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Type Literature review
Authors JUNYU QIAN
Published 2021
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Highly Skilled And Business Migrants: Information Processes And Settlement Outcomes

Benson-Rea, M., & Rawlinson, S. (2003). Highly Skilled and Business Migrants: Information Processes and Settlement Outcomes. International Migration, 41(2), 59–79. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2435.00235

  • Abstract: This paper reports on a research programme that has investigated the migration experiences of highly skilled professional and business migrants to New Zealand. Over a four‐year period, five separate studies have been conducted on the stages in the process of migration. The paper sets out a model of the stages of the migration process and the data and analysis which it has guided. Of particular interest are the information sources available to potential migrants and employers, the cultural sensitivity of settlement processes and the migrants' subsequent ease of access to the labour market. The paper analyses information flows available to migrants at crucial phases in the migration process based on a stages model of the migration process. The model indicates some of the critical steps, interactions, and decisions in the migration process from the individual's point of view. Crucial information gaps are identified and implications are drawn for actors involved at the different stages.
  • Personal drivers behind migration
  • Migrants secure employments
  • Match jobs for migrants
  • Information flow between migrant workers and employers
  • Migration transfer -> abundant to lack
  • Underutilization of migrants -> Access country without immigrating
  • Lack of qualification recognition
  • Integration of skilled immigrants
Modern Approaches To The Educational Process Aimed At Improving The Quality Of Highly Qualified Personnel Training

Necheukhina, N. S., Matveeva, V. S., Babkin, I. A., & Makarova, E. N. (2017). Modern approaches to the educational process aimed at improving the quality of highly qualified personnel training. 2017 IEEE VI Forum Strategic Partnership of Universities and Enterprises of Hi-Tech Branches (Science. Education. Innovations) (SPUE), 192–195. https://doi.org/10.1109/IVForum.2017.8246089

  • Abstract: The article deals with the issues of Open Education as a new element of the Russian educational system aimed at improving the quality of education and its availability. The aim of the study is to generalize the existing practices in the use of modern information and legal databases in the educational process. Modern forms and methods of interaction between educational establishments and employers, offering a wide range of functional capabilities are considered. Modern methods of teaching specific disciplines involving online courses by leading specialists contributing to the students' self-study of the most significant topics and assessment of the knowledge gained are reviewed. The article proves the positive effect of the methods under discussion on the quality of education and its availability. A summery review of the existing options and opportunities for cooperation between educational establishments and businesses as well as employers who are interested in targeted trained staff is given. The ways of cooperation between educational institutions and employers aimed at improving the quality of targeted trained highly qualified staff by arranging video-workshops, on-line courses and other elements of Open Education are analyzed. The article concludes on the significance of modern graduates' abilities to use information, reference and legal databases in the process of information search and its evaluation when performing professional tasks. The results of the study, based on specific examples and experience in involving businesses and their facilities for future professionals' training, contribute to the improvement of the quality of education and its availability, which in its turn help enhance competitiveness of graduates on the labor market.
  • Open education platform
  • Target training
  • Cooperation between educational institutions and organizations
  • Only solid theoretical basics
  • Collaboration between education authorities and business representative
  • Research & completing course & diploma projects under supervision of companies' representatives
  • Combine theories to practice
Brain Drain, And Development. Journal Of Economic Literature

Docquier, F., & Rapoport, H. (2012). Globalization, Brain Drain, and Development. Journal of Economic Literature, 50(3), 681–730. https://doi.org/10.1257/jel.50.3.681

  • Abstract: This paper reviews four decades of economics research on the brain drain, with a focus on recent contributions and on development issues. We first assess the magnitude, intensity, and determinants of the brain drain, showing that brain drain (or high-skill) migration is becoming a dominant pattern of international migration and a major aspect of globalization. We then use a stylized growth model to analyze the various channels through which a brain drain affects the sending countries and review the evidence on these channels. The recent empirical literature shows that high-skill emigration need not deplete a country's human capital stock and can generate positive network externalities. Three case studies are also considered: the African medical brain drain, the exodus of European scientists to the United States, and the role of the Indian diaspora in the development of India's information technology sector. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of the analysis for education, immigration, and international taxation policies in a global context. ( JEL F02, F22, J24, J61, O15)
  • Governments adjust education systems or policies based on departure of highly skilled
  • Brain drain and HQB mobility may increase global inequality
  • Development policy
  • Bidirectional affects
  • Small economies benefit more from abroad-spillovers
International Mobility Of Highly-Qualified People In APEC

