|Michigan Tech's Open Sustainability Technology Lab.
Wanted: Students to make a distributed future with solar-powered open-source 3-D printing and recycling.
Search Terms[edit | edit source]
- solar panels ultracapacitor
- smart house solar window
- solar mppt ultracapacitor
- mppt stepper motor
- motorized window blinds
- heat gain window
- photovoltaic motor control
- solar panel window blinds
- diy mppt
- effects window blinds
- photovoltaics sustainability
A few more to look at via interlibrary loan[edit | edit source]
- Also need to decide on how you are going to simulate the savings -- or use an example from the lit and recreate the data by providing the ability to match the same performance in a paste study.
Arduino Reference[edit | edit source]
- "Arduino motor/stepper/servo control - How to use". Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Reference/requirements for small motor control using arduino microcontroller boards
- May be useful resource for blind/shade actuation
- "Arduino playground - InterfacingWithHardware". Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Resource for interfacing arduino microcontrollers with many types of hardware
- Interfacing with temperature sensors potentially useful
- "Arduino playground - PIDLibrary". Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Useful for PID control on arduino
- contains libraries for PID functions
Heating Effects of Windows[edit | edit source]
- Stephenson, D.G. (1964). "Equations for solar heat gain through windows". Solar Energy 9 (2): 81-86. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Cited 38 times
- Calculates insolation empirically (20 stations in Scarborough, Ontario)
- Similar Latitude (Scarborough: 43.78º, Houghton: 47.12º)
- Variables: time, date, latitude, building orientation, type of glass, and shading
- Equations for Direct Normal Insolation @ ground level (DNI)...
- Isolation Charts
- Galasiu, Anca D; Morad R Atif, Robert A MacDonald (2004-01). "Impact of window blinds on daylight-linked dimming and automatic on/off lighting controls". Solar Energy 76 (5): 523-544. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2003.12.007. ISSN 0038092X. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Cited 18 times
- Photo controlled lighting systems (variable lighting based off of PV sensing)
- Possibly useful for future work section
- lighting control systems found to be responsible for 50-60% reduction in energy consumption
- Compares dimming systems and on/off systems
- investigates numerous blinds configurations
- Boubekri, Mohamed; Robert B. Hull, Lester L. Boyer (1991-07-01). "Impact of Window Size and Sunlight Penetration on Office Workers' Mood and Satisfaction". Environment and Behavior 23 (4): 474 -493. doi:10.1177/0013916591234004. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Cited 46 times
- Possibly useful for general discussion (Effects on users) and important information for controls, QC, reception, and design
- Study investigates the impact of window size as well as assorted amounts of sunlight penetration's effect on occupant (user) emotional response and satisfaction
- Interesting algebraic approach to determine mood
- Trends for mood based on area of floor covered in sun
- Lee, E.S.; D.L. DiBartolomeo, S.E. Selkowitz (1998-12). "Thermal and daylighting performance of an automated venetian blind and lighting system in a full-scale private office". Energy and Buildings 29 (1): 47-63. doi:10.1016/S0378-7788(98)00035-8. ISSN 0378-7788.
- Cited 72 times
- Study utilized automated Venetian blinds synchronized with a dimmable electric lighting system.
- Report is very well written and may provide good introduction information
- Contains room blueprints, list of monitored data...
- Paper could be extremely useful for a basis for writing report
- Roisin, B.; M. Bodart, A. Deneyer, P. D. Herdt (2008). "Lighting energy savings in offices using different control systems and their real consumption". Energy and Buildings 40 (4): 514-523. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2007.04.006. ISSN 0378-7788.
- Cited 20 times
- Simulations based off of DAYSIM
- Estimates energy savings due to smart dimming of lights
- Savings found to be between 45-61%
- Possibly useful for future work and background information
- Christoph F., Reinhart (2004). "Lightswitch-2002: a model for manual and automated control of electric lighting and blinds". Solar Energy 77 (1): 15-28. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2004.04.003. ISSN 0038-092X.
