그림 1: 휴대전화 수명 주기의 EPA 다이어그램.

휴대폰의 수명 주기는 휴대폰을 생산하고 사용하기 위해 발생하는 모든 재료와 동작을 설명합니다. 또한 수명 주기 분석에는 사용자가 휴대전화 사용을 마친 후 휴대전화에 어떤 일이 발생하는지도 포함됩니다. 수명 주기 분석은 전체 수명 동안 일반적인 전화기를 따르기 때문에 "요람에서 무덤까지" 분석이라고도 합니다.

라이프 사이클 분석을 완료하는 이유 중 하나는 우리가 일상 생활에서 사용하고 당연하게 여길 수 있는 물건을 생산하는 데 소비되는 자원에 대해 더 잘 이해하고 이해하기 위해서입니다. 미국의 휴대전화의 경우와 같이 휴대전화는 너무 도처에 있어 휴대전화를 소유 하지 않는 것이 거의 이례적인 것으로 간주됩니다. 그럼에도 불구하고 휴대전화의 수명 주기 동안 상상하는 것보다 더 많은 에너지와 자원이 사용됩니다.

휴대 전화는 널리 사용되기 때문에 사회로서 휴대 전화 사용을 고려하는 데 시간을 할애하는 것이 중요합니다. 1985년 미국에서 사용 중인 휴대전화는 50만대 미만이었습니다. 그러나 2006년에는 이 숫자가 2억 3,300만 대의 휴대전화를 사용하도록 증가했습니다. [1] 게다가 미국 사람이 평균 1.5년 동안 휴대전화를 사용한다면 매년 1억 5천만 대 이상의 휴대전화가 교체된다는 의미입니다. 이렇게 버려진 휴대폰이 있는 곳은 폐기된 휴대폰의 수와 구성에 사용된 유해 물질로 인해 우리 환경에 부정적인 영향을 미칠 가능성이 있습니다.

EPA는 휴대전화 수명 주기의 6가지 주요 구성 요소를 인식합니다.

  1. 재료 추출
  2. 재료 가공
  3. 조작
  4. 포장 및 운송
  5. 수명
  6. 삶의 끝

Components[편집 | 원본 편집]

그림 2: 휴대폰의 일반적인 구성 요소.대부분의 휴대폰에는 최소 8개의 주요 부품이 포함되어 있습니다.

이제 우리는 휴대전화의 엄청난 사용에 대해 논의했으므로 휴대전화의 주요 구성 요소에 대해 논의해 보겠습니다. Environmental Literacy Council은 휴대폰의 구성 요소 목록을 제공합니다 [2] (그림 2). 일반적인 휴대전화에는 다음과 같은 8가지 구성 요소가 있습니다.

  • 휴대폰의 외층으로 보이는 플라스틱 하우징인 케이싱
  • 일반적으로 LCD(액정 디스플레이)인 화면. 화면은 사용자가 다른 휴대폰 사용자와 인터페이스하는 방법 또는 사용자가 인터넷을 검색하는 방법입니다.
  • 휴대폰이 제대로 작동하도록 하는 모든 칩과 전자 부품을 포함하는 그린 보드.
  • 플라스틱으로 만들어진 키패드. 물론 키패드는 사용자가 전화를 걸고 문자 메시지를 입력할 수 있게 해주는 것입니다.
  • 사용자가 발신자의 말을 듣고 말할 수 있도록 하는 마이크 및 스피커.
  • The antenna for better reception.
  • The battery, which powers the phone.
  • The adapter to charge the cell phone's battery.

While components vary by individual cell phones, this list covers the basic components of most cell phones.

Manufacturing[편집 | 원본 편집]

Now that we have discussed the basic components of cell phones, let's talk about what materials are required to manufacture cell phones. Several pounds of raw materials are required to manufacture one cell phone,[3] which only weighs a few ounces itself. Plastics and fiberglass are used for the housing and circuit board. Many different metals are found in cell phones (Table 1). A thin coat of gold is applied over the circuit board. Chips are soldered onto the circuit board with a metal compound. Metal is in the battery as well. It is interesting to note that in the manufacture of cell phones, there is enough mercury, lead, and arsenic in cell phones to classify them as hazardous waste.[1] Also, there is enough gold in 200 cell phones to make a gold ring.[1]

TableMetalContent.png

Cell phone usage[편집 | 원본 편집]

What happens to the cell phone during its lifetime? Three elements apply to the use of cell phones: the growth associated with their increasing popularity, their projected lifespan and the energy necessary to charge them.

