Get our free book (in Spanish or English) on rainwater now - To Catch the Rain.

Solar PV diesel literature review

From Appropedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Sunhusky.png By Michigan Tech's Open Sustainability Technology Lab.

Wanted: Students to make a distributed future with solar-powered open-source 3-D printing.
Currently looking for PhD or MSC student interested in solar energy policy- apply now!
Contact Dr. Joshua Pearce - Apply here

MOST: Projects & Publications, Methods, Lit. reviews, People, Sponsors, News
Updates: Twitter, Instagram, YouTube

OSL.jpg

Contribute to this Literature Review Although this page is hosted by MOST it is open edit. Please feel free to add sources and summaries. If you are new to Appropedia, you can start contributing after you create an account or log in if you have an existing account.

Edomah, N. (2019) ‘Governing sustainable industrial energy use: Energy transitions in Nigeria’s manufacturing sector’, Journal of Cleaner Production, 210, pp. 620–629. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.11.052. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652618334504?dgcid=author#!

  • drivers of industrial sector energy use change
  • Eras of industrial sector energy transition in Nigeria
  • key drivers - energy service outsourcing, cost reduction and business realignment
  • secondary data in consumption analysis
  • grid defection, self-generation, energy outsource and conservation phases
  • interview of stakeholders
  • VERY USEFUL PAPER


Osakwe, P.N., 2018. Unlocking the potential of the power sector for industrialization and poverty alleviation in Nigeria. The Service Sector and Economic Development in Africa, 63(83.11), p.159.

  • Power crippling industrialization in Nigeria
  • power and domestic industries - linkage
  • reduced capacity utilization rate
  • 71% of Nigeria firm uses generator


Rabetanetiarimanana, J. C. I., Radanielina, M. H. and Rakotondramiarana, H. T. (2018) ‘PV-Hybrid Off-Grid and Mini-Grid Systems for Rural Electrification in Sub-Saharan Africa’, Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, 9, pp. 171–185. https://files.zotero.net/10883418936/PV-Hybrid_Off-Grid_and_Mini-Grid_Systems.pdf

  • combined modelling software; HOMER Energy, Network Planner and GEOSIM
  • low access rate; less than 40%
  • comparison with diesel
  • PV+ESS most viable combination
  • solution nexus private businesses like


Jin, S. et al. (2018) ‘A Study on Designing Off-grid System Using HOMER Pro - A Case Study’, in 2018 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM). 2018 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM), pp. 1851–1855. doi: 10.1109/IEEM.2018.8607423.

  • focus on island consumers
  • used data for Korean Meteorological Information Administration data via EIA
  • assumed same hourly demand for planning horizon
  • real discount rate and project lifetime of 1.23% and 20 years respectively
  • better LCOE from 2 islands out of 3 with PV+Wind+EES+Diesel hybrid compared to diesel alone
  • good paper but not so deep analysis


Ozoegwu, C.G., 2018. The solar energy assessment methods for Nigeria: The current status, the future directions and a neural time series method. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 92, pp.146-159. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032118302867#!

  • full and systematic solar resource assessment
  • solar up to industrial quantity
  • new model built on existing ones
  • PV prices dropping


Okundamiya, M. S. and Ojieabu, C. . (2017) ‘Simulation of an Isolated Solar Photovoltaic-Fuel Cell Hybrid System with Hydrogen Storage for Mobile Telecommunication Sites’, Journal of Engineering Science and Applications (JESA), 10, pp. 1–9.

  • PV price and other systems cost
  • power supply to isolated telecommunication sites
  • hybrid of PV and fuel cell storage system
  • simulation results: ₦40 per kWh energy cost, 13.1% RoI and 12.4% IRR compared to traditional diesel only
  • 6 years discounted payback period for PV/FC versus diesel compare


Halabi, L. M. et al. (2017) ‘Performance analysis of hybrid PV/diesel/battery system using HOMER: A case study Sabah, Malaysia’, Energy Conversion and Management, 144, pp. 322–339. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2017.04.070.

  • scenarios: standalone diesel generators, hybrid PV/diesel/battery and 100% PV/battery
  • sensitivity along fuel, PV, battery prices, and load or demand growth
  • scenario comparison
  • results: Hybrid PV/Diesel/Battery best combination


Ozoegwu, C.G., Mgbemene, C.A. and Ozor, P.A., 2017. The status of solar energy integration and policy in Nigeria. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 70, pp.457-471. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032116309947

  • renewable energy potential
  • fuel price volatility - solar motivation
  • supreme solar competition
  • Sub Sahara, Nigeria and lowest per capita energy
  • existing policy incentives
  • public investment - needful


S. Sen and S. Ganguly, “Opportunities, barriers and issues with renewable energy development – A discussion,” https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032116306487 Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 69, pp. 1170–1181, Mar. 2017.