- Cited 138 times
- Proposes a simulation algorithm that predicts the switching patterns of lightswitches
- References several papers on blind use that may be useful
- Newsham, G.r. (1994-05-01). "Manual Control of Window Blinds and Electric Lighting: Implications for Comfort and Energy Consumption". Indoor and Built Environment 3 (3): 135 -144. doi:10.1177/1420326X9400300307. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Cited 40 times
- Paper examines impact of manual control of window blinds and lighting for a typical south-facing office room in Toronto, ON
- Stresses user comfort over thermal efficiency
- Reinhart, Cf; K Voss (2003-09-01). "Monitoring manual control of electric lighting and blinds". Lighting Research and Technology 35 (3): 243-260. doi:10.1191/1365782803li064oa. ISSN 00000000 14771535, 00000000. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Cited 60 times
- Builds off previous research paper
- Probability of light switching based on illuminance
- Charron, Raemi; Andreas K. Athienitis (2006-05). "Optimization of the performance of double-facades with integrated photovoltaic panels and motorized blinds". Solar Energy 80 (5): 482-491. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2005.05.004. ISSN 0038-092X.
- Cited 35 times
- System uses a double-facade system for energy capture - paper may be limited in usefulness
- Tilmann E., Kuhn (2006-06). "Solar control: A general evaluation method for facades with venetian blinds or other solar control systems". Energy and Buildings 38 (6): 648-660. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2005.10.002. ISSN 0378-7788.
- Cited 21 times
- More-so a study of building design
- Equation dense, may still be useful for energy calculations
- Roche, L (2002-03-01). "Summertime performance of an automated lighting and blinds control system". Lighting Research and Technology 34 (1): 11 -25. doi:10.1191/1365782802li026oa. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Cited 25 times
- Automated blind and lighting control system
- Shown to provide 60% less electric lighting
- Higher importance on staying within an illumination band than thermal
- Tzempelikos, Athanassios; Andreas K. Athienitis (2007). "The impact of shading design and control on building cooling and lighting demand". Solar Energy 81 (3): 369 - 382. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2006.06.015. ISSN 0038-092X.
- Cited 57 times
- Study done in Montreal, Quebec... daylight availability ratio tables
- Another good option to base writing off of
- M., Zaheer-Uddin (1987). "The influence of automated window shutters on the design and performance of a passive solar house". Building and Environment 22 (1): 67-75. doi:10.1016/0360-1323(87)90043-6. ISSN 0360-1323.
- Kachadorian, James (2006-07-31). The passive solar house. Chelsea Green Publishing. ISBN 9781933392035.
- Cited 23 times
- Book about general passive house information (Do-It-Yourself type book)
- Chapter about solar design calculations
- Chiras, Daniel D. (2002). The solar house: passive heating and cooling. Chelsea Green Publishing. ISBN 9781931498128.
- Cited 41 times
- Another book about general passive house information
- More in depth approach
- Section about best places in US for passive heating/cooling
Energy Management[edit | edit source]
- Li, Yanqiu; Hongyun Yu, Bo Su, Yonghong Shang (2008-06). "Hybrid Micropower Source for Wireless Sensor Network". IEEE Sensors Journal 8 (6): 678-681. doi:10.1109/JSEN.2008.922692. ISSN 1530-437X. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
- Cited 23 times
- Utilizes a hybrid energy system (Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors)
- Entire paper on power source
- Little design information
- Kimball, Jonathan W.; Brian T. Kuhn, Robert S. Balog (2009-04). "A System Design Approach for Unattended Solar Energy Harvesting Supply". IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics 24 (4): 952-962. doi:10.1109/TPEL.2008.2009056. ISSN 0885-8993. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
- Cited 23 times
- Good Design flow diagrams
- Good information on energy storage options
- Well written, a good basis for energy information
- Glavin, M.; W.G. Hurley (2006-09). "Battery Management System for Solar Energy Applications". IEEE. pp. 79-83. doi:10.1109/UPEC.2006.367719. ISBN 978-186135-342-9. Retrieved 2012-02-08.
