and since the respondents use of HOURS, on average, is only a very small part of their disposable income, the authors sought the significance of the HOURS economy in cultural and symbolic rather than material terms.

Fees for Visa Services[edit | edit source]

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE. (n.d.). Fees for Visa Services. Retrieved March 21, 2021, from https://travel.state.gov/content/travel/en/us-visas/visa-information-resources/fees/fees-visa-services.html

Not all programmers are created equal[edit | edit source]

Bryan, G. E. (1994). Not all programmers are created equal. Proceedings of 1994 IEEE Aerospace Applications Conference Proceedings, 55–62. https://doi.org/10.1109/AERO.1994.291203

  • Abstractː Data measuring individual programmer performance was gathered over a 12-year period in a stable work group responsible for developing and supporting a single 4.2-million-line operating system and associated program products, communication systems, and databases. Analysis shows a wide variation in productivity from best- to poorest-performing individuals and groups. Eight percent of the work result was done by a single programmer out of a workforce of almost 200. A variation of 200:1 separated the top programmer from the poorest performers. The top 27% of programmers did 78% of the work. Planning for average productivity can therefore result in significant errors in projects.

Blockchain for program code credit and programmer contribution in a collective[edit | edit source]

Kozloski, J. R., Pickover, C. A., & Weldemariam, K. (2019). U.S. Patent No. 10,438,170. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

  • Abstractː A system for producing a computer program code collaboratively using blockchain includes a plurality of computer nodes, the plurality of computer nodes forming a distributed network for collaborative work. Each of the computer nodes communicates directly with the others, and is operated by a user in accordance with a common smart contract. Contributions of each of the users are entered into the blockchain at respective computer nodes as blocks when transactions have been completed in accordance with the following steps: writing code for inclusion in said computer software program; submitting the code for the computer software program to the distributed network to complete a transaction to add a block with the code to the blockchain of the computer software program; detecting by the distributed network of the submission of code for the computer software program; and adding the code as a block to the blockchain of the computer software program.

Measuring author contributions to the Wikipedia[edit | edit source]

Adler, B. T., de Alfaro, L., Pye, I., & Raman, V. (2008). Measuring author contributions to the Wikipedia. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Wikis, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1145/1822258.1822279

  • Abstractː We consider the problem of measuring user contributions to versioned, collaborative bodies of information, such as wikis. Measuring the contributions of individual authors can be used to divide revenue, to recognize merit, to award status promotions, and to choose the order of authors when citing the content. In the context of the Wikipedia, previous works on author contribution estimation have focused on two criteria: the total text created, and the total number of edits performed. We show that neither of these criteria work well: both techniques are vulnerable to manipulation, and the total-text criterion fails to reward people who polish or re-arrange the content. We consider and compare various alternative criteria that take into account the quality of a contribution, in addition to the quantity, and we analyze how the criteria differ in the way they rank authors according to their contributions. As an outcome of this study, we propose to adopt total edit longevity as a measure of author contribution. Edit longevity is resistant to simple attacks, since edits are counted towards an author's contribution only if other authors accept the contribution. Edit longevity equally rewards people who create content, and people who rearrange or polish the content. Finally, edit longevity distinguishes the people who contribute little (who have contribution close to zero) from spammers or vandals, whose contribution quickly grows negative.

Code ownership in open-source software[edit | edit source]

Foucault, M., Falleri, J.-R., & Blanc, X. (2014). Code ownership in open-source software. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1145/2601248.2601283

  • Abstractː Context: Ownership metrics measure how the workload of software modules is shared among their developers. They have been shown to be accurate indicators of software quality. Objective: Since ownership metrics studies were done only on industrial software projects, we replicated such a study on Java free/libre and open source software (FLOSS) projects. Our goal was to generalize an "ownership law" that stated that minor developers should be avoided. Method: We explored the relationship between ownership metrics and fault-proneness on seven FLOSS projects, using publicly available corpora to retrieve the fault-related information. Results: In our corpus, the relationship between ownership metrics and module faults is weak. At best, less than half of projects exhibit a significant correlation, and at worst, no projects at all. Moreover, fault-proneness seems to be much more influenced by module size than by ownership. Conclusion: The results of ownership studies done on closed-source projects do not generalize to FLOSS projects. To understand the reasons for that, we performed an in-depth analysis and found that the lack of correlation between ownership metrics and module faults is due to the distributions of contributions among developers and the presence of "heroes" in FLOSS projects.