Gera, S., & Songsakul, T. (2005). International Mobility of Highly-Qualified People in APEC (No. 0507002; International Trade). University Library of Munich, Germany. https://ideas.repec.org/p/wpa/wuwpit/0507002.html

  • Abstract: An important aspect of the global knowledge-based economy is the emergence of a new trend where certain groups of highly-qualified workers have become increasingly mobile internationally. Reaching the goal of being more innovative economy requires that the highly-qualified workforce is of sufficient quantity and quality to support the expansion of innovative activities by firms. Many industrialized countries compete strategically in attracting these workers. It is necessary that the economic policy discussion surrounding the international mobility of skilled labour must take into consideration the wide variety of ways the migration of labour affects the economy. Numerous drivers, policy and non-policy induced, are at work. Attention must now turn towards the links between these movements and the regulating institutions; the performance in the trade of goods and services, FDI, human capital formation and multinational enterprises location, and income convergence among countries. This paper focuses on four key issues: First, it examines the global trends in the international migratory flows of highly qualified persons (HQPs), focusing on APEC economies. Second, it discusses the fundamental non-policy drivers of the increased HQP flows in the new global economy. Third, it reviews the literature on the economic costs and benefits associated with cross-country movement of HQPs and the main factors conditioning these costs and benefits. Finally, it addresses the question of how policy in APEC economies has adjusted or should adjust to the increased international HQP mobility.
  • Mobility of HQP in a long term may induce wage convergence ** (P39)
  • E-learning may decline need of mobile HQP?
  • Migration and trade are complements at an economic scale
  • Again - brain circulation
  • Higher mobility of HQP could reduce duplication in R&D field (P40)
  • Higher demand for HQP stimulates investment in human capital
  • Wildasin's free mobility model, benefit all nations?
  • Cross-border spillovers -> Canada from US
  • Migration of HQP is zero-sum ?
  • US - Canada, mutual recognition or certification
  • Schengen Agreement in EU
  • Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement (TTTA) between Australia and New Zealand
  • Trans-Tasman Mutual Recognition Arrangement (TTMRA), mobile worker to work on equivalent jobs at a different nation
  • APEC Business Travel Card
  • Points system in Canada
  • Return to education
  • Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials (CICIC)
  • Special tax policies for HQP, reduced income tax...
  • Innovation gap, less absorptive capacity?
The Formation Of Global Citizenship: International Non-Governmental Organizations In Britain

Desforges, L. (2004). The formation of global citizenship: international non-governmental organizations in Britain. Political Geography, 23(5), 549–569. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2004.02.001

  • Abstract: Globalisation has changed the formation of contemporary citizenship. At the same time as undermining the role of the nation state in the construction of political participation, new arenas of citizenship are suggestive of an emergent 'global citizenship'. Analysis of participation in politics at the scale of the global has suggested that civil society associations are strongly implicated in this process. This paper explores the role played by such institutions in the configuration of global citizenship. Through a case study of international development NGOs in the UK, and the relationship they build with the public, the paper suggests that international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) offer a version of global citizenship, which is highly circumscribed by their professional and institutional imperatives. Concerns with the continuing ability of organizations to deliver a professionally determined development agenda means that the role envisioned for the public by INGOs does not necessarily accord with that presented by advocates of the role of global civil society in citizenship. The paper concludes by exploring the implications of these findings for further research on the formation of global citizenship.
  • WTO and UN voice for strong nations
  • ↑ ride over "global south"
  • Idea circumscribed by current form of INGO
Open Content And Open Educational Resources: Enabling Universal Education

Caswell, T., Henson, S., Jensen, M., & Wiley, D. (2008). Open Content and Open Educational Resources: Enabling universal education. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v9i1.469