- Cited 13 times
- Mentions a few different storage technologies (mostly nickel metal and ultracaps)
- Some simple background on MPPTs
- All around not a very detailed paper
- Brunelli, D.; C. Moser, L. Thiele, L. Benini (2009-11). "Design of a Solar-Harvesting Circuit for Batteryless Embedded Systems". IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers 56 (11): 2519-2528. doi:10.1109/TCSI.2009.2015690. ISSN 1558-0806 1549-8328, 1558-0806. Retrieved 2012-02-08.
- Cited 42 times
- Uses an ultracapacitor
- Section specifically about ultracapacitor analysis and problems
- Section specifically about System problems (MPPT)
- Glavin, M.E.; Paul K.W. Chan, S. Armstrong, W.G. Hurley (2008-09). "A stand-alone photovoltaic supercapacitor battery hybrid energy storage system". IEEE. pp. 1688-1695. doi:10.1109/EPEPEMC.2008.4635510. ISBN 978-1-4244-1741-4. Retrieved 2012-02-08.
- Cited 22 times
- Utilizes an ultracapacitor/battery hybrid system
- Contains matlab model results for PV system, battery, and ultracapacitor
- Purely theoretical
- Liu, Xiong; Peng Wang, Poh Chiang Loh, Feng Gao, Fook Hoong Choo (2010-09). "Control of hybrid battery/ultra-capacitor energy storage for stand-alone photovoltaic system". IEEE. pp. 336-341. doi:10.1109/ECCE.2010.5618014. ISBN 978-1-4244-5286-6. Retrieved 2012-02-08.
- Cited 5 times
- Good DC/DC Converter schematic and calculations and results
- Detailed information for power electronics design
- "Maxwell Technologies - Products - Ultracapacitors - K2 Series". Maxwell Technologies. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Data sheet for specified ultracapacitors
- Vasquez, Jose; Fernando Rodrigo, Jose Ruiz, Santiago Matilla. "Using Ultracapacitors in Photovoltaic Systems. A technical proposal". E.T.S.I.I. Valladolid University. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Not cited
- Not dated
- Not published
- Equation dense
- May be able to use conclusion for background information
Existing Solutions[edit | edit source]
- Popat, Pradeep. "Patent US5760558 - Solar-powered, wireless, retrofittable, automatic controller for venetian blinds and similar window converings". Retrieved 2012-02-08.
- Cited 39 times
- Good resource for control logic
- Corazzini, Warren. "Patent US5413161 - Solar powered window shade". Retrieved 2012-02-08.
- Cited 38 times
- Knowles, Byron (2008-07-02). "Motorized window shade". Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Cited 0 times
- "Automatic Window Blinds Controller (PICAXE)". Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Not published
- DIY approach to an automated window blind
- Uses a PIC microcontroller
- E., Bilgen (1994-01). "Experimental study of thermal performance of automated venetian blind window systems". Solar Energy 52 (1): 3-7. doi:10.1016/0038-092X(94)90076-E. ISSN 0038-092X.
- Cited 10 times
- No MTU Access
General PV Information[edit | edit source]
- Joshua M, Pearce (2002-09). "Photovoltaics — a path to sustainable futures". Futures 34 (7): 663-674. doi:10.1016/S0016-3287(02)00008-3. ISSN 0016-3287.
Abstract: As both population and energy use per capita increase, modern society is approaching physical limits to its continued fossil fuel consumption. The immediate limits are set by the planet’s ability to adapt to a changing atmospheric chemical composition, not the availability of resources. In order for a future society to be sustainable while operating at or above our current standard of living a shift away from carbon based energy sources must occur. An overview of the current state of active solar (photovoltaic, PV) energy technology is provided here to outline a partial solution for the environmental problems caused by accelerating global energy expenditure. The technical, social, and economic benefits and limitations of PV technologies to provide electricity in both off-grid and on-grid applications is critically analyzed in the context of this shift in energy sources. It is shown that PV electrical production is a technologically feasible, economically viable, environmentally benign, sustainable, and socially equitable solution to society’s future energy requirements.