  • Policy as drivers for renewable energy development
  • considers barriers and opportunities of RE development
  • how RE can bring about social and economic development


Bahramara, S., Moghaddam, M. P. and Haghifam, M. R. (2016) ‘Optimal planning of hybrid renewable energy systems using HOMER: A review’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 62, pp. 609–620. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2016.05.039.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032116301496

  • most considered uncertainties in sensitivity analysis are Wind speed, solar radiation, component cost, fuel price, and primary load
  • other research have considered effects of real interest rate and grid electricity price aside the most popular variables
  • two approaches identified for evaluating uncertainties and optimal sizing of hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) are robust planning (scenario technique) and risk of planning
  • robust plan is the scenario that give least NPC among others
  • in base scenario and other scenarios, risk of planning is evaluated through NPC


Eberhard A, Gratwick K, Morella E, Antman P. (2016). Independent Power Projects in Sub-Sahara Africa: Lessons from Five Key Countries. Directions in Development. World Bank.

  • investment needed for low carbon technologies
  • adequate electricity as economic booster for Sub-Saharan Africa


Olatomiwa, L. (2016) ‘Optimal configuration assessments of hybrid renewable power supply for rural healthcare facilities’, Energy Reports, 2, pp. 141–146. doi: 10.1016/j.egyr.2016.06.001. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S235248471630021X

  • case study of healthcare facility
  • PV capital cost $3200/kW, replacement $3000/kW
  • battery capital and replacement, each $174 per unit
  • diesel generator capital and replacement, each $200 per unit
  • diesel price, interest and inflation rates; $1.1/L, 8% and 2% respectively
  • different system configurations; PV/diesel/battery best result
  • sensitivity: solar irradiation, wind speed and diesel price


Edomah, N. (2016) ‘On the path to sustainability: Key issues on Nigeria’s sustainable energy development’, Energy Reports, 2, pp. 28–34. doi: 10.1016/j.egyr.2016.01.004. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S235248471630004X

  • depleting oil reserve arguments
  • policy and concentration shift from biofuel to natural gas
  • fossil fuel and vandalism
  • unsustainable current energy - capital cost, fuel price spike, transmission cost, infrastructure
  • policy uncertainty
  • renewable and performance risks


Okoye, C. O., Taylan, O. and Baker, D. K. (2016) ‘Solar energy potentials in strategically located cities in Nigeria: Review, resource assessment and PV system design’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 55, pp. 550–566. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2015.10.154.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032115012332

  • standalone PV
  • long daily duration of diesel generator operation
  • good overview of energy situation in Nigeria
  • solar adoption barriers
  • focus on Lagos, Kano and Onisha
  • numerical and intuitive methods of PV design and analysis
  • sensitivity along PV cost, discount rate and battery replacement period


Olatomiwa, L., Mekhilef, S. and Ohunakin, O. S. (2016) ‘Hybrid renewable power supply for rural health clinics (RHC) in six geo-political zones of Nigeria’, Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 13, pp. 1–12. doi: 10.1016/j.seta.2015.11.001.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213138815000727

  • national electricity crisis
  • geo-political RE analysis
  • technology suitability per area
  • different tilt angles for PV
  • estimated load data
  • hybrid of PV+wind+diesel+battery
  • hybrid as best result; PV+diesel+battery for South and PV+wind+diesel+battery for north
  • hybrid COE range 0.32 to 0.68 $/kWh
  • diesel only COE $0.911/kWh
  • MISSING ASSUMPTIONS, GOOD PAPER


Serrano-Cinca, C., Gutiérrez-Nieto, B. and Reyes, N. M. (2016) ‘A social and environmental approach to microfinance credit scoring’, Journal of Cleaner Production, 112, pp. 3504–3513. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.09.103.

  • Proposes consideration of social and environmental aspects of loan granting
  • multi-criteria evaluation of decision making micro-financing of projects


Oladokun, V. O. and Asemota, O. C. (2015) ‘Unit cost of electricity in Nigeria: A cost model for captive diesel powered generating system’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 52, pp. 35–40. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032115006759.