Growth[편집 | 원본 편집]

More than 4 billion cell phones, over half the global population, were in use worldwide by 2008[4]. Continents with developing countries have shown the strongest growth rates, with Africa taking the lead followed by Asia. The growth rate in Africa is twice the global average. Some 60% of the global cell phone subscriptions come from developing countries.[5] This primarily the result of low cost new and second hand phones from developed countries like the United States. China and India ware the world leaders in their total number of mobile phone subscribers, followed by the United States. Growth within industrial countries is slowing down because cell phone usage is reaching the saturation point. For example, there were 275 million subscriptions within the United States while the population is approximately 300 million.[6] With such a large number of phones being produced, their should be concern on their lifespan and where they end up when they reach the end of their life.

Projected lifespan[편집 | 원본 편집]

The average consumer in the United States uses a cell phone for about 18 months before they discard it[7]. There are several factors that contribute to such a short usage. Many cell phone contracts last about 2 years, and cell phone companies encourage their customers to upgrade their current phone for a discount when the contract period is finished. Customers usually take advantage of this and purchase a new phone. Knowing this, companies only design their phones to last about one or two years - just at or before a customer's contracts expires.

Many of these discarded phones don't find their way to landfills right away. Instead, they are stockpiled in people's closets, drawers, or basements. This stockpiling of old phones is partly due to the expense of some cell phones. Some people just don't want to throw them away because they can represent a significant investment. Others keep the old phones as a backup in case their current phone breaks.

Energy used for charging[편집 | 원본 편집]

Nokia, the largest cell phone manufacturer in the world has decided to make their phones more energy efficient. They have conducted their own life cycle study of their mobile phone products. Nokia estimated that approximately 30% of the total life cycle energy is from usage, and two thirds of that energy is usually wasted because the charger remains plugged in when it is not charging the phone. It is not commonly known that allowing the charger to remain plugged in after charging the phone still uses energy. This energy consumption in terms of greenhouse gasses, is equivalent to traveling 50 miles in a hybrid car.[8]

Nokia has recognized that the charger is the largest consumer of energy and is working with other manufactures to launch a common energy rating system for chargers. The system developed by manufacturers uses stars to indicate the energy consumption for chargers. The best score is five stars, which indicates the charger uses the least amount of energy.

Disposal[편집 | 원본 편집]

When the phone has reached the end of its lifespan, what happens to it? Typically, the phone is either reused by somebody else, it gets recycled or it ends up in a landfill.

Reuse[편집 | 원본 편집]

Many private and government organizations accept working discarded cell phones with the intention of redistributing them back into the population as working phones. Private companies, such as ReCellular, test and refurbish the phones and put them up for sale. Even major cell phone providers, such as AT&T and Verizon, offer refurbished cell phones as an option to their customers. These phones can have minor factory defects or may have been returned by the user. Instead of recycling or sending them to a landfill, the phones are offered to new customers.

Hopeline is an organization that provides support services to victims of domestic violence by distributing discarded phones to the victims. Working with the EPA and Hopeline, Verizon distributed over 90,000 refurbished phones with over 300 million free minutes to domestic violence survivors in 2009. This gift allowed victims to stay connected with support groups and rebuild their lives.[9] Since 2001, Hopeline has distributed over 7 million discarded phones to victims of domestic violence and that number is expected to grow.

Recycling[편집 | 원본 편집]

Both the EPA and the State of California recognize that cell phones are a threat to the environment and encourage the recycling of discarded phones. Both the federal and state governments classify cell phones as hazardous waste and have taken measures to encourage recycling of cell phones.

The EPA has created a national week, April 5-11, for recycling cell phones to encourage Americans to recycle their used phones. The program is called eCYCLING. Major cell phone providers, such as AT&T and Verizon, have entered a partnership with the EPA to make recycling easier for the public. Companies who are involved with the eCYCLING program allow cell phone users to drop off any old phone for recycling at convenient locations. In 2009, a total of 11.7 million phones were collected for recycling. The EPA estimates that about 58 million additional phones could potentially be recycled. If these additional phones were to be recycled, the energy saved would be enough to power about 10,700 homes for a year.[10]

California has taken recycling one step further than the EPA with the introduction of the California Cell Phone Recycling Act in 2004. The act requires cell phone retailers to accept all cell phones from consumers for recycling. As a result, about 3.6 million phones or 25% of the phones sold in California were reused in 2008.[11]

Landfill[편집 | 원본 편집]

Cell phones that are thrown away end up in landfills. In 2005, about 125 million phones, or 65,000 tons, were estimated to have ended up in landfills, according to the EPA. Cell phones that are thrown away waste energy and material resources. Consider that 125 million phones contain the equivalent of about 10,000 pounds of pure gold entering a landfill. Placing cell phones in the landfill is a waste of energy and materials and it is a health risk to the public. The EPA classifies cell phones as hazardous waste. Placing hazardous waste in the landfill means there is the potential for harmful chemicals to leach into the surrounding environment. A common scenario includes a landfill that is located near the source of drinking water for a community. If the lining of the landfill leaks, then the landfill containing the hazardous waste (cell phones) could have the potential to contaminate the drinking water supply.