- Cited 42 times
- Useful for background/introduction information
- Kimball, J.W.; Kuhn, B.T.; Balog, R.S. (2009-04). "A System Design Approach for Unattended Solar Energy Harvesting Supply". Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on 24 (4): 952-962. doi:10.1109/TPEL.2008.2009056. ISSN 0885-8993.
Abstract: Remote devices, such as sensors and communications devices, require continuously available power. In many applications, conventional approaches are too expensive, too large, or unreliable. For short-term needs, primary batteries may be used. However, they do not scale up well for long-term installations. Instead, energy harvesting methods must be used. Here, a system design approach is introduced that results in a highly reliable, highly available energy harvesting device for remote applications. First, a simulation method that uses climate data and target availability produces Pareto curves for energy storage and generation. This step determines the energy storage requirement in watt-hours and the energy generation requirement in watts. Cost, size, reliability, and longevity requirements are considered to choose particular storage and generation technologies, and then to specify particular components. The overall energy processing system is designed for modularity, fault tolerance, and energy flow control capability. Maximum power point tracking is used to optimize solar panel performance. The result is a highly reliable, highly available power source. Several prototypes have been constructed and tested. Experimental results are shown for one device that uses multicrystalline silicon solar cells and lithium-iron-phosphate batteries to achieve 100% availability. Future designers can use the same approach to design systems for a wide range of power requirements and installation locations.
- Nasiri, A.; Zabalawi, S.A.; Mandic, G. (2009-11). "Indoor Power Harvesting Using Photovoltaic Cells for Low-Power Applications". Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on 56 (11): 4502-4509. doi:10.1109/TIE.2009.2020703. ISSN 0278-0046.
Abstract: Utilization of low-power indoor devices such as remote sensors, supervisory and alarm systems, distributed controls, and data transfer system is on steady rise. Due to remote and distributed nature of these systems, it is attractive to avoid using electrical wiring to supply power to them. Primary batteries have been used for this application for many years, but they require regular maintenance at usually hard to access places. This paper provides a complete analysis of a photovoltaic (PV) harvesting system for indoor low-power applications. The characteristics of a target load, PV cell, and power conditioning circuit are discussed. Different choices of energy storage are also explained. Implementation and test results of the system are presented, which highlights the practical issues and limitations of the system.
MPPT/Power Electronics[edit | edit source]
- Enslin, J.H.R.; D.B. Snyman (1991-01). "Combined low-cost, high-efficient inverter, peak power tracker and regulator for PV applications". IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics 6 (1): 73-82. doi:10.1109/63.65005. ISSN 08858993. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Cited 75 times
- Emphasises low cost
- MPPT only
- AC application - may not be useful
- Alghuwainem, S.M. (1994-03). "Matching of a DC motor to a photovoltaic generator using a step-up converter with a current-locked loop". IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion 9 (1): 192-198. doi:10.1109/60.282492. ISSN 08858969. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Cited 47 times
- Applications load is a DC motor
- Much higher power application
- Pandey, Ashish; Nivedita Dasgupta, Ashok K. Mukerjee (2007-03). "A Simple Single-Sensor MPPT Solution". IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics 22 (2): 698-700. doi:10.1109/TPEL.2007.892346. ISSN 0885-8993. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Cited 35 times
- Introduces a method for simple MPPT algorithms
- Regarded as costly
- Analysis is very simple
- Enslin, J.H.R.. "Maximum power point tracking: a cost saving necessity in solar energy systems". IEEE. pp. 1073-1077. doi:10.1109/IECON.1990.149286. ISBN 0-87942-600-4. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Cited 29 times
- Possible usage for background in paper
- MPPT algorithm explained
- Esram, Trishan; Patrick L. Chapman (2007-06). "Comparison of Photovoltaic Array Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques". IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion 22 (2): 439-449. doi:10.1109/TEC.2006.874230. ISSN 0885-8969. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Cited 625 times
- Well cited paper
- Definitive paper for MPPT
- Well defined problem statement
- Walker, Geoff (2001). "Evaluating MPPT converter topologies using a MATLAB PV model". Journal of Electrical Electronics Engineering 21 (1): 49-56.
