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Difference between revisions of "Solar floatovoltaics lit review"
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|By Michigan Tech's Open Sustainability Technology Lab.
Wanted: Students to make a distributed future with solar-powered open-source 3-D printing.
- 1 Introduction
- 1.1 H2O cooling function of Solar PV (Floatovoltaic)
- 1.1.1 An active cooling system for photovoltaic modules(2010)
- 1.1.2 Enhancing the performance of photovoltaic panels by water cooling(2013)
- 1.1.3 Assessment of the Operating Temprature of Crystalline PV Modules Baesd on Real Use Conditions(2013)
- 1.1.4 Improved Power Output of PV System by Low Cost Evaporative Cooling Technology(2013)
- 1.1.5 Improving of the photovoltaic / thermal system performance using water cooling technique (2014)
- 1.1.6 Experimental evaluation of the performance of a photovoltaic panel with water cooling(2014)
- 1.1.7 Increasing solar panel efficiency in a sustainable manner(2014)
- 1.1.8 Study on performance enhancement of PV cells by water spray cooling for the climatic conditions of Coimbatore, Tamilnadu(2015)
- 1.1.9 Experimental Assessment of PV Module Cooling Strategies(2015)
- 1.1.10 Experimental Study on Efficiency Enhancement of PV Systems With Combined Effect of Cooling and Maximum Power Point Tracking(2016)
- 1.1.11 Efficiency improvement of solar PV panels using active cooling(2012)
- 1.1.12 Solar water heating system and photovoltaic floating cover to reduce evaporation: Experimental results and modelling(2017)
- 1.1.13 Technical-economic study of cooled crystalline solar modules(2016)
- 1.1.14 A Combination of Concentrator Photovoltaics and Water Cooling System to Improve Solar Energy Utilization(2013)
- 1.1.15 Photovoltaic panels: A review of the cooling techniques (2016)
- 1.1.16 Increased electrical yield via water flow over the front of photovoltaic panels(2004)
- 1.1.17 Water Cooling Method to Improve the Performance of Field-Mounted, Insulated, and Concentrating Photovoltaic Modules(2014)
- 1.1.18 Passive cooling technology for photovoltaic panels for domestic houses(2014)
- 1.1.19 Photovoltaic panels: A review of the cooling techniques(2016)
- 1.1.20 An active cooling system for photovoltaic modules(2012)
- 1.1.21 Effect of Water Cooling on the Energy Conversion Efficiency of PV Cell(2016)
- 1.1.22 Indoor Test Performance of PV Panel through Water Cooling Method(2015)
- 1.1.23 Water spray cooling technique applied on a photovoltaic panel: The performance response(2016)
- 1.2 Simulation of PV System
- 1.2.1 Comparison of PV system performance model with measured PV system performance(2008)
- 1.2.2 Modeling Photovoltaic and Concentrating Solar Power Trough Performance, Cost, and Financing with the Solar Advisor Model(2008)
- 1.2.3 WREF 2012: P50/P90 ANALYSIS FOR SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS USING THE SYSTEM ADVISOR MODEL(2012)
- 1.2.4 PV system model reduction for reliability assessment studies(2013)
- 1.2.5 Design Parameters of 10kW Floating Solar Power Plant(2015)
- 1.2.6 Water canal use for the implementation and efficiency optimization of photovoltaic facilities: Tajo-Segura transfer scenario(2016)
- 1.2.7 A survey on floating solar power(2016)
- 1.2.8 Canal Top Solar Energy Harvesting using Reflector(2016)
- 1.2.9 Incorporation of NREL Solar Advisor Model Photovoltaic Capabilities with GridLAB-D(2012)
- 1.3 Comparison of PV System for land and water body
- 1.3.1 Study on electrical power output of floating photovoltaic and conventional photovoltaic(2013)
- 1.3.2 Study on performance of 80 watt floating photovoltaic panel(2014)
- 1.3.3 A Study on Power Generation Analysis of Floating PV System Considering Environmental Impact(2014)
- 1.3.4 A study of floating PV Module Efficiency(2014)
- 1.3.5 Design and installation of floating type photovoltaic energy generation system using FRP members(2014)
- 1.3.6 The thin film flexible floating PV (T3F-PV) array: The concept and development of the prototype (2014) 
- 1.3.7 Variability of Power from Large Scale Solar Photostatic Scenarios in the State of Gujarat(2014)
- 1.3.8 Empirical Research on the efficiency of Floating PV systems compared with Overland PV Systems(2013)
- 1.4 H2O saving simulation
- 1.4.1 Evaporation Reduction by Suspended and Floating Covers: Overview, Modelling and Efficiency(2010)
- 1.4.2 Design and analysis of a canal section for minimum water loss(2011)