  • Abstract: The role of distance education is shifting. Traditionally distance education was limited in the number of people served because of production, reproduction, and distribution costs. Today, while it still costs the university time and money to produce a course, technology has made it such that reproduction costs are almost non-existent. This shift has significant implications, and allows distance educators to play an important role in the fulfillment of the promise of the right to universal education. At little or no cost, universities can make their content available to millions. This content has the potential to substantially improve the quality of life of learners around the world. New distance education technologies, such as OpenCourseWares, act as enablers to achieving the universal right to education. These technologies, and the associated changes in the cost of providing access to education, change distance education's role from one of classroom alternative to one of social transformer.
  • OpenCourseWare --> MIT
  • Reproduction, distribution cost no long exist much
  • David Wiley - education content should be made free
  • Utah, state funds OCW
  • Open university Netherlands, self-taught network administrator
  • Creative commons license --> Non- commercial works
  • eduCommons software
  • "If educational materials can bring people out of poverty, and information can now be copied and shared with greater ease, there is a moral obligation to do so. Information should be shared, because it is the right thing to do" -- > Open Content And Open Educational Resources: Enabling Universal Education
  • Copyright conflicts
  • "Everyone has the right to education" (United Nations, 1948)
Innovative Technologies As A Means Of The Development Of Future Engineers' Professional Mobility Abroad

Balikaeva, M. B., Chizhevskaya, E. L., Grevtseva, G. Y., Kotlyarova, I. O., & Volkova, M. A. (2018). Innovative technologies as a means of the development of future engineers' professional mobility abroad. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 441, 012007. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/441/1/012007

  • Abstract: The article discusses the relevance of innovative technologies in development of the future engineers' professional mobility. In the publication the types of innovative technologies are presented in the universities of Germany, the US, Britain, France, Norway, Poland and other countries. The principles and functions of the innovative technologies are defined in some universities abroad. The forms of innovative technologies contribute to the qualities formation at the basis of the future engineers' professional mobility.
  • MIT OpenCourseWare
Temporary Migration And Bilateral Trade Flows

Jansen, M., & Piermartini, R. (2009). Temporary Migration and Bilateral Trade Flows. The World Economy, 32(5), 735–753. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9701.2009.01167.x

  • Abstract: Empirical evidence on migration and trade has established that permanent migration promotes trade. This finding has been interpreted as proof for the role of migrants in reducing trade‐related transaction costs such as contract enforcement costs or information costs. This paper contributes to improving our understanding of trade‐related transaction costs by analysing empirically whether temporary migrants, like permanent migrants, have an impact on bilateral trade flows. Temporary migrants can be expected to be less integrated in the host country than permanent migrants. At the same time, their knowledge of the home country can, on average, be expected to be more up‐to‐date. Our findings therefore give insights as to the relative importance of knowledge on the host and the home country for trade‐related transaction costs. Using a gravity approach in our empirical analysis, we find that temporary migration has a positive and significant effect on trade and that temporary migration tends to have a stronger and more significant effect on both imports and exports than permanent migration. Interestingly, the role of temporary migrants in reducing trade costs does not appear to be associated with their skills.
  • NAFTA, temporary work visa, partner countries
  • Germany, guest workers
  • Temporary immigrants, potential to bilateral trade --> imports, taste still not adjected, more knowledge to home country
  • Reduce cost for acquiring information, negotiation
  • Permanent immigrants, exports
  • Only part of immigrants are employed --> global passport and mobility, instead of working visa
  • Lower transaction cost
  • Temporary/permanent immigrants, connection with home country --> Flow of people crossing borders
  • Insignificant interaction, settled immigrant and temporary immigrants
  • Skills do not match with their influence that much
  • Temporary migrants > permanent migrants on bilateral trading
Can Brain Drain Justify Immigration Restrictions

Oberman, K. (2013). Can Brain Drain Justify Immigration Restrictions? Ethics, 123(3), 427–455. https://doi.org/10.1086/669567

  • Abstract: This article considers one seemingly compelling justification for immigration restrictions: that they help restrict the brain drain of skilled workers from poor states. For some poor states, brain drain is a severe problem, sapping their ability to provide basic services. Yet this article finds that justifying immigration restrictions on brain drain grounds is far from straightforward. For restrictions to be justified, a series of demanding conditions must be fulfilled. Brain drain does provide a successful argument for some immigration restrictions, but it is an argument that fails to justify restrictions beyond a small minority of cases
  • Freedom to move domestically = freedom to move internationally
  • Philosophical debate on immigration restrictions
  • Repay home country if cost is provided by home country
  • Skilled worker assists compatriots, general duties
  • Global poverty, rich state duties
  • Brain shortage > Brain drain
  • Tax for skilled immigrants for replacement of work in home country
  • Rich state duty to fund poor state for brain drain
  • UDHR
  • Rich state provide assistance, then, immigration restriction (dumping failed duties to migrants)
National Security And U.S. Immigration Policy

