A ICE fuel generator is a generator that can generate fuels from ambient resources (eg air, water), and/or commonly available materials (ie wood, plant matter, feces) using techniques as the application of heat or the use of electric energy. The fuels discussed here are suitable for use in internal combustion engines. A common application where these fuels can be useful is sustainable transport (ie personal vehicles).
Types of generators[edit | edit source]
Generators exist for a wide array of different fuels. These include compressed air, hydrogen, oxyhydrogen, nitrous oxide, wood gas, syngas, biogas, methane, liquid nitrogen, bioalcohols, plant oils.
Compressed air[edit | edit source]
Compressed air generators are often merely called air compressors and are often already imlemented on new cars running this fuel (eg Tata OneCAT, ...). Therefore a separate generator is not required. If the vehicle does not come equipped with a compressor, they can be easily found in any town, as compressors are also used to inflate tires, ...
Hydrogen[edit | edit source]
Popular generators for hydrogen and oxyhydrogen are of the "dry cell"-type. Most of these generators usually use Electrolysis of water to produce the hydrogen. Several commercial companies have build hydrogen generators suitable for domestic and larger-scale use.. In addition, amateur builders have also made low-cost hydrogen generators that can be used at home.The amateur devices however are usually insufficient to generate enough hydrogen for use in a vehicle. This, as according to Jim Heathcote, a high-efficiency larger-scale hydrogen generator as ITM Power's Green Box can generates power at around 60% efficiency. This makes that of eg 10000 kwH of power, only 6000 kwH is converted to hydrogen. This would provide for about 7200 km in ITM Power's converted Prius (roughly the half of what a conventional family drives with a car). Despite the fact that the DIY generators are thus usually insufficient, they do provide a good proof-of-concept. The commercial units may be used in practice, yet are still quite pricy (around 10000$ for high-efficiency generators) and the power required to run them can eventually come at a hefty price as well. Perhaps that the entrance of more efficient hydrogen generators such as Daniel Nocera's low-cost hydrogen generator may make hydrogen use more feasible in practice. Also, the possible replacement of platinum with sulpher/iron or other materials could create a much cheaper hydrogen generator. Besides new hydrogen devices relying on new catalysts, Biological approaches can also be used to make hydrogen (the hydrogen made using this technique being called "biohydrogen"). The devices used for this are called Microbial Electrolysis Cells (MEC's).
Hydrogen peroxide[edit | edit source]
Oxyhydrogen[edit | edit source]
Oxyhydrogen generators are another type of generator that produces oxyhydrogen. Oxyhydrogen is more energetic than hydrogen and therefore seems more popular to produce at home. Several amateurs have submitted building plans.
Syngas[edit | edit source]
Syngas can be produced at large facilities (no small-scale devices exist) using CO² and hydrogen. It hence requires a hydrogen generator as well to first produce this gas. Syngas can be made using a CR5 (or Counter Rotating Ring Receiver Reactor Recuperator)
Nitrous oxide[edit | edit source]
See Nitrous oxide
Bioalcohols[edit | edit source]
Unlike plant oils (which are typically extracted (pressed from crops), bioalcohols (except for biobutanol) are made using bio-organisms which are added in a tank/basin together with plant parts (either non-edible or edible plant parts). This tank can hence be regarded as a ICE fuel generator. See also cellulosic ethanol. Sometimes, a still is needed to increase the ethanol level in the liquid and make it suitable as a (vehicle) fuel.
Plant oils[edit | edit source]
Methane[edit | edit source]
Methane can be produced using the Sabatier process (see Methane) or using a methane digesters. For the production method using the Sabatier process, oxyhydrogen could be used which can then be derived of oxygen (creating hydrogen) and then combined with CO2 to form the methane. Appearantly, Zach West's bubbler could be used for this in combination with Bob Boyce's electrolyser. Methane is already produced commercially using the Sabatier process for transport purposes. For example by SolarFuel GmbH/Audi AG. Finally, methane can also be produced using microbial electrolysis cells (MEC's).
Biogas[edit | edit source]
Wood gas[edit | edit source]
See Wood gas as fuel
Liquid nitrogen[edit | edit source]
At present, few liquid nitrogen generators are available and few home builders have made liquid nitrogen generators. Despite this, some commercial companies are offering liquid nitrogen generators.
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- What is a hydrogen generator
- ITM Power hydrogen generator
- Vada Energy Hydrogen generator
- Honda/Plug Power Inc.'s Home energy station, a hydrogen generator by Honda; suitable if electricity is used instead of natural gas; Honda is working on this
- United Nuclear's hydrogen generator system
- DIY Hydrogen fuel generator
- DIY Hydrogen fuel generator 2
- DIY hydrogen generator 3
- Natuurwetenschap & Techniek, March 2009
- Sun catalytix spin-off of Daniel Nocera's work
- ARPA-E funding Sun Catalytix
- Synthetic biology and hydrogen
- Synthetic biology to make hydrogen
- Synthetic biology at Berkeley Lab
- ARPA-E Affordable Energy from Water and Sunlight project
- Hydrogen from urine
- KVDP's letter to Geraldine Botte
- Hydrogen from urine: the Carbamide Power System Fuel Cell
- Conversion of Wastes into Bioelectricity and Chemical by Using Microbial Electrochemical Technologies by Bruce E.Logan, Korneel Rabaey
- DIY Oxyhydrogen generator
- Oxyhydrogen generator kits
- water4gas HHO generator
- DIY HHO generator 2
- Dangerous Laboratories oxyhydrogen generator
- Epoch HHO generator
- Bob Boyce electrolyzer
- Methane digester
- Zach West's "electrolyser" (basically a bubbler)
- Audi AG/SolarFuel GmbH procuding methane using Sabatier process
- Liquid nitrogen generator 1
- Liquid nitrogen generator 2
- Liquid nitrogen generator 3