- Cited 140 times
- Theoretical approach
- Includes model code
- Presents MPPT equations
- Enslin, J.H.R.; M.S. Wolf, D.B. Snyman, W. Swiegers (1997-12). "Integrated photovoltaic maximum power point tracking converter". IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 44 (6): 769-773. doi:10.1109/41.649937. ISSN 02780046. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Cited 238 times
- MPPT schematics and results
- Simoes, M.G.; N.N. Franceschetti, M. Friedhofer. "A fuzzy logic based photovoltaic peak power tracking control". 1. IEEE. pp. 300-305. doi:10.1109/ISIE.1998.707796. ISBN 0-7803-4756-0. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Cited 54times
- Well documented algorithm (Fuzzy logic)
- Thulasiyammal, C.; S. Sutha (2011-01). "An efficient method of MPPT tracking system of a solar powered Uninterruptible Power Supply application". IEEE. pp. 233-236. doi:10.1109/ICEES.2011.5725334. ISBN 978-1-4244-9732-4. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Not cited
- 12v output
- lacking methodology
- Sharaf, A.M.; E. Elbakush, I. H. Altas (2007-10). "Novel Control Strategies For Photovoltaic Powered PMDC Motor Drives". IEEE. pp. 461-466. doi:10.1109/EPC.2007.4520376. ISBN 978-1-4244-1444-4, 978-1-4244-1445-1. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Not cited
- PID controller for PV powered PMDC drives
- Well documented simulation
- Lacking on the PV side
Battery[edit | edit source]
- Glavin, M.; Hurley, W.G. (2009-09). "Battery Management System for Solar Energy Applications". Universities Power Engineering Conference, 2006. UPEC '06. Proceedings of the 41st International 1: 79-83. doi:10.1109/UPEC.2006.367719.
Abstract: Generally in photovoltaic applications the storage battery has the highest life time cost in the system; it has a profound affect on the reliability and performance of the system. Currently the most commonly used storage technology for photovoltaic applications is the lead acid battery. The advantages of the lead acid battery are its low cost and great availability. The problem is that photovoltaic panels are not an ideal source for charging batteries. With the lead acid battery the charging regime may have a significant impact on its service life. The battery management system described in this paper aims to optimize the use of the battery, to prolong the life of the battery, making the overall system more reliable and cost effective. Maximum power point tracking will also be incorporated into the battery management system, to move the solar array operating voltage close to the maximum power point under varying atmospheric conditions, in order to draw the maximum power from the array. This paper will describe different battery technologies that are currently used with photovoltaic systems along with some of the charging techniques that are available.
- Cited 238 times
- MPPT schematics and results
- Glavin, M.E; Hurley, W.G.; Chan, P.K.W.; Armstrong, S. (2008-09). "A stand-alone photovoltaic supercapacitor battery hybrid energy storage system". Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, 2008. EPE-PEMC 2008. 13th: 1688-1695. doi:10.1109/EPEPEMC.2008.4635510.
Abstract: Most of the stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems require an energy storage buffer to supply continuous energy to the load when there is inadequate solar irradiation. Typically, Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) batteries are utilized for this application. However, supplying a large burst of current, such as motor startup, from the battery degrades battery plates, resulting in destruction of the battery. An alterative way of supplying large bursts of current is to combine VRLA batteries and supercapacitors to form a hybrid storage system, where the battery can supply continuous energy and the supercapacitor can supply the instant power to the load. In this paper, the role of the supercapacitor in a PV energy control unit (ECU) is investigated by using Matlab/Simulink models. The ECU monitors and optimizes the power flow from the PV to the battery-supercapacitor hybrid and the load. Three different load conditions are studied, including a peak current load, pulsating current load and a constant current load. The simulation results show that the hybrid storage system can achieve higher specific power than the battery storage system.