Totten, R. (2008). National Security and U.S. Immigration Policy, 1776–1790. The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 39(1), 37–64. https://doi.org/10.1162/jinh.2008.39.1.37

  • Abstract: An examination of U.S. immigration policy during the early Republic from a security perspective—a common analytical focus within the field of international relations—reveals the inadequacy of traditional economic and ideological interpretations. Security concerns, based on actual threats from Great Britain and Spain, permeated the arguments both for and against immigration. Those in favor of immigration hoped to strengthen the nation, primarily by providing soldiers and money for the military; those opposed to immigration feared that it would compromise national security by causing domestic unrest and exposing the new nation to espionage and terrorism. These issues are not unlike those that beset contemporary policymakers.
  • Population strengthen security during wars?
  • welcome immigrants at the same time maintain domestic security

The Abolition Of Immigration Restrictions And The Performance Of Firms And Workers: Evidence From Switzerland[edit | edit source]

Beerli, A., Ruffner, J., Siegenthaler, M., & Peri, G. (2018). The Abolition of Immigration Restrictions and the Performance of Firms and Workers: Evidence from Switzerland (No. w25302). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w25302

  • Abstract: [They] study a reform that granted European cross-border workers free access to the Swiss labor market and had a stronger effect on regions close to the border. The greater availability of cross-border workers increased foreign employment substantially. Although many cross-border workers were highly educated, wages of highly educated natives increased. The reason is a simultaneous increase in labor demand: the reform increased the size, productivity, and innovation performance of skill-intensive incumbent firms and attracted new firms, creating opportunities for natives to pursue managerial jobs. These effects are mainly driven by firms that reported skill shortages before the reform.
  • Cross border workers - CBW (highly-skilled)
  • Prior requirements to hire foreign workers abolished
  • Increase in wage and employment with CBW policies
  • Open border, foreigners do not relocate, weaker consumption-side effects
  • Switzerland, opened border at low unemployment and high demand for immigrant workers
  • Firms' voices on recruiting skilled foreign workers
  • No significant evidence of negative effect for local people with CBW
  • Wage growth of highly educated natives --> attract more people to high level of education
  • Different jobs for CBW and natives, attenuate undesired possible effect from marginal productivity
  • Increased sale in highly treated firms
  • Immigration restriction --> skill shortages --> hamper innovation
Equality, Justice And The Problem Of International Borders: The Case Of Canadian Immigration Regulation

Bauder, H. (2003). Equality, Justice and the Problem of International Borders: The Case of Canadian Immigration Regulation. ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies, 2(2), 167–182. https://acme-journal.org/index.php/acme/article/view/693

  • Abstract: [He] examines the legitimacy of immigration controls in the context of Canada and this country's restrictive immigration policies. Despite the fundamental, philosophical arguments against immigration restrictions, the necessity of immigration controls is rarely questioned in Canadian politics. In this paper [He] suggests that there is an incredible cynicism of Canadian immigration policies with respect to this country's own political principles. The idea of international migration controls is neither sustainable from a larger liberaltheory perspective nor a political-economy viewpoint. [He} suggests that geographers should imagine alternatives to the current systems of immigration control and the regulation of the international movement of people.
  • Nation states threats --> political discourse --> principle of nationality > principle of humanity
  • Immigration regulation contradicts social justice
  • Gap between liberal theory and practices
  • Abolish immigration restriction --> democracy
  • Investor immigrants --> borderless world
  • Abolition of immigration restriction worldwide --> No significant diaspora
  • Principle of community > principle of humanity
  • Very low percentage of current citizen met immigration requirements
  • Economic gain > liberal equality
  • Inherited privilege --> feudal barrier
  • Citizenship and labor exploitations, not abolished, increase competition
  • World Migration Organization (WMO)
  • Rescale immigration restriction to individual
Unequal Access To Foreign Spaces: How States Use Visa Restrictions To Regulate Mobility In A Globalized World

Neumayer, E. (2006). Unequal access to foreign spaces: how states use visa restrictions to regulate mobility in a globalized world. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 31(1), 72–84. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-5661.2006.00194.x

  • Abstract: Nation‐states employ visa restrictions to manage the complex trade‐off between facilitating the entrance to their territory by passport holders from certain countries for economic and political reasons and deterring individuals from other countries for reasons of perceived security and immigration control. The resulting system is one of highly unequal access to foreign spaces, reinforcing existing inequalities. Trans‐national mobility is encouraged for passport holders from privileged nations, particularly rich Western countries, at the expense of severe restrictions for others. Visa restrictions manifest states' unfaltering willingness to monitor, regulate and control entrance to their territory in a globalized world.
  • 9/11
  • Poorer countries open border in hope of brain spill-over
  • Egypt's policy on giving visa at its border, great revenue
  • Tighter immigration restriction may increase illegal transnational movement
The Global University, Area Studies, And The World Citizen: Neoliberal Geography's Redistribution Of The "World"

Looser, T. (2012). THE GLOBAL UNIVERSITY, AREA STUDIES, AND THE WORLD CITIZEN: Neoliberal Geography's Redistribution of the "World." Cultural Anthropology, 27(1), 97–117. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1548-1360.2012.01128.x

  • Abstract: In the middle of both recessionary financial constraints and new developments in what are often called "neoliberal" global economics, a number of high‐profile North American universities are creating new campuses in locations around the world. Conceptually different than an older model of study abroad sites, they are also helping to create a new geography of "area," that includes shifting conceptions of citizenship, sovereignty, and cultural difference. The claims being made about them are large: they are being described as central components within a historical "inflection point" in the very nature of humanity; the reorganization of the university is thus at once part of the reorganization of human geography, and of the categories by which we conceive of social life. This article examines both the new kinds of global social space that these universities are helping to define, and the restructuring of the "global university" itself; both are placed within the context of the neoliberal principles that are motivating the construction of these new world spaces. Indifference is a key element of these principles; this article considers the varied implications of neoliberal indifference. [area studies, neoliberalism, globalization, cities, difference, citizenship and sovereignty, social form]
  • Autonomy may increase competitivity among individual states
  • Citizenship in Special Economic Zone (SEC)
  • Services-defined social life
  • Degree granting global university in major cities
  • Autonomous regions
  • Politics-free citizenship introduced in the article
  • Neutrality of World Citizen
  • Above ideas need support from a borderless world
Knowledge Sharing In Virtual Communities: A Study Of Citizenship Behavior And Its Social-Relational Antecedents

Xu, B., Li, D., & Shao, B. (2012). Knowledge Sharing in Virtual Communities: A Study of Citizenship Behavior and Its Social-Relational Antecedents. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 28(5), 347–359. https://doi.org/10.1080/10447318.2011.590121

  • Abstract: A virtual community is a type of online structure that enables Internet users to communicate and collaborate. Users' knowledge contributions are critical to the viability and sustainability of virtual communities. This article studies virtual community members' knowledge sharing from the perspective of citizenship behavior defined as members' spontaneous contribution to the community without expectation of return or reciprocation. The social-relational antecedents of citizenship behavior are explored through an examination of how members' general attitude and desire for relationship building and maintaining, including attachment motivation, social support orientation, and disposition to trust influence their trusting beliefs and citizenship knowledge-sharing behavior. Hypotheses are developed and tested with survey data from Chinese and American users of virtual communities. In general, the results of data analyses support our research model. This article contributes empirically to virtual community research and has practical implications for virtual community development.
  • Share knowledge for enjoyment, or to gain reputation
  • Contribution diminished when receiving certain amount reputation
  • Knowledge receiver may not return the favor back to community
Fairness And Devotion Go Far: Integrating Online Justice And Value Co-Creation In Virtual Communities

Chou, E.-Y., Lin, C.-Y., & Huang, H.-C. (2016). Fairness and devotion go far: Integrating online justice and value co-creation in virtual communities. International Journal of Information Management, 36(1), 60–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2015.09.009

  • Abstract: Although building long-term, successful virtual communities is important, rare studies have examined both in- and extra-role value co-creation behaviors from the perspective of social exchange theory and equity theory. Specially, we incorporate five different online justice perceptions into our model and examine the mediating role of "sense of virtual community" between these perceived online justice antecedents and both in- and extra-role online value co-creation behavior (reflected by knowledge contribution and online community citizenship behaviors, respectively). We empirically examine the model using data from 278 members of virtual communities. The results reveal that perceived online justice leads to value co-creation behavior through sense of virtual community. The findings elicit several implications for theory and practice.
  • Citizenship behaviors in a virtual community
  • Concept of collectivistic
Open Source, Openness, And Higher Education