- 1.4.3 Evaluating Potential for floating solar installations on Arizona Water Management(2016)
- 1.4.4 A new photovoltaic floating cover system for water reservoirs(2013)
- 1.4.5 Determination of evaporation and seepage losses, Upper Lake Mary near Flagstaff, Arizona(1998)
- 1.4.6 Water losses in canal networking (Narmada canal section near Gandhinagar-Ahmedabad)(2016)
- 1.4.7 Methods for the quantification of evaporation from lakes (prepared for the World Meteorological Organization’s Commission for Hydrology)(2008)
- 1.4.8 Estimating evaporation based on standard meteorological data – progress since 2007(2014)
- 1.4.9 Lake Evaporation in a Hyper-Arid Environment, Northwest of China—Measurement and Estimation(2016)
- 1.5 Economics of PV on water body and sensitivity analysis
- 1.5.1 Assumptions and the Levelized Cost of Energy for Photovoltaics(2011)
- 1.5.2 Floatovoltaics: Quantifying the Benefits of a Hydro-Solar Power Fusion(2013)
- 1.5.3 Floating photovoltaic power plant: A review(2015)
- 1.5.4 Some Remarks about the Deployment of Floating PV Systems in Brazil(2017)
- 1.5.5 Theoretical and experimental analysis of a floating photovoltaic cover for water irrigation reservoirs (2014)
- 1.5.6 A Review on new era of solar power systems: Floatovoltaic systems or Floating solar power plants (2015)
- 1.5.7 A study on major design elements of tracking - type floating photovoltaic systems (2014)
- 1.5.8 Uninterrupted Green Power using Floating Solar PV with Pumped Hydro Energy Storage & Hydroelectric in India (2016)
- 1.6 Sustainability
- 1.7 Contributors
- 1.1 H2O cooling function of Solar PV (Floatovoltaic)
- 2 References
This section includes journal paper review for a project aimed at design and implementation of floating solar PV system (Flotovoltaics) for potential areas such as California Aqueduct, adding towards a sustainable practice of saving water and aquatic life. The need for floatovoltaics arrrises in places with water deficit or deal with land use issues such as in populous places. Various subsections under this are explained with highlights and key points which may be useful in designing this work.
H2O cooling function of Solar PV (Floatovoltaic)
- Electrical Efficiency of the PV cell is greatly affected by operating temprature of the PV cell
- Designed parallel air ducts for inflow and outflow for uniform airflow distribution
- Compared the active cooling of PV cell with and without an active cooling system
- Developed a simulation model for comparing the actual on site results with the simulation results
- P-V Characteristics are dependent on the temperature and output voltage of solar panel and are inversely proportional to each other
- When temperature starts increasing the efficiency to produce electricity for the same irradiance level decreases
- Performed many experiments using water and air as a coolant for cooling the solar panels and analyzed that water is the best and cheap coolant
- Developed heating rate and cooling rate mathematical model to find the exact moment when cooling needs to start for the cooling process
Assessment of the Operating Temprature of Crystalline PV Modules Baesd on Real Use Conditions(2013)
- Found the optimal operating mode for converting electrical energy from solar panels
- Created standard operating procedure using P-V characterstics
- Given the results that electricity production depends on ratio of voltage/ volatge at maximum power point
- In this paper the performance of the PV Module is enhanced by evaporative cooling technology. In this the air from the blower is passed thorigh a cool wet pad and which in turn coos down the rear part of the PV module.
- Various factors affecting the evaporation like relative humidity, air temperature, sir movement and exposed surface area were considered during cooling down process of the PV module.
- Different equations for calculating Voc, Isc, IL and Is were introduced and how this equations are dependent on temperature was shown.
- Different graphs depending on Temperature and Vic , Isc and Efficiency has been studied and how with the change in temperature the Voc and Isc varies which ultimately varies the efficiency.
- The cooling of PV panels is done by water circulating at PV module rear surface.
- A mathematical modeling has been carried out to compare with the experimental set up.
- The cooling of PV module is done by using a heat exchanger and cooling fan.
- Different cases has been studied by changing the mas flow rate of fluid and Maximum ambient temperature MAT.