  • cost model for DG
  • diesel fuel prices and energy cost from DG
  • captive power generation


L. K. Gan, J. K. H. Shek, and M. A. Mueller, “Hybrid wind–photovoltaic–diesel–battery system sizing tool development using empirical approach, life-cycle cost and performance analysis: A case study in Scotland,” https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196890415008651 Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 106, pp. 479–494, Dec. 2015.

  • introduces a developed system sizing model
  • uses Gaia’s wind turbine power curve for wind power generation
  • I-V characteristics with solar irradiations for PV generation
  • diesel fuel consumption 0.28 - 0.4 L/kWh
  • historical fuel price for future price
  • falling O&M cost over 20 years (subsection 4.1)
  • balance configuration with battery and diesel genset
  • load sensitivity
  • storage preferred to diesel gen
  • LCOE optimal solution from sensitivity; PV-diesel > wind-diesel > PV-wind-diesel
  • future work recommendation: complex modelling and hardware testing


L. Olatomiwa, S. Mekhilef, A. S. N. Huda, and O. S. Ohunakin, “Economic evaluation of hybrid energy systems for rural electrification in six geo-political zones of Nigeria,” https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148115003377 Renewable Energy, vol. 83, pp. 435–446, Nov. 2015.

  • costly grid extension to rural areas in Nigeria
  • technology combination include wind, solar, diesel generator and battery
  • research simulation results focus on NPC, CoE and renewable fraction
  • at 2014 diesel price of $1.1 and $1.3/L, hybrid of PV/diesel/generator shows optimum result
  • uses assumed PV cost of 3000 and $3200 per kW and lifetime of 20 years, 90% derating factor and 20% ground reflection
  • uses initial cost of AC diesel generator (25 kW) of $11,324, and a replacement cost of $10,200 while O&M cost $0.500/hr was used. The operating lifetime of diesel generator taken as 15,000 h with load ratio of 30%
  • COE of $0.547/kWh at $1.1/L and $0.547/kWh at $1.3/L were obtained for PV/diesel/Battery hybrid system against $1.075/kWh for diesel only


Aliyu, A. S., Dada, J. O. and Adam, I. K. (2015) ‘Current status and future prospects of renewable energy in Nigeria’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 48, pp. 336–346. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2015.03.098.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032115002580

  • Policy benchmark with neighbour countries
  • Senegal's penetration rate policy


INTEC (2015) ‘The Nigerian Energy Sector: An Overview with a Special Emphasis on Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency and Rural Electrification’. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH.https://files.zotero.net/8120701554/giz2015-en-nigerian-energy-sector.pdf

  • Energy crisis and Nigeria business challenges
  • grid challenges
  • Energy prices- grid and off-grid
  • electricity market regulation
  • power centralisation and on-grid RE
  • VERY USEFUL DOCUMENT


Kilinc Ata, N. (2015) ‘The Impact of Government Policies in the Renewable Energy Investment: Developing a Conceptual Framework and Qualitative Analysis’, Global Advanced Research Journal of Management and Business Studies, Vol. 4(2), pp. 067–081.

  • RE investment decision making
  • policy making and RE investment link
  • factors affecting RE investment
  • investors' experience survey
  • Nigeria left out in the survey


Gan, L. K., Shek, J. K. H. and Mueller, M. A. (2015) ‘Hybrid wind–photovoltaic–diesel–battery system sizing tool development using empirical approach, life-cycle cost and performance analysis: A case study in Scotland’, Energy Conversion and Management, 106, pp. 479–494. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2015.09.029.


Emodi, N.V. and Boo, K.J., 2015. Sustainable energy development in Nigeria: Current status and policy options. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 51, pp.356-381. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032115005869

  • energy policy -RPS etc
  • Foreign direct investment
  • population growth forecast
  • solar potentials


Adaramola, M. S. (2014) ‘Viability of grid-connected solar PV energy system in Jos, Nigeria’, International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, 61, pp. 64–69. doi: 10.1016/j.ijepes.2014.03.015. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142061514001173

  • PV LCOE $0.103/kWh
  • grid connected, household consumers
  • assumed PV cost US$2322/kW, inverter US$432/kW
  • economic analysis: LCOE and NPC
  • sensitivity along PV prices


Ohunakin, O.S., Adaramola, M.S., Oyewola, O.M. and Fagbenle, R.O., 2014. Solar energy applications and development in Nigeria: drivers and barriers. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 32, pp.294-301. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032114000240

  • solar potential
  • shortage along energy value chain
  • previous solar projects - rural
  • drivers of solar projects - reforms, carbon footprint, demand
  • barriers - insecurity, land use
  • solutions - mitigate investment risk, cost reduction, awareness etc.