Wiley, D. (2006). Open Source, Openness, and Higher Education. Innovate: Journal of Online Education, 3(1). https://www.learntechlib.org/p/104321/

  • Abstract: In this article David Wiley provides an overview of how the general expansion of open source software has affected the world of education in particular. In doing so, Wiley not only addresses the development of open source software applications for teachers and administrators, he also discusses how the fundamental philosophy of the open source movement has characterized the development of open course content (through online repositories such as MERLOT) as well as open access research (through e-journals such as "PLoS Biology"). Wiley concludes that such trends have contributed to a "culture of openness" in the academy, which, in turn, will allow higher education to adapt more fully to the demands of future learners.
  • Open source software, open source education
  • Public library of science (PLoS)
  • Journals made public to redistribute are more likely to be referenced
  • Teachers should be replaced if they do not provide interactivities
  • Peer-review pressure of making course material open online
International Scientist Mobility And The Locus Of Knowledge And Technology Transfer

Edler, J., Fier, H., & Grimpe, C. (2011). International scientist mobility and the locus of knowledge and technology transfer. Research Policy, 40(6), 791–805. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2011.03.003

  • Abstract: Despite the growing interest of scholars and policymakers to better understand the determinants for researchers in public science to transfer knowledge and technology to firms, little is known how temporary international mobility of scientists affects both their propensity to engage in knowledge and technology transfer (KTT) as well as the locus of such transfer. Based on a sample of more than 950 German academics from science and engineering faculties, we investigate how the duration and the frequency of scientists' visits at research institutions outside their home country affect KTT activities. We find that most mobile scientists engage in KTT to firms both in the host and in their home country, suggesting that KTT activities to firms abroad do not substitute or crowd out, but complement KTT to firms in the home country. We further find that the longer research visits abroad are, the higher the likelihood that scientists engage in KTT to firms, again both in the host and the home country. However, the more frequently scientists visit institutions abroad, the more likely they are to engage in KTT to firms only in their home country. Our results therefore provide evidence for the benefits of "brain circulation". The article contributes to the growing strand of the literature on scientist mobility and on the determinants of industry–science linkages at the individual level.
  • Knowledge and technology transfer (KTT)
  • Brain circulation, host and home country
  • Temporary migration might be beneficial, as workers end up in home country
  • International researchers more productive, engage in KTT more
  • Low satisfactory of international mobility among researchers
Are Firms Superior To Alliances And Markets? An Empirical Test Of Cross-Border Knowledge Building

Almeida, P., Song, J., & Grant, R. M. (2002). Are firms superior to alliances and markets? An empirical test of cross-border knowledge building. Organization Science, 13(2), 147–161. https://search.proquest.com/docview/213834712/abstract/62F416222D534FBDPQ/1

  • Abstract: Are multinational corporations (MNCs) superior to strategic alliances and markets in facilitating the flow of knowledge across borders? If so, what are the sources of this superiority? Despite their central importance to the theory and practice of international management, these questions have not been directly tested. This paper seeks to address this gap in empirical research. The findings suggest that the superiority of MNCs stems from the firms' ability to use multiple mechanisms of knowledge transfer flexibly and simultaneously to move, integrate, and develop technical knowledge.
  • Firms are more important than markets in knowledge transfer
  • Multinational corporations (MNCs)
  • Research and Development (R&D)
  • Low transaction cost between firms and alliances
Giving The Market A Microphone: Solutions To The Ongoing Displacement Of U.S. Workers Through The H1B Visa Program

Trimbach, S. (2016). Giving the Market a Microphone: Solutions to the Ongoing Discplacement of US Workers through the H1B Visa Program. Nw. J. Int'l L. & Bus., 37, 275.

