Electropolishing of copper literature review

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  • electropolishing
  • copper electropolish
  • copper electropolishing phosphoric acid

Articles[edit | edit source]

M. Datta and D. Landolt, “Fundamental aspects and applications of electrochemical microfabrication,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 45, no. 15–16, pp. 2535–2558, 2000.[edit | edit source]

  • History: started 50yrs ago
  • e.polish = anodic w/ dissolution & leveling & brightening (anode = working)
  • primary & secondary current distribution -> Wagner's law
  • Uniformity -> anode-cathode distance or additives
  • Current density = major factor -> geometry

D. Landolt, “Fundamental aspects of electropolishing,” Electrochim. Acta, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 1987.[edit | edit source]

  • Levelling & brightening (> 1um, < 1um, think of visible light)
  • Transport limiting -> microsmoothing
  • Two mass transport mechanisms, dissolution limited & acceptor limited
  • Limiting-current density

D. Landolt, P. F. Chauvy, and O. Zinger, “Electrochemical micromachining, polishing and surface structuring of metals: Fundamental aspects and new developments,” Electrochim. Acta, vol. 48, no. 20–22, pp. 3185–3201, 2003.[edit | edit source]

  • Pitting vs brightening
  • Oxide layer -> unstable -> polishing (high voltage usually) (contradiction to later?)
  • Initial phase charge small vs total charge -> good polish (high voltage...)


J. B. Mathieu, “Electropolishing of Titanium in Perchloric Acid-Acetic Acid Solution,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 125, no. 7, p. 1044, 1978.[edit | edit source]

  • Anode potential vs oxide layer thickness
  • Breakdown -> polishing (contradiction to later?)

R. Vidal and a C. West, “Copper Electropolishing in Concentrated Phosphoric-Acid .1. Experimental Findings,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 142, no. 8, pp. 2682–2689, 1995.[edit | edit source]

  • Good quick history
  • Rotating electrode -> larger limiting current -> theory (Tribollet & Newman)

R. Vidal and a C. West, “Copper Electropolishing in Concentrated Phosphoric-Acid .1. Experimental Findings,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 142, no. 8, pp. 2682–2689, 1995.[edit | edit source]

  • Current limiting region
  • Potential surge after a while -> bad
  • Too low current density -> no boundary layer
  • Good schematic...

D. Landolt, P. F. Chauvy, and O. Zinger, “Electrochemical micromachining, polishing and surface structuring of metals: Fundamental aspects and new developments,” Electrochim. Acta, vol. 48, no. 20–22, pp. 3185–3201, 2003.[edit | edit source]

  • Loooots of stuff (and new!)
  • CV curve w/ etching, passivation layer, polishing, pitting...
  • Copper EP electrolytes w/ current & voltage ranges
  • Diffusion dominated -> agitation (rotation) makes this better -> higher limiting current
  • Theoretical stuff: resistance, diffusion phenomenon, acceptor theory, passivation, ionic absorption
  • Applications