M. S. Adaramola, S. S. Paul, and O. M. Oyewola, “Assessment of decentralized hybrid PV solar-diesel power system for applications in Northern part of Nigeria,” https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0973082613001130 Energy for Sustainable Development, vol. 19, pp. 72–82, Apr. 2014.

  • Assumption used include diesel price $1.1/L (before or by 2011) and annual mean global solar irradiation of 6.00kWh/m2/day
  • 3% interest rate was used
  • hybrid of solar, DG and battery was considered
  • the hybrid system proves to be most economically viable solution with LCOE range of 0.348-0.378 $/kWh, subject to prevailing interest rate *Cost DG only varies from $0.417 and $0.423 per kWh
  • It also considers sensitivity along interest rate and cost of PV ($2400 to $4800 per kW)
  • LCOE results were also compared with existing electricity tariff to check grid parity
  • research focused on residential and small commercial users of semi-urban and rural areas of Northern Nigeria
  • daily load data from a secondary source dated back before 2011 was used
  • PV panels (mono-crystalline) from Canadian Solar with cost of was used
  • cost of PV was taken as $3200/kW, initial installation cost of $40/kW, replacement cost of $3200/kW, yearly O&M of $10 were assumed
  • average derating factor of temperate region was taken to be 0.75
  • 20% ground reflectance
  • Two DGs with assumed capital cost of $175.1/kW (100kW) and $193/kW (160kW) were taken and 10% installation cost
  • Battery assumption include "a Surrette 6CS25P model with a nominal capacity of 1156 ampere-hours (Ah), cell voltage of 6 V, lifetime throughput of 9645 kWh, efficiency of 80% and a minimum state of charge of 40% (Rolls Battery) was selected". Also capital cost of $1200 and maintenance cost of $10/year were assumed.


Shaaban, M. and Petinrin, J. O. (2014) ‘Renewable energy potentials in Nigeria: Meeting rural energy needs’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 29, pp. 72–84. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2013.08.078.

  • renewable energy potential
  • government policy
  • decentralized renewable energy - investment improvement



Adebayo, C. (2014) ‘How is 100% renewable energy possible for Nigeria?’ Global Energy Network Institute (GENI).http://www.geni.org/globalenergy/research/renewable-energy-potential-of-nigeria/100-percent-renewable-energy-Nigeria.pdf

  • renewable resources
  • power generation challenges
  • problem confronting solar


Siddig, K., Aguiar, A., Grethe, H., Minor, P. and Walmsley, T., 2014. Impacts of removing fuel import subsidies in Nigeria on poverty. Energy Policy, 69, pp.165-178.

  • Fuel scarcity
  • refineries' low operations

A. V. Anayochukwu and E. A. Nnene, “Simulation and Optimization of Hybrid Diesel Power Generation System for GSM Base Station Site in Nigeria,” https://files.zotero.net/7484871033/Anayochukwu%20and%20Nnene%20-%202013%20-%20Simulation%20and%20Optimization%20of%20Hybrid%20Diesel%20Power.pdf Electronic Journal of Energy & Environment, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 37–56, Apr. 2013.

  • July 2012 local diesel pump price of $1.0/L used
  • PV initial, replacement and annual O&M costs used are $2000/kW, $1800/kW and $100
  • 18kW Diesel gen. costs; $13,000 for both initial and replacement as well as $2.5/hr O&M
  • component annual cost comparison
  • used annual cost of operation and NPC for economic comparison of the two scenarios (diesel only and the hybrid systems)
  • used 6% interest rate
  • 1.77 years discount payback period with 62.9% ROI from simulation result (Metric table)


Agajelu et.al (2013) ‘Life Cycle Cost Analysis of a Diesel/Photovoltaic Hybrid Power Generating System’, Inductrial Engineering Letters.

  • assumes real interest rate of 9% as well as project lifetime of 25 years
  • residential consumers in south Eastern part of Nigeria
  • hourly load of customers obtained from utility company (might be questionable with low supply of meter and popular estimated billing
  • 26.3% IRR achieved
  • PV-diesel Hybrid system economically viable
  • focus: residential consumers
  • real interest rate of 9%, 25 years project lifetime
  • average hourly load data from PHCN
  • fuel analysis done
  • IRR and NPV used in life cycle cost analysis
  • results; IRR - 26.3% hybrid, 24.6%
  • missing COE for diesel; PV+Diesel hybrid COE N40.23 per kWh better than standalone PV N41.55 per kWh


Ajayi, Oluseyi O. and Ajayi, Oluwatoyin O. (2013) ‘Nigeria’s energy policy: Inferences, analysis and legal ethics toward RE development’, Energy Policy, 60, pp. 61–67. doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2013.05.095. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421513004503#!