Impact of Programming Features on Code Readability[edit | edit source]

Tashtoush, Y., Odat, Z., Alsmadi, I., & Yatim, M. (2013). Impact of Programming Features on Code Readability. Computer Science Faculty Publications, 7(6). https://doi.org/10.14257/ijseia.2013.7.6.38

  • Readability is one important quality attributes for software source codes. Readability has also significant relation or impact with other quality attributes such as: reusability, maintainability, reliability, complexity, and portability metrics. This research develops a novel approach called Impact of Programming Features on Code Readability (IPFCR), to examine the influence of various programming features and the effect of these features on code readability. A code Readability Tool (CRT) is developed to evaluate the IPFCR readability features or attributes. In order to assess the level if impact that each one of the 25 proposed readability features may have, positively or negatively on the overall code readability, a survey was distributed to a random number of expert programmers. These experts evaluated the effect of each feature on code readability, based on their knowledge or experience. Expert programmers have evaluated readability features to be ordered then classified into positive and negative factors based on their impact on code readability or understanding. The survey responses were analyzed using SPSS statistical tool. Most of proposed code features showed to have significantly positive impact on enhancing readability including: meaningful names, consistency, and comments. On the other hand, fewer features such as arithmetic formulas, nested loops, and recursive functions showed to have a negative impact. Finally, few features showed to have neutral impact on readability.

Learning a Metric for Code Readability[edit | edit source]

Buse, R. P. L., & Weimer, W. R. (2010). Learning a Metric for Code Readability. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 36(4), 546–558. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSE.2009.70

  • Abstractː In this paper, we explore the concept of code readability and investigate its relation to software quality. With data collected from 120 human annotators, we derive associations between a simple set of local code features and human notions of readability. Using those features, we construct an automated readability measure and show that it can be 80 percent effective and better than a human, on average, at predicting readability judgments. Furthermore, we show that this metric correlates strongly with three measures of software quality: code changes, automated defect reports, and defect log messages. We measure these correlations on over 2.2 million lines of code, as well as longitudinally, over many releases of selected projects. Finally, we discuss the implications of this study on programming language design and engineering practice. For example, our data suggest that comments, in and of themselves, are less important than simple blank lines to local judgments of readability.

Direct and indirect knowledge spillovers: the “social network” of open-source projects[edit | edit source]

Fershtman, C., & Gandal, N. (2011). Direct and indirect knowledge spillovers: the “social network” of open-source projects. The RAND Journal of Economics, 42(1), 70–91. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-2171.2010.00126.x

  • Abstractː Knowledge spillovers are a central part of knowledge accumulation. The article focuses on spillovers that occur through the interaction between different researchers or developers who collaborate on different research projects. The article distinguishes between project spillovers and contributors’ spillovers and between direct and indirect spillovers. The article constructs a unique data set of open source software projects. The data identify the contributors who work on each project and thus enable us to construct a two‐mode network: a project network and a contributor network. The article demonstrates that the structure of these networks is associated with project success and that there is a positive association between project closeness centrality and project success. This suggests the existence of both direct and indirect project knowledge spillovers. We find no evidence for any association between contributor closeness centrality and project success, suggesting that contributor spillovers play a lesser role in project success.
  • Spillover among teams (P2)
  • Download measurement as an indication of success of a OSS (P3)

U.S. Patent No. 10,438,170[edit | edit source]

Kozloski, J. R., Pickover, C. A., & Weldemariam, K. (2019). U.S. Patent No. 10,438,170. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

  • Permissionless (P6)
  • Considered to be unbreakable (P6)
  • Avoid the need of trusted third party (P7)
  • Use cryptocurrency system to handle FOSS collaboration (P7)
  • No single entity has control over the entire system (P7)
  • Trigger in user interface to detect completion-like action (P7)
  • Other tools for monitoring contribution in a project does not adapt well with new implementations (P8)
  • Tokens to identify the accessor (P9)
  • Like Sensorica, considered the role of the programmer and their historical contribution (P9-10)