- Rear cooling of PV Module has been performed to decrease the cell temperature and increase the efficiency.
- Graph for power output vs irradiance for both normal and hybrid model has been plotted.
- Reduction in temperature with change in the mass flow rate has been studied.
- This paper discussed about the cooling and cleaning of PV modules by water for better efficiency.
- The kinetic energy of the water rolling down the panel and falling into the tank has been used along with a Hydraulic RAM pump tp pump the water to the top tank. By this process the minimum energy is required to pump the water for cooling and cleaning purpose.
- Comparison has been made on the efficiency of the panel covered by dust and dry panel with panel cleaned and cooled by water. The overall efficiency of the panel was increased by 14%.
Study on performance enhancement of PV cells by water spray cooling for the climatic conditions of Coimbatore, Tamilnadu(2015)
- Solar irradiance for the particular site has been calculated for the year.
- Based on irradiance the PV module back and rear temperature has been calculated through a mathematical modeling.
- Mathematical calculation for the time taken(t) for the cooling of panels at different flow rate has be derived.
- Along with cooling of PV modules how the thin layer of water reduces the reflection losses and cleans PV panels for better efficiency.
- Factors that contributes to the efficiency of the PV module has been studied
- A pilot study was conducted to investigate at which tilt angle PV module produces maximum surface temperature and how it effects the output power
- The study also revealed that the cell temperature and the back surface temperature are different and back surface temperature is a good approximation of the actual cell temperature.
- Two different cooling set up were compared with a non cooling system to find the difference in temperature and power output.
Experimental Study on Efficiency Enhancement of PV Systems With Combined Effect of Cooling and Maximum Power Point Tracking(2016)
- The efficiency of the PV module is studies by taking into consideration the PV module temperature and Maximim power point tracking.
- A mathematical formula that defines the efficiency of the solar panel has been introduced.
- A mathematical formula that can be used to calculate the temperature of the PV module has been introduced.
- Here the cooling of the PV module has been done by passing water through the copper pipes fitted at the rear side of the PV module.
- In the cooling process the flow/loop of water is maintained by the process of thermosiphon. The use of pump has been avoided in this process.
- The complete set up has been tested under different conditions. Through the process the efficiency could be increased to 8.95% to 10.66%.
- This apaper intends to improve the efficiency of the PV Panel by active cooling to reduce the losses due to temperature and considering and decrease reflection losses to some extent.
- This paper considers different aspects related to solar power plant and its efficiency improvement like photovoltaic losses, methods to reduce losses, active cooling system, soil temperature modelling & design of under ground tunnels.
- The paper also explains hoe the flow of water on the PV module decreases the temperature and acts as a better refractive index material between glass and air.
- A mathematical calculation for the thermal modelling of PV panel has been introduced.
- A practical calculation has been made to calculate the amount of energy produced, the energy required in water circulation and the net energy produced. *An economic calculation has also been made to calculate the amount of money invested and how fast it can be retrieved by using the above technology.
Solar water heating system and photovoltaic floating cover to reduce evaporation: Experimental results and modelling(2017)
- In this paper, floating PV is used for covering the pond and heating the water for industrial purposes. Detailed formulation is provided.
- The pond with floating covers water evaporation reduction was greater than 90% with respect to an uncovered pond.
- In copper mining there is a significant potential for using solar energy to heat solutions in electro-winning and for washing copper cathodes. In order to improve the leaching efficiency of sulfide minerals, a high temperature is required to improve the mineral process like leaching because the extraction increases with the temperature.
- Proposed a simulation model for energy efficiency assessment.
- The aim of the paper is to study the techno-commercial aspects of a solar dydtem with evaporative cooling technology.
- The set up considers various technical aspects of the location and pv module like voltage and cuurent, moisture content of air, global irradiation, wind aspect etc.
- It also emphasized on the water evaporation due to cooling process and also concluded that in case of poly-crystalline solar module cooling system was switched on less frequently.
- Economic aspect was studied for the set up on different countries considering the amount involved , inflation, feasibility and delivery price of the electric energy.
A Combination of Concentrator Photovoltaics and Water Cooling System to Improve Solar Energy Utilization(2013)
- Water cooling system in concentrator PV is shown with schematic diagrams
- Optimal time of start/stop operation of cooling system is presented
- Neural network algorithm used to determined the PV output during short time
- This paper studied the different cooling techniques of PV module and discusses its effectiveness compering the process and overall net efficiency.