  • reviews nation's energy policy statement of vision 20:2020
  • multiple taxation and lack of economic incentives among barriers to RE development
  • proposes legal reform such as investment laws and land use acts in support of RE


Adaramola, M. S., Oyewola, O. M. and Paul, S. S. (2012) ‘Technical and Economic Assessment of Hybrid Energy Systems in South-West Nigeria’, Energy Exploration & Exploitation, 30(4), pp. 533–551. doi: 10.1260/0144-5987.30.4.533. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1260/0144-5987.30.4.533

  • Most suitable hybrid location
  • household consumers, load from survey of ten (10)
  • PV+Wind+battery best combination
  • PV capital cost $2000 per kW
  • diesel generator cost $400 per kW and replacement and operational and maintenance costs as $350 per kW and $0.150/hr respectively
  • diesel price of $1.0/litre
  • battery cost is taken as $1250, replacement cost as $1100 and O&M as $11/yr
  • economic assumptions: real interest rate 9.35%
  • sensitivity: wind and solar matrices, varying diesel price


Oyedepo, S. O. (2012) ‘On energy for sustainable development in Nigeria’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(5), pp. 2583–2598. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2012.02.010. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032112001037 Renewable and Sustainable

  • factors for energy sustainability in Nigeria addressed
  • promotion of renewable energy resources for private sector
  • energy policy outlook


Bhattacharyya, S.C., 2012. Review of alternative methodologies for analysing off-grid electricity supply. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(1), pp.677-694. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032111004436

  • HOMER as a preferred tool
  • HOMER global deployment
  • analytical approaches & indicators - LCOE, weighted score, sustainability
  • ctitcal evaluation and optimisation

Goldthau, A. (2012) ‘A Public Policy Perspective on Global Energy Security’, International Studies Perspectives, 13(1), pp. 65–84. doi: 10.1111/j.1528-3585.2011.00448.x.

  • energy security
  • oil price volatility


Onwe, O.J., 2012. Economic implications of petroleum policies in Nigeria: An overview. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 2(5), pp.66-71.

  • fuel scarcity issue
  • energy policy and fuel subsidy
  • petroleum and economic growth


Oyedepo, S.O. Int J Energy Environ Eng (2012) 3: 11. https://doi.org/10.1186/2251-6832-3-11 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/2251-6832-3-11#citeas

  • 1 business with over 6,000 DG unit


Branker, K., Pathak, M. J. M. and Pearce, J. M. (2011) ‘A review of solar photovoltaic levelized cost of electricity’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(9), pp. 4470–4482. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.104.

  • addressed some misconceptions in LCOE calculation for PV
  • economic barrier as primary impediment to RE technology adoption in the society
  • defines clearly the concept of grid parity
  • PV grid parity as a function of local electricity prices, PV system component cost and geographical attribute
  • wrong LCOE reporting, strong effects on decision and policy making processes
  • wide and holistic sensitivity analysis of critical variables for decision making
  • most cost of electricity from other power plants from conventional sources are over estimated due to volatility, administrative duties and or systems upgrade - making electricity cost fixed and higher than actual generation cost
  • LCOE generally exclude risk and financing methods
  • accuracy of assumptions in LCOE estimation very critical to energy technology accurate lifetime assessment
  • PV system over-sizing, inadequate input assumptions and high LCOE estimates
  • main assumptions: discount rate, average system price, system lifetime, degradation and financing method
  • keeping other costs constant results indicates direct proportionality between interest rate and LCOE (i.e. LCOE drops with I.R drop and vice versa)
  • keeping I.R and PV cost constant, LCOE changes along varying diesel prices and GHI.
  • At higher I.R. and same PV cost, LCOE also changes along varying diesel price and GHI. Lower interest rate proves better


Adaramola, M. S., Paul, S. S. and Oyedepo, S. O. (2011) ‘Assessment of electricity generation and energy cost of wind energy conversion systems in north-central Nigeria’, Energy Conversion and Management, 52(12), pp. 3363–3368. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2011.07.007. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196890411001981

  • considers sensitivity along inflation rate with respect to energy cost and return on investment effects
  • sensitivity along O&M cost with respect to energy cost effects


Tuomi, K. (2011) ‘The Role of the Investment Climate and Tax Incentives in the Foreign Direct Investment Decision: Evidence from South Africa’, Journal of African Business, 12(1), pp. 133–147. doi: 10.1080/15228916.2011.555279.

