Floating photovoltaic literature review

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Introduction[edit | edit source]

This literature review is on the Floating Photovoltaic system. Floating Photovoltaic also known as floating solar is a solar power system that is mounted on a structure that floats on water(Lake, River, reservoir, etc..). Floating Photovoltaic systems generate 18% more electricity than ground-based solar systems due to the cooling effects of the water. Water temperature has a crucial effect on the efficiency of the solar FPV systems, it is imperative to monitor and gather data on the temperature of the water. FPV can solve water evaporation crises and also provide greater efficiency in power generation at the same time. Higher efficiency can be gained from the FPV if the water temperature is between 25 to 35 degrees Celcius. It can also save 60% of the water evaporation by just covering 40% of the water surface area with solar PV systems.


Literature Review[edit | edit source]

1. A. Sahu, N. Yadav, and K. Sudhakar, “Floating photovoltaic power plant: A review,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 66, pp. 815–824, Dec. 2016, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2016.08.051. [Online]. Available: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032116304841. [Accessed: 24-Jan-2021][edit | edit source]

  • FTCC helps increase efficiency and also reduces maintenance cost by 20%
  • CPV technology can be used to synchronize the modules to daily and seasonal movement of the sun
  • Remote sensing and GIS-based techniques can be used to find potential floating PV projects

2. D. Mittal, B. K. Saxena, and K. V. S. Rao, “Floating solar photovoltaic systems: An overview and their feasibility at Kota in Rajasthan [1],” in 2017 International Conference on Circuit, Power and Computing Technologies (ICCPCT), 2017, pp. 1–7, DOI: 10.1109/ICCPCT.2017.8074182.[edit | edit source]

  • This project will save 545 liters of water annually
  • Reduce CO2 emission of 23990 tonnes annually

3. D. Mittal, B. K. Saxena, and K. V. S. Rao, “Potential of floating photovoltaic system for energy generation and reduction of water evaporation at four different lakes in Rajasthan[2],” in 2017 International Conference On Smart Technologies For Smart Nation (SmartTechCon), 2017, pp. 238–243, DOI: 10.1109/SmartTechCon.2017.8358376.[edit | edit source]

4. N. Yadav, M. Gupta, and K. Sudhakar, “Energy assessment of floating photovoltaic system[3],” in 2016 International Conference on Electrical Power and Energy Systems (ICEPES), 2016, pp. 264–269, DOI: 10.1109/ICEPES.2016.7915941.[edit | edit source]

  • Single diode lumped circuit model is commonly used to calculate the energy production in PV cell
  • Racking structure is made of high-density polyethylene

5. A. M. Pringle, R. M. Handler, and J. M. Pearce, “Aquavoltaics: Synergies for dual use of water area for solar photovoltaic electricity generation and aquaculture,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 80, pp. 572–584, Dec. 2017, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2017.05.191. [Online]. Available: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032117308304. [Accessed: 30-Jan-2021][edit | edit source]

  • Using LED lights to artificially create a sustainable environment for aquatic life by maintaining water temperature
  • Create a synergy between food energy water through a nexus approach

6.J. Farfan and C. Breyer, “Combining Floating Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants and Hydropower Reservoirs: A Virtual Battery of Great Global Potential,” Energy Procedia, vol. 155, pp. 403–411, Nov. 2018, DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2018.11.038. [Online]. Available: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876610218309858. [Accessed: 30-Jan-2021][edit | edit source]

  • FPV can help reduce algae growth and help improve water quality
  • Hydropower can act as a virtual battery for FPV

7. H. G. Teo, P. S. Lee, and M. N. A. Hawlader, “An active cooling system for photovoltaic modules,” Applied Energy, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 309–315, Feb. 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.01.017. [Online]. Available: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306261911000201. [Accessed: 31-Jan-2021][edit | edit source]

  • Effect of temperature on solar PV efficiency
  • Advantages of active cooling

8. H. A. Hussien, A. H. Numan, and A. R. Abdulmunem, “Improving of the photovoltaic/thermal system performance using water cooling technique,” IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng., vol. 78, p. 012020, Apr. 2015, DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/78/1/012020. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/78/1/012020. [Accessed: 01-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • A cooling design technique is used in which a heat exchanger and water circulating pipes are used
  • The mass flow rate should be kept under a lower value to obtain better thermal gain