- The author has taken into consideration different cooling techniques like passive cooling, active cooling, thermal electric cooling, heat pipe cooling and Nano fluid cooling.
- A comparison among the different techniques was made taking the maximum power gain into account and dividing it with effective surface of PV cell. The comparison was plotted in a graph between cooling technique and maximum peak power gain per square unit.
- Taking into account different criteria's active cooling technique have higher efficiency.
- The paper discusses about cutting optical losses by use of water(refractive index 1.3), keeping the surface clean and decreasing the cell temperature.
- How the solar radiation hitting at a certain angle increases the reflection losses which can account for 8-15% loss in a day for conventional PV system under STC. It also explains how a material like water can compensate the reflection loss providing a better refractive index of 1.3.
- It also discusses about the thermal losses associated with PV module and how by controlling the temperature of the PV module the efficiency can be increased . Flow of water on the module front absorbs the heat and brings down the temperature of the module.
- The set up was tested for two modules, one with cooling technique and other without that. The graph has been plotted which gives a clear picture how the module with cooling technique maintained a temperature much below the temperature of the module without cooling, thus giving better efficiency.
Water Cooling Method to Improve the Performance of Field-Mounted, Insulated, and Concentrating Photovoltaic Modules(2014)
- This paper discusses about how the efficiency of the PV Module is effected due to temperature, soiling. Due to soiling the amount of solar irradiance that reaches the PV module material is blocked. Higher temperature also accelerates the material and Mechanical degradation of the panel over the lifetime.
- How the flow of water acts as a cooling agent,cleaning agent reducing the panel soiling and reduces the reflectance of the incoming light.
- The set up was created for two sets of panels to be tested on different parameters and techniques like cooling on open rack module, cooling test on insulated pv panels, cooling through ice water etc. Different net results in terms of efficiency was calculated and studied.
- Depending upon the energy implications, economic benefits and climatic factors different conditions and their feasibility were studied. How a control system could timeline the usage of cooling system as per the temperature reached was also suggested. which would limit the power consumptions and water evaporation and eventually give a better net efficiency.
- A rainwater-cooling system is employed to improve the efficiency of solar panels
- A schematic diagram of proposed system is presented and heat transfer on panel surface is described
- Rainwater estimation and and improvement in efficiency of the system are shown in tabular and graphical forms
- Payback period of 14 years as per paper
- A review of major cooling techniques
- Passive cooling, active cooling, heat pipe cooling, nano fluid cooling and thermoelectric cooling techniques are described
- Active cooling has higher efficiency than passive ones
- Active cooling system explained
- Heat transfer modeling performed
- Mathematical formulations with panel engineering sketches are shown
- The focus of this paper is to study the effects of water cooling of the panel on its efficiency and to compare that with efficiency of panel without cooling.
- The mathematical equations for efficiency relating different parameters with cooling and non-cooling technique has been defined.
- A graph has been plotted between peak efficiency and mass flow rate of water(liter/hr.) and it has been observed that flow rate above 2 liter/hr. drags down the peak efficiency of the panel.
- Different graphs has been plotted for Times in hour Vs Solar panel temperature Vs Power output Vs Output efficiency and it is clear that the panel with cooling technology yields a better performance.
- The aim of this paper is to study how to increase the electrical efficiency of PV Pnael. It depends on environmental factors like solar radiation and operating temperature.
- The arrangement with halogen bulb for solar radiation, dc water pump for spraying water and 50M mono crystalline PV panel is described along with different measuring devices for measurement of solar radiation and performance of PV panels.
- Graph has been plotted to show the difference between the temperature by the PV panel at different solar radiation with water cooling and without water cooling.
- Graph has been plotted to show the difference in maximum voltage output, maximum current output and maximum power output with respect to different solar radiation with and without water cooling technique and their results has been compared.
- THe purpose of this paper is to study a water spraying technique, implemented on both sides of PV panel to gain an optimal cooling technique and compare it with other cooling circumtances.
- A mathematical equations for calculating the heat loss is introduced taking into consideration the panel front and back temperature.
- Different graphs have been plotted with different cooling process a)Front cooling b) Back cooling c)Both sides simultaneously. various graphs of voltage, current and power output has been plotted and studied varying the different process above.