  • Abstract: In recent years, the H1B visa program has been mired in controversy. Some have pointed out the way the program is used to aid in outsourcing. Others have suggested that employers pay H1B workers less than their U.S. counterparts, effectively allowing employers to import cheaper foreign labor. In fact, these can go hand-in-hand. The less an employer has to pay an H1B worker, the less expensive it is to use the program to outsource jobs. In addition to these problems, this Note identifies one more: while the current structure of the program helps employers bridge a labor gap when there aren't enough qualified U.S. workers in a field, it simultaneously perpetuates that labor gap so that U.S. workers do not enter the field and employers must continue hiring through the H1B program.
  • Paying H1B workers less prevents native workers entering field
  • Existence of outsourcing firms
  • Outsourcing firms' abuse on H1B workers
  • Outsourcing firms abuse system and limit the number of visas for others
  • Process of green card delayed when change employer
  • Over-qualified H1B candidates
  • Firms game the system to pay lowest
  • Employee not willing to change employer due to process reset (green card)
  • Limited mobility for H1B holders ↑ (Employers prefer)
  • Insufficient and ineffective wage data on H1B workers ( Market does not exist for H1B workers)
  • Increase wages for H1B workers to incentivize US workers
  • Do not reset visa process, could save money when employee switching jobs
The Triad Of Credentialing Processes In Engineer Quality Regulation: Accreditation, Certification, And Licensure/Registration

Jang, S., & Yu, F. (2008). The triad of credentialing processes in Engineer Quality Regulation: Accreditation, certification, and licensure/registration. PICMET '08 - 2008 Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering Technology, 1955–1962. https://doi.org/10.1109/PICMET.2008.4599816

  • Abstract: The engineering licensing law established 100 years ago in USA, which aims at protecting the public security and welfare, combining with the currently hot mutual recognition qualification of engineers for their cross-country mobility are built upon the base of Engineer Quality Regulation. After 100 years' development, in the field of Engineer Quality Regulation, there is the triad of credentialing processes: Accreditation, Certification, and Licensure/Regulation. The article explains and compares those core special words; points out the concept confusion now in the world in this field; describes the principle of quality assurance reflected in this triad system. The paper focuses on USA model of this triad of credentialing processes, how and why it came to today, its future trend; simply compares USA model with the models of Canada and UK; analyzes the reason why the three countries have different models of Engineer Quality Regulation. China's model is on the process of forming, there are some problems and confusions needed to study and learn from the international experience.

The International Mobility Of Talent And Its Impact On Global Development[edit | edit source]

Solimano, A. (2006). The International Mobility of Talent and its Impact on Global Development.

  • Abstract: Human talent is a key economic resource and a source of creative power in science, technology, business, arts and culture and other activities. Talent has a large economic value and its mobility has increased with globalization, the spread of new information technologies and lower transportation costs. Well educated and/or talented people are often more internationally mobile than unskilled workers. Immigrants with high human capital face more favourable immigration policies in receiving countries, typically high per capita income economies short of information technology experts, scientists, medical doctors and other types of talent. The purpose of this paper is to review analytical and policy issues related to the international mobility of talented individuals, examining the main types of talent who move internationally, their specific traits and characteristics and the implications of this mobility for source and destination countries and for global development.
  • Fields with diminishing returns are less attractive
  • Individual contribution in teamwork is hard to be detected
  • Most able people may skip higher education
  • Social marginal product & private marginal product
  • Brain gain when workers come back and contribute
  • In increasing returns, higher global mobility will worsen inequality (if people do not return to source country)
  • Bologna process -- European agreements on recognition cross nations
An Overview Of U.S. Accreditation

Eaton, J. S. (2006). An Overview of U.S. Accreditation. Council for Higher Education Accreditation. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED494266

  • Abstract: This publication provides a general description of the key features of U.S. accreditation of higher education and recognition of accrediting organizations. Accreditation in the United States is about quality assurance and quality improvement. It is a process to scrutinize higher education institutions and programs. Accreditation is private (nongovernmental) and nonprofit--an outgrowth of the higher education community and not of government. It is funded primarily by the institutions and programs that are accredited. Accreditation has a complex relationship with government, especially in relation to funding higher education. It adds value to society through assuring quality, enabling government to make sound judgments about the use of public funds, aiding the private sector in decisions about financial support and easing transfer of credit. Recognition in the United States is about scrutiny of the quality and effectiveness of accrediting organizations. It is carried out by the higher education enterprise through the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA), a private body, and by the United States Department of Education (USDE). CHEA recognition is funded by institutional dues; USDE recognition is funded by the U.S. Congress. The goals of the two recognition processes are different. CHEA assures that accrediting organizations contribute to maintaining and improving academic quality. USDE assures that accrediting organizations contribute to maintaining the soundness of institutions and programs that receive federal funds. The two recognition processes are similar: self-evaluation based on standards, site visit and report, award of recognition status. Recognition adds value to society as a vital part of accreditation accountability or "accrediting the accreditors."
  • Decentralization
  • Non-governmental accreditation, governmental recognition.
A Proposed Framework For Accreditation Of Online Continuing Medical Education