9. A. Ozemoya, A. Swart, and H. Pienaar, “Experimental Assessment of PV Module Cooling Strategies[4],” 2014.[edit | edit source]

  • Testing of water cooling system and forced air cooling system
  • Difference between back surface temperature and cell temperature

10. F. Grubišić-Čabo, S. Nizetic, and G. Tina, “Photovoltaic panels: A review of the cooling techniques[5],” Transactions of FAMENA, vol. 40, pp. 63–74, Jun. 2016.[edit | edit source]

  • A special type of cooling is discussed known as PCM cooling
  • Various type of active and passive cooling are discussed in details
  • Overall efficiency from different types of cooling were compared with each other

11. T. Karpouzoglou, B. Vlaswinkel, and J. van der Molen, “Effects of large-scale floating (solar photovoltaic) platforms on hydrodynamics and primary production in a coastal sea from a water column model,” Ocean Science, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 195–208, Jan. 2020, DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/os-16-195-2020. [Online]. Available: https://os.copernicus.org/articles/16/195/2020/. [Accessed: 03-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • Feasibility of making a solar farm on the North sea of Atlantic ocean
  • Simulation of the model testing

12. A. K. Sahu and K. Sudhakar, “Effect of UV exposure on bimodal HDPE float for floating solar application,” Journal of Materials Research and Technology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 147–156, Jan. 2019, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmrt.2017.10.002. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2238785416302794. [Accessed: 04-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • Properties and advantages of using HDPE material is proposed
  • Bimodal HDPE has increased ESCR properties

13. J. Siecker, K. Kusakana, and B. P. Numbi, “A review of solar photovoltaic systems cooling technologies,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 79, pp. 192–203, Nov. 2017, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2017.05.053. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032117306913. [Accessed: 04-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • It's a review on reducing the negative effect of heating on solar PV
  • Testing various cooling technique to increase the efficiency of the PV model

14. K. A. Moharram, M. S. Abd-Elhady, H. A. Kandil, and H. El-Sherif, “Enhancing the performance of photovoltaic panels by water cooling,” Ain Shams Engineering Journal, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 869–877, Dec. 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.asej.2013.03.005. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2090447913000403. [Accessed: 05-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • Ratio of temperature to energy output in a PV system is shown
  • To determine the heating rate of the panels a mathematical formula was formed

15. H. M. Bahaidarah, S. Rehman, P. Gandhidasan, and B. Tanweer, “Experimental evaluation of the performance of a photovoltaic panel with water cooling[6],” in 2013 IEEE 39th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2013, pp. 2987–2991, DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2013.6745090.[edit | edit source]

  • A study was conducted on a novel heat pipe photovoltaic thermal system
  • Graph was plotted with accordance to time-temperature and time-Max power efficiency

16. M. E. Taboada, L. Cáceres, T. A. Graber, H. R. Galleguillos, L. F. Cabeza, and R. Rojas, “Solar water heating system and photovoltaic floating cover to reduce evaporation: Experimental results and modeling,” Renewable Energy, vol. 105, pp. 601–615, May 2017, DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2016.12.094. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148116311636. [Accessed: 07-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • Solar panel was used to cover the pond for saving water
  • As per the data collected from the experiment which spanned for 8 months of operation, 90% of the water was saved

17. S. Wu and C. Xiong, “Passive cooling technology for photovoltaic panels for domestic houses,” International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 118–126, Jun. 2014, DOI: 10.1093/ijlct/ctu013. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1093/ijlct/ctu013. [Accessed: 08-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • Passive cooling method of rainwater and gas expansion device is used in the experiment
  • A relationship between gas chamber size, solar radiation, and gas expansion is formulated with respect to the temperature variation and amount of rainwater
  • It is possible to have variation in the efficiency depending on the amount of rainfall on a particular period of time

18. M. Ikhennicheu, B. Danglade, R. Pascal, V. Arramounet, Q. Trébaol, and F. Gorintin, “Analytical method for loads determination on floating solar farms in three typical environments,” Solar Energy, Jan. 2021, DOI: 10.1016/j.solener.2020.11.078. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0038092X20312664. [Accessed: 08-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • This test was majorly focused on the mooring design of the flotovoltaic solar farm
  • Three different types of environments were used for this testing (small lake, a large lake, and offshore)
  • Wind loads are the major concern in almost all areas except for the offshore environment where the load generated from the waves have significant contributions.

19. G. D. P. D. Silva and D. A. C. Branco, “Is floating photovoltaic better than conventional photovoltaic? Assessing environmental impacts,” Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 390–400, Sep. 2018, DOI: 10.1080/14615517.2018.1477498. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2018.1477498. [Accessed: 08-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • Floating photovoltaics have more advantages than the conventional ones from the planning to decommissioning phase of the systems.
  • As the price of the land is increasing day by day its more cost-efficient and it also saves water from evaporating.

20. S. F. Hui, H. F. Ho, W. W. Chan, K. W. Chan, W. C. Lo, and K. W. E. Cheng, “Floating solar cell power generation, power flow design and its connection and distribution[7],” in 2017 7th International Conference on Power Electronics Systems and Applications - Smart Mobility, Power Transfer Security (PESA), 2017, pp. 1–4, DOI: 10.1109/PESA.2017.8277783.[edit | edit source]

  • This paper is on the generation, distribution, and protection of solar power on the seawater
  • MPPT method is used to generate higher power from the solar radiation
  • I-V characteristics of MPPT is also explained

21. R. S. Spencer, J. Macknick, A. Aznar, A. Warren, and M. O. Reese, “Floating Photovoltaic Systems: Assessing the Technical Potential of Photovoltaic Systems on Man-Made Water Bodies in the Continental United States,” Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 1680–1689, Feb. 2019, DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.8b04735. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b04735. [Accessed: 08-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • A study was conducted on using FPV on the artificial water bodies
  • Various technical and economic benefits are detailed

22. R. Chowdhury, M. A. Aowal, S. M. G. Mostafa, and M. A. Rahman, “Floating Solar Photovoltaic System: An Overview and their Feasibility at Kaptai in Rangamati[8],” in 2020 IEEE International Power and Renewable Energy Conference, 2020, pp. 1–5, DOI: 10.1109/IPRECON49514.2020.9315200.[edit | edit source]

  • Bangladesh is a prime example where there is a scarcity of land due to overpopulation
  • As per the simulation 15MW can be generated by only occupying 11% of the lake

23. L. Liu, Q. Wang, H. Lin, H. Li, Q. Sun, and R. wennersten, “Power Generation Efficiency and Prospects of Floating Photovoltaic Systems,” Energy Procedia, vol. 105, pp. 1136–1142, May 2017, DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.483. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876610217305246. [Accessed: 09-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • Total surface area of the natural lakes in china is approximately 78000 km^2
  • A 3.5 degrees Celcius difference in operating temperature between FPV cells and terrestrial cells
  • 160 GW of power can be generated potentially

24. P. Ranjbaran, H. Yousefi, G. B. Gharehpetian, and F. R. Astaraei, “A review on floating photovoltaic (FPV) power generation units,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 110, pp. 332–347, Aug. 2019, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2019.05.015. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032119303211. [Accessed: 09-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • With the intent to keep the efficiency of the grid voltages at the peak a DC-DC transformerless converter is being developed
  • FPV structure has been investigated under compression test, tensile test, and dynamic test

25. S. Oliveira-Pinto and J. Stokkermans, “Assessment of the potential of different floating solar technologies – Overview and analysis of different case studies,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 211, p. 112747, May 2020, DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman.2020.112747. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196890420302855. [Accessed: 09-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • Increase in production of FPV tech is below anticipated value
  • Cost analysis with respect to the FPV technology was conducted

26. P. Prudhvi and P. C. Sai, “Efficiency improvement of solar PV panels using active cooling[9],” in 2012 11th International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering, 2012, pp. 1093–1097, DOI: 10.1109/EEEIC.2012.6221543.[edit | edit source]

  • Ways to enhance active cooling by reducing loss caused due to the temperature
  • Few ideas have been proposed to reduce the reflection losses

27. H. Zsiborács et al., “Technical-economic study of cooled crystalline solar modules,” Solar Energy, vol. 140, pp. 227–235, Dec. 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.solener.2016.11.009. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0038092X16305254. [Accessed: 09-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • Cooling effect of vaporization in summer and in autumn showed no significant difference.
  • Different methods for cooling monocrystalline and polycrystalline solar modules with water vaporizing were analyzed

28. Ming-Tse Kuo and Wen-Yi Lo, “A combination of concentrator photovoltaics and water cooling system to improve solar energy utilization[10],” in 2013 IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, 2013, pp. 1–9, DOI: 10.1109/IAS.2013.6682486.[edit | edit source]

  • With a combined application of photovoltaic and thermal technologies the total energy of the overall system can be improved by 37% to 59%
  • Neural network algorithm was used to analyze various temperature range

29. S. Krauter, “Increased electrical yield via water flow over the front of photovoltaic panels[11],” Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, vol. 82, pp. 131–137, May 2004, DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2004.01.011.[edit | edit source]

  • Reflection of solar irradiance reduces electrical yield by 8% - 12%
  • A particular angle of the panel helps dissipate the reflection losses

30. Y. M. Irwan et al., “Indoor Test Performance of PV Panel through Water Cooling Method,” Energy Procedia, vol. 79, pp. 604–611, Nov. 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2015.11.540. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876610215022729. [Accessed: 09-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • 50M monocrystalline PV panel is described along with different measuring devices for measurement of solar radiation and performance of PV panels
  • A solar simulator was used to analyze the efficiency of the PV panel with and without a water cooling system

31. S. Nižetić, D. Čoko, A. Yadav, and F. Grubišić-Čabo, “Water spray cooling technique applied on a photovoltaic panel: The performance response,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 108, pp. 287–296, Jan. 2016, DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman.2015.10.079. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196890415010018. [Accessed: 09-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • Water spray cooling technique was implemented to determine PV panel response
  • Simultaneous cooling of front and backside PV panel surfaces

32. A. Colmenar-Santos, Á. Buendia-Esparcia, C. de Palacio-Rodríguez, and D. Borge-Diez, “Water canal use for the implementation and efficiency optimization of photovoltaic facilities: Tajo-Segura transfer scenario,” Solar Energy, vol. 126, pp. 168–194, Mar. 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.solener.2016.01.008. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0038092X16000116. [Accessed: 09-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • Optimal distribution for linear configurations is presented
  • Water savings of 226 k€/year was calculated and PV losses of 6.57 GW h/year were reduced

33. Y. M. Ghazaw, “Design and analysis of a canal section for minimum water loss,” Alexandria Engineering Journal, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 337–344, Dec. 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.aej.2011.12.002. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1110016811000718. [Accessed: 09-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • Types of water losses in irrigation network canal
  • Lagrange’s method was used to determine optimal canal dimensions for minimum water losses

34. C. Ferrer-Gisbert, J. J. Ferrán-Gozálvez, M. Redón-Santafé, P. Ferrer-Gisbert, F. J. Sánchez-Romero, and J. B. Torregrosa-Soler, “A new photovoltaic floating cover system for water reservoirs,” Renewable Energy, vol. 60, pp. 63–70, Dec. 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2013.04.007. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148113002231. [Accessed: 09-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • The new FPV cover design is able to adapt to the different filling condition
  • The cover is made of polyethylene floating modules
  • Helps with land management practices

35. X. Liu, J. Yu, P. Wang, Y. Zhang, and C. Du, “Lake Evaporation in a Hyper-Arid Environment, Northwest of China—Measurement and Estimation,” Water, vol. 8, no. 11, p. 527, Nov. 2016, DOI: 10.3390/w8110527. [Online]. Available: https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/8/11/527. [Accessed: 09-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • A semi-empirical evaporation model derived from Dalton model
  • lake area, water depth, and water quality are important factors in lake evaporation

36. K. S. Hayibo, P. Mayville, R. K. Kailey, and J. M. Pearce, “Water Conservation Potential of Self-Funded Foam-Based Flexible Surface-Mounted Floatovoltaics,” Energies, vol. 13, no. 23, p. 6285, Jan. 2020, DOI: 10.3390/en13236285. [Online]. Available: https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/13/23/6285. [Accessed: 09-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • Foam-backed FPV had a lower operating temperature than conventional pontoon-based FPV
  • A 3.5% higher energy output per unit power
  • It's cost-efficient too