  • reviews and analyses foreign direct investment decision
  • investment decision making factors
  • how Sub-Sahara Africa can leverage on the information from the analysis


Bhattacharya, H. (2011) Banking Strategy, Credit Appraisal, and Lending Decisions: A Risk–Return Framework. Oxford University Press.

  • Loan and risk
  • capital investment

Eberhard, A. R., Orvika Shkaratan, Maria Vennemo, Haakon (2011) Africa’s Power Infrastructure. The World Bank (Directions in Development - General). doi: 10.1596/978-0-8213-8455-8.

  • power sector and investment growth
  • revenue loss due to power inefficiencies
  • power trade


S. M. Shaahid and I. El-Amin, “Techno-economic evaluation of off-grid hybrid photovoltaic–diesel–battery power systems for rural electrification in Saudi Arabia—A way forward for sustainable development,” https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032107001694 Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 625–633, Apr. 2009.

  • relationship between diesel consumption, carbon emission and PV penetration (graphical)
  • LCOE of $0.17/kWh at $0.1/L diesel price
  • 27% initial penetration of PV
  • Capital cost 6900US$/kW, Life time of 25 years and O&M cost 0US$/year


S. M. Shaahid and M. A. Elhadidy, “Economic analysis of hybrid photovoltaic–diesel–battery power systems for residential loads in hot regions—A step to clean future,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 488–503, Feb. 2008.

  • LCOE of 0.179 $/kWh for hybrid of PV, diesel and battery at $0.1/L diesel price
  • examines the effect of PV/Battery penetration on resulting COE
  • scenarios consider effect of hybrid system without battery on fuel savings, emission reduction and COEs of different hybrid combinations


Felix B. Dayo (2008) ‘Clean Energy Investment in Nigeria The domestic context’, International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD).

  • considers obstacle to investment on renewable energy in Nigeria
  • reviews incentives for clean energy in the country
  • policy recommendation


T. Lambert, P. Gilman, and P. Lilienthal, “Micropower System Modeling with Homer,” in Integration of Alternative Sources of Energy, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006, pp. 379–418.

  • overview of modelling in HOMER
  • sensitivity analysis
  • considerations for offgrid systems

Purohit, P. and Kandpal, T. C. (2005) ‘Solar photovoltaic water pumping in India: a financial evaluation’, International Journal of Ambient Energy, 26(3), pp. 135–146. doi: 10.1080/01430750.2005.9674983.

  • NPV and IRR estimated
  • diesel price volatility with respect to break-even prices of diesel and electricity evaluated
  • consider effects of financial incentives such as tax and loan


Oparaku, O. U. (2003) ‘Rural area power supply in Nigeria: A cost comparison of the photovoltaic, diesel/gasoline generator and grid utility options’, Renewable Energy, 28(13), pp. 2089–2098. doi: 10.1016/S0960-1481(03)00009-0. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148103000090

  • grid extension cost versus PV versus diesel generator and gasoline generator
  • sensitivity: LCC vs module cost; LCC vs fuel price and LCC vs grid extension
  • sensitivity: increasing PV module cost
  • results: PV cot cost effective
  • costs are obsolete and assumptions


Adeoti, O. et al. (2000) ‘Engineering design and economic evaluation of a family-sized biogas project in Nigeria’, Technovation, 20(2), pp. 103–108. doi: 10.1016/S0166-4972(99)00105-4.

  • NPV, IRR and payback analysis
  • energy and development


Kalu, T. C. U. (1999) ‘Capital budgeting under uncertainty: An extended goal programming approach’, International Journal of Production Economics, 58(3), pp. 235–251. doi: 10.1016/S0925-5273(98)00121-2. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925527398001212

  • attempts to address uncertainty problem in capital budgeting
  • correct discount rate as a prerequisite to optimal allocation policy
  • investment decision


Hadari, Y. (1990) ‘The Role of Tax Incentives in Attracting Foreign Investments in Selected Developing Countries and the Desirable Policy’, International Lawyer (ABA), 24, p. 121. Available at: https://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/intlyr24&id=139&div=&collection=.


Ikeja Electric (IKEDC) http://www.ikejaelectric.com/newly-amended-myto-2-1-customer-tariff-classification-and-energy-charges/