Simulation of PV System
- Performance-model in SAM is compared with performance of physical measurement of PV system
- LCOE (Levelized Cost of Energy) is key performance indicator according to Department of Solar Energy Technology Program
- LCOE lifecycle cost, installed cost, performance, operating costs, maintenance costs with reliability included
- Test case at Sandia with grid-tied PV system with 3 systems with tilt along the latitude such that no shading is observed
- Modeling performed for Raiations, module performance and invertor
- Performance submodels—radiation, performance of module and invertor—under Solar Advisor Model gave reasonable agreement. Error noted for various model lies within ±1 to ±3%
- Non-crystalline technologies showed variations between models studied
- Use of derate factors—such as shading and wiring losses—are important factors during simulation and comparison studies
Modeling Photovoltaic and Concentrating Solar Power Trough Performance, Cost, and Financing with the Solar Advisor Model(2008)
- Built System Advisor Model(SAM) by the staff of NREL and Sandia National Laboratory to support the professionals of solar industry doing reserch in solar
- SAM is used to compare different solar technology on the same platform from the point of view of performance, cost and economic aspects
- Having user friendly GUI interface so anybody can use it effectively
- SAM has some readily available models for different pv modulesand for inverters to compare the performance
Abstract: Before installing a solar power plant the financial risk associated with has to be analyzed. There are different methodology used for this purpose and in this paper two metodology used by NREL is described.
- Data without describing the major event for the particular location can be found from Typical Meteorological Year data sets, which are used for preliminary research
- More detailed analysis for solar radiation and weather data are available at National Solar Radiation Database(NSRDB) and National Climatic Data Center(NCDC)
- In 50 method the possibilities of power output greater than 50% of the preset value is 50% and silmilar in P90 method it is greater than 90%
- Analyzed the reliability of solar photovoltaic energy in modern power systems
- Performed simulations for the modeled pv systems for eight different locations
- Proposed model reduces the data required for PV system comparison , yet gives the accurate results
- The paper describes the importance and advantages of floating solar power plant
- Reduction of evaporation (70%) and algal bloom, viable in parts of India where land acquisition is problem
- Parts of the system: solar PV module, string inverter, module mounting structure, cable and connectors, FRP floating platform, mooring arrangement, access gangway and electrical installations
- Few challenges such as to withstand wind speed, water current speed, snow load and corrosion due to water moisture
- Drawback : such investment is 1.2 times conventional land solar installations
Water canal use for the implementation and efficiency optimization of photovoltaic facilities: Tajo-Segura transfer scenario(2016)
- The pilot project at Narmada Canal, Gujarat for 1 MW is described
- A canal top approaches in PV system is explained
- The advantages of canal top installation for Tajo-Segura canal in Spain is demostrrated
- The savings and pay back is also obtained
- A sectionalized study of canal is performed
- Shading effects are also studied and the cooling techniques is also shown with improvements in temperature of the solar panels contributing towards better efficiency
- Explains need of floating solar system and feasibility of solar power in India with almost 300 days of sunshine
- HDPE (High Density Poly Ethylene) with cheaper cost and reliability is proposed choice for installation
- HDPE structure is shown with schematic diagram in the paper
- Describes installation at Far Niente Winery in Napa California (SPG)
- Describes installation at Kolkata commissioned by VikramSolar and Arka College
- Water savings estimation is shown with a simple equation
- Canal top PV with reflectors is presented with shadow effects and tilt angles
- Expression for reflector orientation is presented
- Various algorithms namely: SOLPAS, Perez Tilt Model, Flat Plate Efficiency Model are presented
- Comparative analysis for GridLAB-D model and SAM model shows similar results
- Proposed in studies: GridLAB-D can model a distributed generation system more accurately
Comparison of PV System for land and water body
- Best PV module's performance is claimed to be observed at ambient temperature of 25 degree celsius with irradiation of 1000W/sq.m.
- Study is conducted in Malaysia where the temperature is observed 30 degree celsius during the day time.
- Efficiency of PV cells decrease when subjected to highly intensive solar radiation.
- Heat sink should be chosen based on thermal conductivity value, material density and cost.
- Higher electrical power output is observed with floating photovoltaic module than the conventional module.
- The efficiency reduces by 0.485% per 1 degree C increase in temperature
- Use of PVC pipe and Al as floating structure due to their light weight and thermal conductivity respectively
- Tilt angle needs to be between 0 to 7 degrees for Peninsular Malaysia
- Proposed for places with one season throughout the year
- Temperature difference for foalting and overland installation is compared
- Energy gain difference between both types is compared showing superior performance of floating PV
- Power gain increased by 15.5% for floating PV under this study
A Study on Power Generation Analysis of Floating PV System Considering Environmental Impact(2014)
- Performance Analysis of Hapcheon 100 and 500kW floating solar PV is presented over the months of the year
- On the basis of average generation, floating plant is expensive than overland plant
- Juam 2.4kW floating Vs overland PV system superior performance of floating installation
- Effect of wind speed with change in orientation and location (due to movement) is studied for Juam floating solar PV.