AutoCAD. (n.d.). AutoCAD Software | Get Prices & Buy Official AutoCAD 2022. Retrieved April 1, 2021, from https://www.autodesk.com/products/autocad/overview[edit | edit source]

SketchUp. (n.d.). 3D Modeling Software Pricing | 3D Design Program Cost. SketchUp. Retrieved April 1, 2021, from https://www.sketchup.com/plans-and-pricing[edit | edit source]

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Polaris Office. (n.d.). Purchase and compare products - Polaris Office. Retrieved April 1, 2021, from https://www.polarisoffice.com/en/store[edit | edit source]

Zoho. (n.d.). Online file Storage - Document Management Software | Zoho Docs. Zoho. Retrieved April 3, 2021, from https://www.zoho.com/docs/zoho-docs-pricing.html[edit | edit source]

Microsoft. (n.d.). Compare Microsoft 365 Enterprise plans. Retrieved April 1, 2021, from https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/microsoft-365/compare-microsoft-365-enterprise-plans[edit | edit source]

Walmart. (n.d.). Purchase Microsoft Office. Walmart.Com. Retrieved April 3, 2021, from https://www.walmart.com/search/search-ng.do?search_query=Purchase%20Microsoft%20Office&&adid=22222222224210561490&wmlspartner=wmtlabs&wl0=e&wl1=o&wl2=c&wl3=75247860408290&wl4=kwd-15082655495:aud-807615483:loc-190&wl5=110887&wl6=&wl7=&wl14=purchase%20microsoft%20office&veh=sem&msclkid=5f4ebdc713c41f8ed1feddafde3b8e96&gclid=5f4ebdc713c41f8ed1feddafde3b8e96&gclsrc=3p.ds[edit | edit source]

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SENSORICA[edit | edit source]

Peer Into The Future[edit | edit source]

peer into the future - Q and A. (n.d.). Retrieved March 8, 2021, from https://www.sensorica.co/help/qanda

Recognizing the Magic of Nonprofit Volunteers[edit | edit source]

K. J. Bulman. (2018, May 29). Recognizing the Magic of Nonprofit Volunteers. NonProfit PRO. https://www.nonprofitpro.com/post/recognizing-the-magic-of-nonprofit-volunteers-and-those-who-lead-them/

National Council of Nonprofits[edit | edit source]

Volunteers. (2015, January 6). National Council of Nonprofits. https://www.councilofnonprofits.org/tools-resources/volunteers

Immigrant Investor Visas[edit | edit source]

Immigrant Investor Visas. (n.d.). Retrieved March 12, 2021, from https://travel.state.gov/content/travel/en/us-visas/immigrate/immigrant-investor-visas.html

EB-5 Immigrant Investor Program[edit | edit source]

EB-5 Immigrant Investor Program | USCIS. (2020, June 10). https://www.uscis.gov/working-in-the-united-states/permanent-workers/eb-5-immigrant-investor-program

Chapter 23 - Translating Commons-Based Peer Production Values into Metrics: Toward Commons-Based Cryptocurrencies[edit | edit source]

De Filippi, P. (2015). Chapter 23 - Translating Commons-Based Peer Production Values into Metrics: Toward Commons-Based Cryptocurrencies. In D. Lee Kuo Chuen (Ed.), Handbook of Digital Currency (pp. 463–483). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-802117-0.00023-0

  • Abstractː Commons-based peer production (CBPP) constitutes today an important driver for innovation and social and cultural development, both online and off-line, through the establishment of an alternative, commons-based ecosystem, relying on peer production and collaboration among peers contributing toward a common good. Yet, to the extent that it operates outside of the market economy, the value of CBPP cannot be understood by relying exclusively on traditional market mechanisms (such as pricing). Based on empirical research on emerging value forms in the context of CBPP, we seek to achieve a better understanding of the value produced by CBPP communities, so as to come up with an alternative, universal, denominator of value that could act as an interface between the commons-based ecosystem and the market economy.