- Liu, Xiong; Wang, Peng; Loh, Poh Chiang; Gao,Feng; Choo, Fook Hoong (2010-09). "Control of hybrid battery/ultra-capacitor energy storage for stand-alone photovoltaic system". Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 2010 IEEE: 336-341. doi:10.1109/ECCE.2010.5618014.
Abstract: Battery life is an important criterion in a stand-alone photovoltaic system operation due to intermittent characteristic of solar irradiation and demand. This paper presents a stand-alone photovoltaic system with Ni-MH battery and ultra-capacitor serving as its energy storage elements. A control strategy is proposed in this paper to reduce charging and discharging cycles and avoid deep discharges of battery. The battery converter is controlled in current mode to track a charging/discharging reference current which is given by energy management system, whereas the ultra-capacitor converter is controlled to corporate solar irradiation fluctuations, load spikes and variations to maintain a stable dc-link voltage. Isolated PV system with the proposed control schemes is created using MATLAB SIMULINK. An optimum performance is achieved to serve as both high power and high energy sources due to complementary characteristic of battery and ultra-capacitor.
Similar Projects[edit | edit source]
- Raghunathan, Vijay; Kansal Aman, Jason Hsu, Jonathan Friedman, Mani Srivastava. Design considerations for solar energy harvesting wireless embedded systems. Proceedings of the 4th international symposium on Information processing in sensor networks. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
- Cited 322 times
- interesting power densities of alternative energies table
- MPPT background
- Solar harvesting design section
- Lacking schematics/diagrams
- Applicable design considerations to smart shades project
- Hande, Abhiman; Todd Polk, William Walker, Dinesh Bhatia (2006-09-22). "Self-Powered Wireless Sensor Networks for Remote Patient Monitoring in Hospitals". Sensors 6 (9): 1102-1117. doi:10.3390/s6091102. ISSN 1424-8220. Retrieved 2012-02-08.
- Cited 24 times
- Mostly implementation and lacking design
- Bhuvaneswari, P.T.V.; R. Balakumar, V. Vaidehi, P. Balamuralidhar (2009-07). "Solar Energy Harvesting for Wireless Sensor Networks". IEEE. pp. 57-61. doi:10.1109/CICSYN.2009.91. ISBN 978-0-7695-3743-6. Retrieved 2012-02-08.
- Cited 7 times
- Builds off previous work
- Circuit schematic included
- Utilizes battery
- Simjee, Farhan; Pai H. Chou (2006-10). "Everlast: Long-life, Supercapacitor-operated Wireless Sensor Node". IEEE. pp. 197-202. doi:10.1109/LPE.2006.4271835. ISBN 1-59593-462-6. Retrieved 2012-02-08.
- Cited 119 times
- Operates on supercapacitor
- Equations and diagrams
- Hande, Abhiman; Todd Polk, William Walker, Dinesh Bhatia (2007-09-01). "Indoor solar energy harvesting for sensor network router nodes". Microprocessors and Microsystems 31 (6): 420-432. doi:10.1016/j.micpro.2007.02.006. ISSN 0141-9331.
- Similar to hospital paper, although better design
- Limited application to smart shades
- Nasiri, A.; S.A. Zabalawi, G. Mandic (2009-11). "Indoor Power Harvesting Using Photovoltaic Cells for Low-Power Applications". IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 56 (11): 4502-4509. doi:10.1109/TIE.2009.2020703. ISSN 0278-0046. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Cited 15 times
- Limited information
- Thienpondt, Jorge; Sven Leyre, Jean-Pierre Goemaere, Lieven Strycker. "Energy Harvesting for Home Automation Applications". Catholic University College Sint Lieven. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Not cited
- Limited information
- Andersen, M.; B. Alvsten. "200 W low cost module integrated utility interface for modular photovoltaic energy systems". 1. IEEE. pp. 572-577. doi:10.1109/IECON.1995.483472. ISBN 0-7803-3026-9. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Cited 25 times
- Some MPPT design
- Limited applicable information