Bamidis, P. D., Nikolaidou, M. M., Konstantinidis, S. T., & Pappas, C. (2007). A Proposed Framework for Accreditation of Online Continuing Medical Education. Twentieth IEEE International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS'07), 693–700. https://doi.org/10.1109/CBMS.2007.10

  • Abstract: Continuing medical education tends to be considered compulsory in most countries although it is described by the Union of European Medical Specialists as an ethical duty. Accreditation of CME and allocation of credits is not yet mandatory in the EU but it is important for providers of educational activities to meet certain quality criteria so as to be prepared for future requirements. Many software platforms and learning management systems (LMS) can be used to support Web-based courses for online CME. Certain standards like SCORM, define the set of specifications that enables cross-system workflows. Updates and extensions of SCORM specifications enable further enhancements. The current research proposes a framework for the accreditation of online CME courses through the enhancement of the SCORM model and the use of metadata, using a SCORM-compliant open source LMS platform, namely, moodle. The model assumes the definition of learning objects and learning outcomes for a specific target audience of the course and the design of an instructional module incorporating several types of learning material.
  • Accreditation for e-learning and online education
Internationalization And Quality Assurance: Towards Worldwide Accreditation?

Van Damme, D. (2000). Internationalization and quality assurance: Towards worldwide accreditation? European Journal for Education Law and Policy, 4(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009994906190

  • Abstract: This paper addresses two very closely related issues, namely the integration of the quality dimension in internationalization policies in higher education and the adaptation of quality assurance policies and practices to an increasingly international environment. Through an analysis of some issues and challenges in internationalization on the one hand and an overview of recent developments in quality assurance on the other, our objective is to question how internationalization and quality assurance can be integrated. Internationalization policies and practices are lacking a quality assurance dimension and quality assurance approaches are too much confined to national contexts. Can quality assurance give answers to the challenges facing internationalization and can the introduction of an international dimension give a solution to issues in the field of quality assurance. This paper then focuses on the concept of multiple accreditation and the development of worldwide mutual accreditation networks among institutions as a possible avenue for future progress.
Recognizing Contributors: An Experiment On Public Goods

Savikhin Samek, A., & Sheremeta, R. M. (2014). Recognizing contributors: an experiment on public goods. Experimental Economics, 4(17), 673–690. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10683-013-9389-1

  • Abstract: [They] experimentally investigate the impact of recognizing contributors on public good contributions. [They] vary recognizing all, highest or lowest contributors. Consistent with previous studies, recognizing all contributors significantly increases contributions relative to the baseline. Recognizing only the highest contributors does not increase contributions compared to not recognizing contributors, while recognizing only the lowest contributors is as effective as recognizing all contributors. These findings support our conjecture that aversion from shame is a more powerful motivator for giving than anticipation of prestige.
  • Social recognition
  • Prestige or shame driven
  • Altruism
Champions of Revealing—The Role Of Open Source Developers In Commercial Firms

Henkel, J. (2009). Champions of revealing—the role of open source developers in commercial firms. Industrial and Corporate Change, 18(3), 435–471. https://doi.org/10.1093/icc/dtn046

  • Abstract: The link between firms engaging in open source software (OSS) development and the OSS community is established by individual developers. This linkage might entail a principal-agent issue due to the developer's double allegiance to firm and OSS community, and expose the firm to the risk of losing intellectual property. Using both interviews and a large-scale survey, I substantiate the importance of the developer's role. However, neither interview data nor regression analysis show indications of commercially harmful revealing behavior induced by "Free Software ideology." Management, on the other hand, sometimes seems to be overly concerned about openness. I conclude that a more positive stance towards openness will allow firms to better share in the benefits of open innovation processes.
  • Management took over-restrictive stance on OSS
  • Firms reveal partial code to be recognized and gain from other contributes, diminishing returns