ROI[edit | edit source]

Return on investment for open source scientific hardware development[edit | edit source]

Pearce, J. M. (2016). Return on investment for open source scientific hardware development. Science and Public Policy, 43(2), 192–195. https://doi.org/10.1093/scipol/scv034

  • Abstractː The availability of free and open source hardware designs that can be replicated with low-cost 3D printers provides large values to scientists who need highly-customized low-volume production scientific equipment. Digital manufacturing technologies have only recently become widespread and the return on investment (ROI) was not clear, so funding for open hardware development was historically sparse. This paper clarifies a method for determining an ROI for the development of scientific free and open source hardware (FOSH). By using an open source hardware design that can be manufactured digitally, the relatively minor development costs result in enormous ROIs for the scientific community. A case study is presented of a syringe pump released under open license, which results in ROIs for funders ranging from hundreds to thousands of percent after only a few months. It is clear that policies encouraging FOSH scientific hardware development should be adopted by organizations interested in maximizing return on public investments for science.
  • Funding FOSH induces a large ROI

Chapter 24 - Measuring the Returns to R&D[edit | edit source]

Hall, B. H., Mairesse, J., & Mohnen, P. (2010). Chapter 24 - Measuring the Returns to R&D. In B. H. Hall & N. Rosenberg (Eds.), Handbook of the Economics of Innovation (Vol. 2, pp. 1033–1082). North-Holland. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-7218(10)02008-3

  • Abstractː We review the econometric literature on measuring the returns to R&D. The theoretical frameworks that have been used are outlined, followed by an extensive discussion of measurement and econometric issues that arise when estimating the models. We then provide a series of tables summarizing the major results that have been obtained and conclude with a presentation of R&D spillover returns measurement. In general, the private returns to R&D are strongly positive and somewhat higher than those for ordinary capital, while the social returns are even higher, although variable and imprecisely measured in many cases.
  • R&D develop new applications and innovations (P4)
  • R&D positive spillovers (P4)
  • Non-pecuniary spillovers from R&D's knowledge development (P5)
  • Return to R&D is variant (P5)
  • Failed R&D (P28)
  • Returns and social returns

A New Look at the Returns and Risks to Pharmaceutical R&D[edit | edit source]

Grabowski, H., & Vernon, J. (1990). A New Look at the Returns and Risks to Pharmaceutical R&D. Management Science, 36(7), 804–821. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.36.7.804

  • Abstractː This study investigates the returns to R&D for 100 new drugs introduced into the United States during the decade of the 1970s. In contrast to prior studies, it incorporates several significant structural changes that have occurred in the pharmaceutical industry during the 1980s. These include higher real drug prices and a greater degree of generic competition. A major finding is that the return on R&D for the average new drug is approximately equal to the 9 percent industry cost of capital. However, the performance of new drugs introduced during the latter half of the 1970s was markedly better than that of early 1970s introductions. This latter finding is consistent with the more rapid rate of industry growth in real R&D expenditures. The study also finds that the variation in returns is highly skewed, with only the top 30 drugs covering mean R&D costs on a fully allocated basis. Finally, it is shown that real drug price increases in the 1980s were necessary for the average new drug introduction to recover its R&D costs.

Return on Investment[edit | edit source]

Phillips, P. P., & Phillips, J. J. (2009). Return on Investment. In Handbook of Improving Performance in the Workplace: Volumes 1-3 (pp. 823–846). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470592663.ch53

  • Abstractː The need for data that satisfy the taste of various stakeholders has positioned the return on investment (ROI) methodology as a leading technique to measure human performance technology (HPT) success. The methodology is used to evaluate program success in private‐sector, public‐sector, and non‐profit organizations. While ROI is the ultimate measure developed through the ROI methodology, it is only one of six measures. This chapter introduces the ROI methodology and describes how it is can be used to report HPT success. The most fundamental measure used to allocate resources is either the benefit‐cost ratio (BCR) or ROI percentage. These metrics have been used for centuries to show the ultimate profitability of a program, process, or initiative. The ROI process follows ten steps that occur in four phases: evaluation planning, data collection, data analysis, and reporting.
  • Benefit-cost ratio (P9)
  • Socially educating ROI methodology to make it more acceptable (P21)

Return of Investment (ROI) in Research and Development (R&D): Towards a framework[edit | edit source]

Hassanzadeh, M., & Bigdeli, T. B. (2019). Return of Investment (ROI) in Research and Development (R&D): Towards a framework. Collaboration – Impact on Productivity and Innovation: Proceedings of 14th International Conference on Webometrics, Informetrics and Scientometrics & 19th COLLNET Meeting 2018, December 5-8, 2018, University of Macau, Macau, 31–39. https://doi.org/10.22032/dbt.39330