- Generating efficiency for floating installation is 11% higher than overland installations by ignoring the effects of wind.
- Experiments are conducted in a place (Maltese islands) with higher irradiation and the ratio of water to land area is 10:1.
- Different setups are compared such as solar panels on land, panels on floating water and panels on sea water with salt accumulated on it.
- Water cooled setup performed better than the non-water cooled system by a factor of 9.6% in summer and by 3% in winter.
- Sea salt accumulated system produced 3.8% greater energy output than the ground reflected system.
- As it is more costlier to deploy solar panels on water than on the land, the power produced per square meter of the material used is of greater importance ad it is high for crystalline cells.
- On the whole energy efficiency is always high for a floating panel than the terrestrial one.
Design and installation of floating type photovoltaic energy generation system using FRP members(2014)
- This design is installed and tested at the sea site in Korea.
- Tracking type floating PV model.
- Temperature of the PV panels in the floating type PV energy generation system is lower than the land type due to relatively low temperature of the sea site.
- Light weight materials such as pultruded FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) are used in the floating structure.
- FRP is highly resistant to corrosion.
- The link system installed between the unit modules is made of PFRP, recycled used tire, and olyethylene synthetic fiber rope.
- Finite element analysis of the PV system is conducted based on the mechanical properties of the PFRP (Fiber reinforced Polymeric Plastic).
- Floating model reduces the disadvantages such as environmental disruption and high cost of land use that are incurred by the PV land system.
The thin film flexible floating PV (T3F-PV) array: The concept and development of the prototype (2014) 
- World’s first deployment of a floating thin film PV – small prototype in Subdury,Canada.
- Accumulation of dirt on the panels result in the reduction of output efficiency by 1%.
- Proposed to develop a larger scale prototype.
- Component cost of the floating PV array prototype is tabulated.
- Since this is the first project PV installation costs are high and the design needs modifications.
- Design changes are recommended that are suitable for operation in harsher environments(wave forces)
- Data of Global Horizontal Iradiance and Direct Normal Irradiance had dereived from the satelite images of the Meteoset satelite for 10 km*10 km area
- Applied sub-hour irradiance algorithm(SIA) for down scaling hourly data to one minute time interval
- Gujarat has solar power output of around 5.5-6 kwh/square meter/day and the results of this paper will help to find the optimal location in the state
- Five potential locations selected for the for the future expansion scenario
- This studies helps to integrate solar power with the conventional energy sources to meet the load demand and other challenges.
Empirical Research on the efficiency of Floating PV systems compared with Overland PV Systems(2013)
- 100kW and 500kW floating PV systems are installed on water body in Korea. Utility of both installations compared with overland PV (1MW) systems.
- Capacity Factor is calculated to determine the generation quantity.
- Daily average generation quantity of overland PV system is compared with the Daily average generation capacity of floating PV system.
- Coefficient of utilization – 13.5% higher for floating PV compared to land PV.
- Generating efficiency – floating PV is superior by 11%
H2O saving simulation
Evaporation Reduction by Suspended and Floating Covers: Overview, Modelling and Efficiency(2010)
- Design for Australia's South East Queensland which has heavy pressure of water demand
- Use of suspended covers and floating covers, types of covers are discussed
- Highest efficiency for SuperSpan covers together with greater life
- Evaporation rate expression used for modeling the evaporation
- Cost comparison shows cost per KL water for SuperSpan ranks second (after AquaCap)
- 2D model is presented and 3D model is proposed for future research work
- Seepage and evaporation water losses are discussed for water canals
- Objective function is water loss and its minimization is the task presented in this paper
- Both evaporation and seepage functions are defined
- The Lagrange multipliers are used to find out the optimal size of the canal such that evaporation losses are minimum
- Study highlights the need of foatovolatics and terms it as “drought adaptation technology”
- Water loss through Central Arizona Project is around 4.4% equating to 58,921,434 gallons per day
- Reduction of carcinogenic content in water due to lowering exposure to sunlight for bromate formation from chlorine and bromine
- NREL estimation ignores transmission infrastructure and other costs and reliability
- Various deigns of floating installations are discussed
- Savings in water are evaluated using an empirical formula
- A pilot location is proposed at lake Pleasant Reservoir
- Cost per watt is $1.36 including the advantage of government subsidy
- Design in this paper is suitable to agricultural reservoirs where there are no heavy wave forces and is implemented in Spain.