37. P. Mayville, N. V. Patil, and J. M. Pearce, “Distributed manufacturing of after market flexible floating photovoltaic modules,” Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, vol. 42, p. 100830, Dec. 2020, DOI: 10.1016/j.seta.2020.100830. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213138820312571. [Accessed: 09-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • This study considers surface floating of flexible thin-film solar PV using three types of closed-cell foams neoprene, minicell, and polyethylene
  • The average operational temperature was reduced by 10–20 °C for FPV

38. J. N. Laing, “Floating solar power plant with asymmetrical concentrators,” US5772791A30-Jun-1998 [Online]. Available: https://patents.google.com/patent/US5772791A/en. [Accessed: 09-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • Solar power plant consists of a multitude of elongated concentrator channels

39. L. Liu, Q. Sun, H. Li, H. Yin, X. Ren, and R. Wennersten, “Evaluating the benefits of Integrating Floating Photovoltaic and Pumped Storage Power System,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 194, pp. 173–185, Aug. 2019, DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman.2019.04.071. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196890419305059. [Accessed: 09-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • A novel Integrated Floating Photovoltaic and Pumped Storage Power System is proposed
  • Genetic algorithm is used to optimize the coordination of the integrated system
  • Benefits of the integrated system is proved by comparing with standalone systems

40. M. Temiz and N. Javani, “Design and analysis of a combined floating photovoltaic system for electricity and hydrogen production,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 3457–3469, Jan. 2020, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.12.226. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360319919300230. [Accessed: 09-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • Hydrogen as an energy storage medium compensated the intermittent solar energy
  • PvSyst software is used for the simulation purposes
  • The results are analyzed in the HOMER Pro Software

41. B. Junianto, T. Dewi, and C. R. Sitompul, “Development and Feasibility Analysis of Floating Solar Panel Application in Palembang, South Sumatra,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., vol. 1500, p. 012016, Apr. 2020, DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/1500/1/012016. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1500/1/012016. [Accessed: 09-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • The experiment shows the most effective time to harvest the power from the sun is from 11.00 AM to 02.00 PM
  • The average output power generated by Floating Solar Panels is 51.6 Watts, compared to 42.9 Watt Ground Solar panels

42. A. Goswami and P. K. Sadhu, “Degradation analysis and the impacts on feasibility study of floating solar photovoltaic systems,” Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks, vol. 26, p. 100425, Jun. 2021, DOI: 10.1016/j.segan.2020.100425. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352467720303568. [Accessed: 09-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • This paper presents techno-economic feasibility and reliability study of FSPV power plant for long term power generation
  • the average performance ratio and the degradation rate was 71.58% and 1.18% for the FPV module and 64.05% and 1.07% respectively for the land-based PV system

43. S. S. Gurfude and P. S. Kulkarni, “Energy Yield of Tracking Type Floating Solar PV Plant[12],” in 2019 National Power Electronics Conference (NPEC), 2019, pp. 1–6, doi: 10.1109/NPEC47332.2019.9034846.[edit | edit source]

  • MATLAB was used to calculate DC output, the amount saved, and CO 2 emission reduction
  • Efficiency of the single-axis tracking system is between 18-21% to that of fixed mount plant
  • Efficiency of the dual-axis tracking system is between 25-30% to that of fixed mount plant

44. S. Gorjian, H. Sharon, H. Ebadi, K. Kant, F. B. Scavo, and G. M. Tina, “Recent technical advancements, economics and environmental impacts of floating photovoltaic solar energy conversion systems,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 278, p. 124285, Jan. 2021, DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.124285. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652620343304. [Accessed: 09-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • Technical improvements along with governmental initiatives will promote the growth rate of FPV over 31% by 2024.
  • CAPEX for FPV systems is about 25% higher than ground-mounted plants
  • The capacity increase of FPV plants can intensely decrease the Levelized cost of energy up to 85%
  • Water veil cooling techniques can increase about 10–15% in electricity production

45. F. Muhammad-Sukki et al., “Solar photovoltaic in Malaysia: The way forward,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 5232–5244, Sep. 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2012.05.002. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032112003309. [Accessed: 09-Feb-2021][edit | edit source]

  • This paper analyzes the current demand, national policies, and installations of solar PV in various parts of the country
  • FiT scheme is explained
  • FiT scheme could potentially help in increasing renewable energy penetration