  • Abstractː There is a significant relationship between the development of countries and their investment on research and development (R&D). Often, investments on science is seen as a resource of national prestige in countries. An outstanding part of spending go to the universities as part of science policy utilization. For that, most of investigations on return of investments (ROI) on science focus on universities as the main authorities of scientific endeavor. The main issue is that, calculating ROI of R&D is not as simple as the industry of service sectors. In industry and service input and output of the process is clearly calculable. For example a manger in industry sector is able to calculate the cost of product and services. But in science it is not simple to calculate the cost of products because of variety and complexity of resources allocated for its production. A paper as an output of a scientific endeavor easily is not calculable in terms of financial formula. Sometimes a scientific finding save the life of millions of people and provide society with bunch of opportunities and guide the communities towards prosperous life. These are not simply calculable in term of ROI investigations. Most of scientometrics studies focuses on the determined document based outputs of the R&D systems. Since financial inputs play crucial role in progress of R&D systems, taking them in account when calculating the efficacy of this system will provide us with clearer image of R&D performance. This research aimed to focus more on financial aspects of R&D performance in universities forward utilizing some sort of knowledge economy framework. For that, we strive to formulate the expenditure has been carried out in various levels of a university which results in a unit of scientific paper, highly cited paper, fruitful actors, and etc. we have focused on the Tarbiat Modares University (TMU) a fully accredited state university for graduate studies with more than 7000 students and almost 1000 faculty members. TMU always ranks between top 3 Iranian universities.
  • Social return (P2)

The relationship between performance indicators for academic research and funding: Developing a measure of return on investment in science[edit | edit source]

Lindsey, D. (1991). The relationship between performance indicators for academic research and funding: Developing a measure of return on investment in science. Scientometrics, 20(1), 221–234. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02018156

  • Abstractː Public universities reflect the aspirations a state or society has for its young people and for itself. In this study our interest has been to examine the level of public funding for universities and its relation to quality. In order to do this we collected funding data for a sample American universities. Additionally, we collected data on the production of science by faculty at the institutions in our American sample. The results indicated a strong relation between investment in higher education and quality. We then developed a measure of return on investment in research which combined these measures of funding and research production. We conclude by examining the nature of the relationship between funding and research quality at public universities.
  • Measure universities' performances rather than ranking for funding (P1)
  • Low production due to low funding for the University of Oregon (P11)
  • UoO has a high ROI from their method (P11)

Changes in Quality among Public Universities[edit | edit source]

Volkwein, J. F. (1989). Changes in Quality among Public Universities. The Journal of Higher Education, 60(2), 136–151. https://doi.org/10.2307/1982174

  • Abstractː This analysis extends earlier research by examining three questions about the relationships between campus autonomy and measures of faculty quality, student quality, and external funding. The results suggest that changes in these measures of university quality are more influenced by state financial support than by state regulation.
  • The less manage the better (P4)
  • Regulation leads to greater cost (P4)
  • Stage regulation does not improve quality for universities (P10)
  • Size of universities have more to be with their effectiveness and quality (P11)

The rate of return to investment in R&D: The case of research infrastructures[edit | edit source]

Del Bo, C. F. (2016). The rate of return to investment in R&D: The case of research infrastructures. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 112, 26–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2016.02.018

  • Abstractː The return to R&D investment and activities has been the object of a vast literature, both from a theoretical and empirical perspective. The aim of this overview is to present a selection of contributions to underscore the main shared findings and highlight open issues, while also providing a preliminary analysis of the returns to R&D investment in large research infrastructures (RIs) in Europe. First, a common methodological framework is distilled from the macro-literature, examining the return to R&D in aggregate terms. Then, the evaluation in the context of specific projects, mainly in large RIs, is examined, followed by the explicit consideration of externalities and spillover effects of research activities. A novel empirical analysis of European RIs is also presented, based on a novel data set, to highlight trends and suggest new avenues for the evaluation of the rate of return to investments in research infrastructures, using both a cost effectiveness ratio and a bibliometric citation count as metrics to evaluate the return to R&D investment in these facilities. Directions for future research are sketched in the concluding section.