- Water losses by evaporation in farms amounted to 17 percent in Spain.
- Floating cover systems require site specific planning and design to be successful.
- Floating modules joined by means of pins cover the water surface in this design.
- Elastic joints are used to easily adapt to varying reservoir water levels.
- Evaporation reduction achieved through cooling/floating photovoltaic system is around 80%.
- Types of losses due to seepage and evaporation are discussed
- Evaporation estimation using mass-transfer with several modified expressions
- Estimates of mean annual and mean monthly evaporation were obtained
- Equation 5 in the paper gives most accuracy in results
- Seepage and evaporation losses for Narmada canal section is shown
- Briefly explains sections/phases in Narmada Canal
- Inflow-outflow method to calculate seepage losses is presented
- Drawbacks of Narmada canal is discussed: Algal formation and public pollution
Methods for the quantification of evaporation from lakes (prepared for the World Meteorological Organization’s Commission for Hydrology)(2008)
- A brief summary of methods described:
|Mass-balance method||doesn't require surface temperature for calculation||difficult/expensive to measure all elements|
|Bulk-transfer method||makes use of data easily available||sensitivity to vapor pressure and difficulty in wind function definition|
|Energy balance method||gives most accurate results with thermal stratification taken into account||-|
|Equilibrium temperature method||relatively new, uses heat storage of water and metro logical data into account||doesn't include thermal stratification|
- Most recent methods of estimating evaporation is summarized (since 2007 to 2014)
- Review of remote sensing enhancing the application of standard procedures of estimating evaporation
Lake Evaporation in a Hyper-Arid Environment, Northwest of China—Measurement and Estimation(2016)
- Study performed for East Juyan Lake, China
- An evaporation model is derived and its validation can be done with known data or from pan evaporation tests
- Floating pan evaporation techniques and its sensitivity analysis is presented
Economics of PV on water body and sensitivity analysis
- LCOE is defined and explained in detail about its use in cost analysis of solar PV installations
- SunPower simplified LCOE expression is cited
- SAM presents LCOE as real and nominal (expressions are shown with required revenues over life of the project)
- Single value of LCOE doesn't include effects of economic and financial aspects of project
- Monte Carlo simulation provides much clear projection of LCOE with single inputs, with its few advantages: probabilistic results, sensitivity analysis and co-relation of inputs
- Three locations Sacramento, Chicago and Boston with 20MW installation are compared for LCOE estimations
- Major assumptions for two main parts of LCOE namely: cost and energy production are presented
- Sensitivity analysis for three places with input parameters is presented showing real discount rate has greater impact
- Pairing of water and solar could increase production efficiency by 8-10% through panel cooling and save millions of litres of water from evaporation.
- A Floatovoltaic system is feasible only when the benefits of the project such as water saved from cooling and reduced evaporation plus the increase in power output outweigh the floating costs.
- Shading water with the solar arrays can reduce the evaporation losses by 70%.
- Maximum power is linearly related to both temperature and irradiance.
- In areas with lots of irradiance and low land prices like deserts, electricity has to be transported long distances to reach users.
- 6% of United States electrical energy is lost during transmission and distribution.
- Connecting a solar array to the existing power grid would save on transmission infrastructure costs.
- A nice paper which explains from all basics. Explains about different types of solar PV used in current world
- Given names of companies who have installed floating PV's worldwide and their capacity. Reviews on different types of floating installations.
- Explains only on still water bodies. In India arge water bodies are available in eastern, Sothern and South-eastern part of the country in states such as West Bengal, Assam, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
- In agriculture based country like India, it saves valuable land and reduces water evaporation by installing Floatovoltaics
- sensitivity analysis of Solar Floatovoltaics implemented in Brazil.
- Floating PV's are 11% effective than conventional one due to lower temperatures on water than on ground
- The increase in the efficiency of the floating PV plant due to evaporative cooling may be significant in the Northeast region of the country (Sobradinho reservoir), but not significant in the North region (Balbina reservoir)
- The installation of the system is also more difficult and costly. Apparently, this extra cost is offset by the fact that the system does not use and, which results in a cost reduction
- Large scale floating PV plants can have a significant environmental impact by reducing algae growth and water oxygenation, and to minimize the first effect, glass-glass photovoltaic modules shall be used in Brazil
Theoretical and experimental analysis of a floating photovoltaic cover for water irrigation reservoirs (2014)
- A prototype of 20kWp was implemented for water irrigation reservoirs (Spain).
- Focuses on the theoretical and experimental analysis of a floating photovoltaic cover system for water irrigation reservoirs.
- Shielding of water with floating materials obstruct photosynthesis, reduce algae growth and thus improves water quality.
- Lower tilt angles provide better electrical performance.
- Significant saving of Co2 is observed.
- PV electricity generation costs for a kWh are expressed in profitability ratio.
- Analysis states that the plant has a nominal capacity of 300kWp, gives annual production of 425000 kWh/year of renewable energy.
- Savings in water is observed to be 5000 cubic meter or 25% of the reservoir’s storage capacity.
A Review on new era of solar power systems: Floatovoltaic systems or Floating solar power plants (2015)
- Due to the cooling effects of water, its floating PV systems generate about 10 percent more electricity than rooftop or ground-mounted systems of the same size.
- HDPE is commonly used because of its high density polyethylene structure. Can be installed in drinking water tanks. It is resistant to UV. Can withstand winds up to 118 mph. Costs less per module compared to LUPOLEN 5261Z, and Zinc coated stainless steel structures.
- In this paper, they have considered different types of PV cells. Concluded that efficiency depends on area and cost of installation depends on the area considering transporation and manufacturing.
- It takes as less as a week to install 200kW power plant with 800 floating panels in any given space.
- Tracking-type floating PV system is explained and compared with fixed-type. Fixed-type has the angle of PV module is fixed at a certain angle and tracking-type where the azimuth and altitude of the sun is tracked to receive the sunlight perpendicular to the module surface.
- On ground dual-axis tracking-type is 30% greater than a fixed-type. These are useful in countries like Korea to utilize the limited resources to the maximum.
- Design is little bit different from normal floatovoltaic. Design is explained in this paper.
- A tracking algorithm is provided for efficient use of PV. An error can be occurred due to external disturbing factors. A error correction method can be followed using GPS receiver and terrestrial magnetism sensor.
- Various rotation mechanisms like rope and forward/reverse rotation method, worm and worm gear method, chain and roller guide method, fixed buoyancy roller guide method and chain or rope, and gear and rotation ring methods can be used to maintain internal rotating structure.
Uninterrupted Green Power using Floating Solar PV with Pumped Hydro Energy Storage & Hydroelectric in India (2016)
- This paper aims at combining FSPV(Floating Solar PV) with PHES(Pumped Hydro Energy Storage) & Hydroelectric to try & create a model for a source of Uninterrupted Green Power. It attempts to estimate the potential of this model in large reservoirs in India.
- The basic technology for both FSPV & PHES is well established & functioning successfully in many countries. But a combination of the same with hydroelectric to meet the requirement of Uninterrupted Green Power for the Indian consumer is the need of the hour.
- This way renewable energy can be produced efficiently. This combination will result (in one of the configurations considered) at an initial cost of USD$1715.83 per kW installed and a cost of energy of USD$ 0.059/kWh.
- saves the utilization of precious land resource of minimum 4 acres per MWp needed for ground mounted solar PV. output of Solar PV modules improves due to better cooling on reservoir water surface environment.
- The existing infrastructure for power evacuation in hydroelectric power plants can be augmented & used.
Analysis of the Potential for Use of Floating Photovoltaic Systems on Mine Pit Lakes: Case Study at the Ssangyong Open-Pit Limestone Mine in Korea(2016)
- Abandoned mine sites can be utilized for implementation of solar PV
- Limiting factors includes availability of smaller area with shading effects
- SAM modeling performed using weather information and proposed generation along with studies on economy showing return in 12.3 years in Koeran Mine Pit Lakes
- Annual reduction in emissions found to be 471.21tCO2/year
- Location, temperature, wind speed, irradiance level
- Using ArcGIS the feasible site was determined along with design of PV system (tilt angles, required area, PV module, inverter)
- Net present value (NPV) and Greenhouse gas reduction expressions are presented.
- Variations in output w.r.t. tilt angles
- Although, PV system installation needs 1.7 times higher expenditure than forestation of same area, but GHG emissions are reduced by half.
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