Conclusion[편집 | 원본 편집]

Over the last decade, the number of cell phone users has exploded globally. 60% of the Earth's population are now cell phone users. There are more cell phones in the world than the population of the United States. Cell phones contain materials that are harmful to the environment, and are classified as hazardous waste by the EPA and the State of California. In order to reduce the number of cell phones that potentially end up in landfills, society should focus on reusing and recycling as many phones as possible. Reusing and recycling would be a positive step. If this step could be taken, less energy would be required for creating so many new cell phones and extracting natural resources.

Replacement of other devices[편집 | 원본 편집]

Smartphones are able to tackle a wide variety of tasks that would otherwise be divided into many separate devices, each having its own carbon footprint. As a consequence, smarthphones have largely replaced or reduced the consumption of:[12]

  • Communication devices (land line telephones, beepers, walkie-talkies. etc)
  • Cameras
  • Video recorders
  • Laptop and desktop computers
  • Radios
  • Portable audio players (Walkmans, Discmans, iPods, mp3 players, boomboxes, etc)
  • Landline phones and pagers
  • Flashlights
  • GPS receivers
  • Clocks (wristwatches, alarm clocks, stopwatches, etc)
  • Calculators (including scientific calculators and graphing calculators)
  • Gaming devices (Game Boys, etc)
  • Voice recorders
  • Paper (agendas, calendars, maps, letters, encyclopedias, newspapers, dictionaries, notebooks, documents, address books, tickets, handbooks, etc)
  • Mirrors
  • Metronomes and tuners
  • DVD players
  • Flash drives
  • Remote controls
  • eBook readers
  • Police scanners
  • Cards (credit cards, IDs)
  • Banking devices (ATM)
  • Keys (for cars)
  • Gambling devices (slot machines, etc)
  • Levels
  • Light meters
  • Decibel meter
  • Data acquisition devices
  • Spectral light meters
  • Compass
  • Tape measure and rulers
  • Pedometers
  • Speedometers

Read more

References[편집 | 원본 편집]

  1. 이동: 1.0 1.1 1.2 The Secret Life of Cell Phones, http://web.archive.org/web/20120426062602/http://www.secret-life.org:80/cellphones/, Posted January, 2008.
  2. Environmental Literacy Council, Cell Phone Life Cycle, http://enviroliteracy.org/article.php/1119.html, Updated April 3, 2008.
  3. Green Your Cell Phone – Constructing Mobile Devices, http://www.greenyour.com/home/electronics/cell-phone, Accessed April 22, 2010.
  4. Cell Phone Activations Hit 4 Billion Worldwide, http://www.gearlog.com/2008/12/cell_phone_activations_hit_4_b.php, Posted December, 2008. Archived
  5. Sixty Percent of the World Uses Cell Phones, http://www.mobile-tech-today.com/story.xhtml?story_id=65006&full_skip=1, Posted March, 2009.
  6. Background on CTIA's Semi-Annual Wireless Industry Survey, http://web.archive.org/web/20160927070833/http://files.ctia.org/pdf/CTIA_Survey_Midyear_2009_Graphics.pdf, Posted 2009.
  7. The Life Cycle of a Cell Phone, http://www.epa.gov/waste/education/pdfs/life-cell.pdf, Posted 2004. Archived
  8. Life Cycle Thinking, http://www.nokia.com/environment/we-create/creating-our-products/life-cycle-thinking, Posted 2010.
  9. Refurbished Cell Phones, http://web.archive.org/web/20150717134233/http://www.refurbishedverizoncellphones.com:80/, Posted April 2010.
  10. National Cell Phone Recycling Week, http://web.archive.org/web/20100411200938/http://www.epa.gov:80/epawaste/partnerships/plugin/cellphone/cellweek2010.htm, Posted April 2010.
  11. Cell Phone Recycling, http://web.archive.org/web/20100411200938/http://www.epa.gov:80/epawaste/partnerships/plugin/cellphone/cellweek2010.htm, Posted 2007.
  12. Maybe the consumption of some of these devices has actually increased since the arrival of smartphones, but surely their consumption would be much higher without smartphones.
Page data
Part ofEngr410 Environmental Impact Assessment
Keywordslife cycle analysis, mobile phones
SDG Sustainable Development GoalsSDG12 Responsible consumption and production
Authors로니 그래프먼 , 타일러 룩스 , 리사호커데이
게시됨2010
특허CC-BY-SA-4.0
위치캘리포니아주 아르 카타
소속칼 폴리 훔볼트
Cookies help us deliver our services. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies.