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Introduction[edit | edit source]

For background information on

For background information on Photovoltaics.

Similar to what we intend

Snapshot so far:

  • Huge for sustainability - local and global effects
  • PVs are good for energy generation
  • PVs over water allow for more flexible use, as well as providing space in land precious locations.
  • Aquaculture can result in a net positive impact on the environment/ecosystems.
  • Aquaculture - fastest growing food source.
  • Combining provides both food and electricity anywhere there is at least a pond.

Companies in the buisiness

IP to consider

Goals[edit | edit source]

  1. Understand water-based Photovoltaics
  2. Understand aquaculture needs and effects PVs could have
  3. Create an aquaculture calculator
  4. Design 3D printable HDPE OS floating proof of concept
  5. Summarize findings in paper

Helpful Info[edit | edit source]

  • Short-circuit current (Isc)
  • Maximum power current (Imp)
  • Open-circuit voltage (Voc)
  • Maximum power voltage (Vmp)
  • Maximum power Pmp = Imp*Vmp,
  • Global panel efficiency (η).

Initial Concepts/Thoughts in Progress[edit | edit source]

See Direction of Paper section below for more finalized ideas

Sketches pending

  • Floatovoltaics can be built: aqueducts, ponds, reservoirs, lakes, dam-created lakes - coastal areas, aquaculture farms
  • Typically fish grow better when longer photoperiods are experienced. Although quality and intensity of light would need to be adjusted per species a constant light could be used to promote fish growth.
  • This light could be generated on the underside of a floating PV module. In this set up, both the PV would be benefited(through increased cooling) and fish through longer day-length(artificially done).
  • A floating PV design may(in some designs) be anchored for structural safety, this may also provide a building block for a developing aquaculture ecosystem(in coastal areas - coral reefs) - mimic fish nursery
  • Literature suggests a full ecosystem is beneficial for reducing pollution and potentially using waste products as other inputs for various animals(plants algae). This would also increase the stability of the ecosystem and lead to higher quality fish growth.
  • The main loads acting on a PV and module system are dead loads, PV panels, maintenance live loads, wind pressure and buoyancy forces. Thus a system must be built to withstand. Unless the system is of flexible solar design with no stiff structure.
  • Rotating a field around a body of water would mitigate affects. Pumps could be used to increase O2 mixing to increase biomass.
  • Need greater understanding of fishes - pelegic, demersal, reef, and others.

Online searches[edit | edit source]

PV focus

  • aquaculture photovoltaic
  • Floatovoltaics
  • Development of Floating Photovoltaic System

Aquaculture focus

  • Effect of Darkness on growing fish
  • Marine renewable energy
  • Biofouling on submerged structures

Feasibility of design[edit | edit source]

  • calculator to be added
  • Structure and base materials to be decided(depends on printability of polymers for the intended function)
  • Terrestrial system less $ than Floatovolatic system
    • increase in power output from cooling(water)
    • value of water saved from evaporation/cleaning
    • unknown effect on the ecosystem underneath.(should be able to be tweaked to be +)

Literature Review - PVs on water (Initial)[edit | edit source]

The Fish Site[edit | edit source]

  • National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service
  • Article(secondary source) indicates a aquaculture system currently using PVs.
  • Provides list of needed solar equipment for a given aquaculture system(Tank, closed,open, raceway, pond)
  • Good article to read for a general overview - recommended

A review of floating photovoltaic installations: 2007–2013" [1][edit | edit source]


The paper gives a review of the various projects that have been realised in throughout the years. These have all been in enclosed water bodies such as reservoirs, ponds and small lakes. The main motivation for the floating photovoltaic (PV) panels was the land premium, especially for agricultural sites were the land was more valuable for growth of the crops (in these cases, grapes because the sites were wineries). The PV panels of the existing projects are mounted on a rigid pontoon structure and vary between horizontal and tilted installations. Future concepts proposed for marine and large lacusterine sites are envisaged to incorporate laminated thin film PV, which would allow the structure to be flexible and able to yield with the oncoming waves, and submergible arrays, which would be submerged in harsh weather conditions. Interest and research has been developing in this niche field throughout the years and has currently reached the megawatt scale with even bigger plans for the future.

  • Review is helpful for various floating photovoltaic installations
  • States benefits of dual use such as reduction in water evaporation and cooling of PV - up to a 20% increase in electricity output(need to confirm)
  • To date most systems have been constructed on ponds, reservoirs or smaller lakes.
  • Detailed list with pictures of prominent projects done globally 2007-13
  • Main objective so far: use water for energy generation where land was valuable in other ways. Such as a vineyard
  • Materials used to support rigid PV- foam PS board, hollow PE cubes, MDPE, metal pins
  • alternatives to rigid structure:
    • flexible thin film structure can ride the waves rather than endure them.
    • submersible PV array
    • panels on a foam surface arrayed so they flow with waves.
  • direction from this paper is to optimize design and build larger systems for rougher environments
    • I think this is a solid start to the search.

Assessment of the renewable energy-mix and land use trade-off at a regional level: A case study for the Kujawsko–Pomorskie Voivodship [2][edit | edit source]



Renewable energy sources (RES) can undoubtedly contribute to protecting the environment and conserving fossil fuels, as well as enhancing regional and rural development opportunities. However, every energy production process affects the environment and involves the use of land resources. The risks linked to intensified RES use should be adequately taken into consideration in any planning process, as ill-conceived energy policies may adversely impact land and local ecosystems, and lead to increases in public spending. Therefore, before designing any instruments for the regulation of both RES and land-use, the most essential step is to explore investment possibilities in different contexts. This paper intends to locate and quantify the potentials of biomass, wind and solar as well as to explore some of the potential planning issues associated with their development. The methods and findings presented in this paper may help to build a vision for the development of an optimal RES portfolio and to highlight emerging problems associated with RES deployment.

  • Renewable energy sources described take up land. Land - which may be used for farming/biocrops/wind. (Land use demand increases)
  • PV systems have only a small negative impact on ecosystems.
  • PVs need flat land (ideally unsuited to agriculture) as inclined increases costs - forests or other land types make PV adaption more difficult

Environmental impacts from the installation and operation of large-scale solar power plants[3][edit | edit source]


Large-scale solar power plants are being developed at a rapid rate, and are setting up to use thousands or millions of acres of land globally. The environmental issues related to the installation and operation phases of such facilities have not, so far, been addressed comprehensively in the literature. Here we identify and appraise 32 impacts from these phases, under the themes of land use intensity, human health and well-being, plant and animal life, geohydrological resources, and climate change. Our appraisals assume that electricity generated by new solar power facilities will displace electricity from traditional U.S. generation technologies. Altogether we find 22 of the considered 32 impacts to be beneficial. Of the remaining 10 impacts, 4 are neutral, and 6 require further research before they can be appraised. None of the impacts are negative relative to traditional power generation. We rank the impacts in terms of priority, and find all the high-priority impacts to be beneficial. In quantitative terms, large-scale solar power plants occupy the same or less land per kW h than coal power plant life cycles. Removal of forests to make space for solar power causes CO2 emissions as high as 36 g CO2 kW h−1, which is a significant contribution to the life cycle CO2 emissions of solar power, but is still low compared to CO2 emissions from coal-based electricity that are about 1100 g CO2 kW h−1.

  • Discusses land use intensity and impact on land area per electric energy generated for energy sources
  • Discusses impact to human health, wildlife/habitat, land use, CO2, and climate change Table 1-5.
  • This paper is useful for making an argument for using solar over other forms of energy generation. It does not discuss auqavoltaics.
  • Impacts discussed: 22 beneficial, 4 neutral, 0 detrimental, 6 need more research

Novel offshore application of photovoltaics in comparison to conventional marine renewable energy technologies [4][edit | edit source]


An original proposal for the deployment of photovoltaic (PV) systems in offshore environments is presented in this paper. Crystalline PV panels are considered where they are deployed on pontoon type structures and there are six case study examples precedent practise of such deployments in lakes and reservoirs (but not seas). The authors put forward an alternative based on flexible thin film PV that floats directly on the waterline. The paper then concentrates on the techno-economic appraisal of offshore PV systems in comparison to conventional marine renewable energy technologies. The difficulties of comparing offshore technology projects developed in various countries, using different currencies and in different years are overcome so that such comparisons are made on an equitable basis. The discounted cost of electricity generated by each scheme is determined, including capital expenditure (CAPEX) and yearly operation and maintenance (O&M) costs.

Actual wind, tidal (current turbines and barrages) and wave projects were considered in the analysis alongside crystalline and thin film PV. Thin film PV was found to be economically competitive with offshore wind energy projects for latitudes ranging from 45°N to 45°S. The specific yield, assessed in terms of GWh/km2 was higher for thin film PV than for wind, wave and tidal barrage systems. In addition the specific installed capacity, expressed in MW/km2 was also higher than the other conventional technologies considered (excluding tidal current turbines).

  • Idea to adapt established offshore renewable energy technologies to provide structure for PVs
  • In-depth analysis of current offshore PV technology - 2012
  • idea of flexible cells vs pontoon structure
  • Cost analysis and case studies completed so far(tables 2&3)
  • Thin film tech is probably the way to go
    • low cost, self cleaning, higher efficiencies, less vessel collision potential
    • Thin film has potential to be more economic than wind for offshore

A new photovoltaic floating cover system for water reservoirs [5][edit | edit source]


This paper describes a new photovoltaic floating cover system for water reservoirs developed jointly by the company CELEMIN ENERGY and the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia. The system consists of polyethylene floating modules which, with the use of tension producing elements and elastic fasteners, are able to adapt to varying reservoir water levels.

A full-scale plant located near Alicante (Spain) was built in an agriculture reservoir to study the behaviour of the system. The top of the reservoir has a surface area of 4700 m2 but only 7% of such area has been covered with the fixed solar system.

The system also minimizes evaporation losses from water reservoirs.

  • Various design methods to reduce water evaporation - 80% (covers/modules) + other general benefits
  • Geometric design of PV modules needs to be flexible so that it can match the internal geometry of water reservoirs
  • Tilt angles are effected by wind uplift and drifting - consideration for design
  • Fully detailed design of their PV flotation structure.
  • FEM and CAD were used for designing
  • Detailed economic viability also discussed. (their model is 30% more expensive than a land unit) - viable due to water savings and efficient land use. (not needing to change agricultural lands)
  • A versatile design is essential as water systems conform to the landscape and are variable in geometry.

Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies [6][edit | edit source]


Solar energy systems (photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar power) provide significant environmental benefits in comparison to the conventional energy sources, thus contributing, to the sustainable development of human activities. Sometimes however, their wide scale deployment has to face potential negative environmental implications. These potential problems seem to be a strong barrier for a further dissemination of these systems in some consumers.

To cope with these problems this paper presents an overview of an Environmental Impact Assessment. We assess the potential environmental intrusions in order to ameliorate them with new technological innovations and good practices in the future power systems. The analysis provides the potential burdens to the environment, which include—during the construction, the installation and the demolition phases, as well as especially in the case of the central solar technologies—noise and visual intrusion, greenhouse gas emissions, water and soil pollution, energy consumption, labour accidents, impact on archaeological sites or on sensitive ecosystems, negative and positive socio-economic effects.

  • Absence of air emissions or waste products
  • Capability of use in off grid systems
  • Multi-purpose capability - water, space heating, cooling
  • Standard paper going through benefits of solar compared to non-renewable energy sources - useful for reference

Environmental impacts of utility-scale solar energy[7][edit | edit source]



Renewable energy is a promising alternative to fossil fuel-based energy, but its development can require a complex set of environmental tradeoffs. A recent increase in solar energy systems, especially large, centralized installations, underscores the urgency of understanding their environmental interactions. Synthesizing literature across numerous disciplines, we review direct and indirect environmental impacts – both beneficial and adverse – of utility-scale solar energy (USSE) development, including impacts on biodiversity, land-use and land-cover change, soils, water resources, and human health. Additionally, we review feedbacks between USSE infrastructure and land-atmosphere interactions and the potential for USSE systems to mitigate climate change. Several characteristics and development strategies of USSE systems have low environmental impacts relative to other energy systems, including other renewables. We show opportunities to increase USSE environmental co-benefits, the permitting and regulatory constraints and opportunities of USSE, and highlight future research directions to better understand the nexus between USSE and the environment. Increasing the environmental compatibility of USSE systems will maximize the efficacy of this key renewable energy source in mitigating climatic and global environmental change

  • Solar dwarfs the potential of other renewable energy techs by several orders of magnitude.(wind and biomass)
  • Fig 2 details effects on environments(land)
  • water primarily used to clean panels of dust(lowers efficiency). Dust generation can increase based on land use change
  • Fig 4 has global map of temperature impact on solar energy potential.
  • Section 4.4 deals with Floatovoltaics - reduces need for land transformation and conserves water.
  • Good review article for utility scale solar. Will be useful to show benefits of moving to water implementation over land PVs

A-review-on-global-solar-energy-policy_2011_Renewable-and-Sustainable-Energy-Reviews [8][edit | edit source]


To overcome the negative impacts on the environment and other problems associated with fossil fuels have forced many countries to inquire into and change to environmental friendly alternatives that are renewable to sustain the increasing energy demand. Solar energy is one of the best renewable energy sources with least negative impacts on the environment. Different countries have formulated solar energy policies to reducing dependence on fossil fuel and increasing domestic energy production by solar energy. This paper discusses a review about the different solar energy policies implemented on the different countries of the world. According to the 2010 BP Statistical Energy Survey, the world cumulative installed solar energy capacity was 22928.9 MW in 2009, a change of 46.9% compared to 2008. Also this paper discussed the existing successful solar energy policies of few selected countries. Based on literatures, it has been found that FIT, RPS and incentives are the most beneficial energy policies implemented by many countries around the world. These policies provide significant motivation and interest for the development and use of renewable energy technologies. Also the status of solar energy policy for Malaysia is investigated and compared with that of the successful countries in the world

  • Section 2.1.1. is USA solar energy policy
  • Paper says many good things about solar compared to other energy sources
  • Not particularly useful for this review

Neural network based model for estimating the produced power of a photovoltaic module 2013 Renewable Energy [9][edit | edit source]


In this paper, a methodology to estimate the profile of the produced power of a 50 Wp Si-polycrystalline photovoltaic (PV) module is described. For this purpose, two artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been developed for use in cloudy and sunny days respectively. More than one year of measured data (solar irradiance, air temperature, PV module voltage and PV module current) have been recorded at the Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey (from 1-1-2011 to 24-2-2012) and used for the training and validation of the models. Results confirm the ability of the developed ANN-models for estimating the power produced with reasonable accuracy. A comparative study shows that the ANN-models perform better than polynomial regression, multiple linear regression, analytical and one-diode models. The advantage of the ANN-models is that they do not need more parameters or complicate calculations unlike implicit models. The developed models could be used to forecast the profile of the produced power. Although, the methodology has been applied for one polycrystalline PV module, it could also be generalized for large scale photovoltaic plants as well as for other PV technologies.

  • The method described in this paper may be adaptable for estimating the profile of the produced power for underwater cells.(it is intended for comparison between sunny and cloudy days).

Implementation of a photovoltaic floating cover for irrigation reservoirs [10][edit | edit source]


The article presents the main features of a floating photovoltaic cover system (FPCS) for water irrigation reservoirs whose purpose is to reduce the evaporation of water while generating electrical power. The system consists of polyethylene floating modules which are able to adapt to varying reservoir water levels by means of tension bars and elastic fasteners.

  • Figure 1 - graphic of system implemented
  • System discussed in paper was proven to be technically feasible and economically viable
  • Evaporation rate was reduced due to solar array
  • Useful paper for proof of concept

Theoretical-and-experimental-analysis-of-a-floating-photovoltaic-cover-for-water-irrigation-reservoirs_2014_Energy [11][edit | edit source]


The article presents the main design features and photovoltaic requirements of a FPCS (floating photovoltaic cover system) for water irrigation reservoirs whose purpose is to reduce the evaporation of water while generating electrical power. Also, a summary of installation costs and relationship with the yield performance is deeply analyzed. A prototype of 20 kWp was implemented, and given the success of the results observed, the whole surface reservoir was covered (4490 m2 and 300 kWp). The paper analyses the first electricity productions of the system and from these data the CO2 balance of the facility is calculated.

  • Figure 1 - covered vs uncovered reservoir system.
  • Geometry of solar array and reservoir are important for consideration during design process - modular is imperative
  • Paper details their dimensions and materials used in construction of pontoon structure
  • Economic assessment is detailed
  • Annual saving or 5000 m^3 water saved
  • useful paper for detailed proof of concept and compelling data.

The Feasibility of a Municipally Operated Electric Grid in Santa Fe, New Mexico [12][edit | edit source]

Santa Fe, NM adopted the Sustainable Santa Fe Plan in 2008 to provide environmentallyconscious considerations to local policies which would help Santa Fe be resilient to climate change and rising energy costs, but Santa Fe has no control over one of the biggest contributors to greenhouse gases: energy production. The lack of control over energy production and policy has led to interest in the acquisition of the electrical infrastructure from Public Service Utility of New Mexico (PNM) in order to create a municipally owned utility which could incorporate renewable energy. This study assesses the value of the existing electrical infrastructure in Santa Fe to provide some preliminary information for its purchase. The replacement cost of the infrastructure was estimated to be $100 million, an amount the city could afford with a slight rate increase.

  • Various energy sources are discussed.
  • section 2.4.7 deals with Floatovoltaics
  • This report uses a pontoon structure over bodies of water.
  • 215 acres of floatovoltaics (30MW) in reservoirs would offset enough coal usage to meet the goal
  • This isnt terribly useful for this lit review, but it is good to see floatovoltaics being seen as an option to move cities towards sustainability

Floating photovoltaic arrays to power the mining industry: A case study for the McFaulds lake (Ring of Fire) [13][edit | edit source]


The article looks at the integration of crystalline and thin film (a-Si) floating photovoltaic (PV) arrays for electricity generation in remote mine sites. Floating PV arrays rather than regular ground mounted PV arrays are considered more suitable for the site because it decreases the environmental impacts—in terms of not requiring landscaping or deforestation. The research provides a techno-economic analysis for the integration of varying levels of PV with 40 MW of diesel generation. The main challenge was the consideration of the gen sets part load together with the variability of the solar resource at the site. Applications of alternative technologies at remote mine sites are fairly limited. Results show that at a diesel fuel cost greater than $129c/L a-Si floating PV would offer some financial benefits. At this price, this is not applicable to floating crystalline PV arrays because the infrastructure required to keep them floating would offset the cost savings from the PV array. Further savings could be achieved if energy storage or load shedding could be implemented at the mine, or extra revenue could be generated through carbon credits. Solar energy for remote mine sites is not a solution to 100% of its electricity demands, unless an energy storage is available, so diesel generation is still a requirement. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2015

  • Thin film - more inline with water - better cooling
  • Thin film - low infrastructure and mooring costs
  • Successful integration of floating PVs with a diesel engine
  • Pontoon type can be oriented towards the sun more - thin can not
  • Techno-economical development discussed
  • Good paper for practical use of floating PVs with some design aspects. - Nice economical part


  • Antifouling/Self-cleaning coatings
  • Existing PV/floating concepts
  • Hydrodynamics of large scale floating PV arrays
  • Electrical yeild modelling of thin film solar arrays
  • Characterization of submerged laminated a-Si thin film
  • Thin film flexible PV array development
  • Techno-Economic analysis of prototype array and other techs
  • Several implemented examples(remote mine, isolated island community)
  • Basically everything about thin film PVs in water was her Thesis.
  • Massively helpful paper(her sources and research are quite holistic for Floatovoltaics)

Floatovoltaics: Quantifying the Benefits of a Hydro-Solar Power Fusion [15][edit | edit source]

Floatovoltaics have:
    • wide 
spaces and 
    • Water is flat
, so
    • No 
 issues, and low environmental 
    • On a reservoir: save 
  • pg 14 has info on US water coverage/NREL estimates
  • pg 16-19 Temperature cooling equations for panels in water
  • Ecological discussion on page 31 - recommended for future study
  • 8-10%increase in power production, 70% water savings from reduced evaporation. Powerful when paired with hydroelectic power plants. Great promise.

Review of hydroelasticity theories for global response of marine structures [16][edit | edit source]


Existing hydroelastic theories are reviewed. The theories are classified into different types: two dimensional linear theory, two-dimensional nonlinear theory, three-dimensional linear theory and three-dimensional nonlinear theory. Applications to analysis of very large floating structures (VLFS) are reviewed and discussed in details. Special emphasis is placed on papers from China and Japan (in native languages) as these papers are not generally publicly known in the rest of the world.

  • investigates motion and distortion of deformable bodies responding to environmental excitations in the sea
  • Three theories are discussed. Useful for designing aspects of floating structures
  • Useful for reference

A study on development of ICT convergence technology for tracking-type floating photovoltaic systems[17][edit | edit source]


This thesis seeks to establish the foundation for tracking-type floating PV system using ICT fusion technology through acquisition of data regarding solar power generated, amount of insolation and solar tracking sensor and real time monitoring of the system. Prior to implementation in the field, Zigbee based sensor node and coordinator of 2.45GHz bandwidth has been produced and tested by transmitting data received from sensor to coordinator and allowing monitoring not only in operation management PC, but also through mobile devices. In the process, wireless communication coordinator and middleware for information collection have been designed and tracking controller was developed. This thesis also pursues formation of low-cost, high-efficiency USN framework through analysis of signal conditions and speed of transmission.

  • Logic path for developing a long range wireless mass network to monitor data
  • Allows data monitoring through PC and mobile devices
  • Meant to track location data of floating photovoltaics
  • Useful article for construction of PV's and electical/computer aspect.

A study on major design elements of tracking-type floating photovoltaic systems[18][edit | edit source]


A floating PV system results from the combination of photovoltaic power plant technology and floating technology. K-Water has installed a 100 kW floating PV system on the water surface on Hapcheon dam reservoir in October 2011 and has been operating it since then. After successfully installing the 100 kW floating PV system, K-Water additionally installed a 500 kW floating PV system on another location nearby in July 2012. The electricity generated by the two floating PV systems installed in Hapcheon dam reservoir is creating profits by being sold to the national power grid. In this article, taking a step further from such fixed-type floating PV, the basic concept of 100 kW tracking-type floating PV and the application plan for the tracking algorithm and the rotation mechanism of structure which is a major design element were explained. As the first case that can maximize the power generation efficiency of PV internationally, it is expected that this study will be utilized as a primary guide for future development of tracking type PV system.

  • Tracking types can generate 20% improvement than non-tracking types
  • Comparison of fixed vs tracking types of PVs (Table 1)
  • Paper incorperates design specifications of tracking type PVs. (azimuth and altitude of the sun)
  • Higher efficiency, but more costly, and more moving parts(higher maintenance)

A Study on Power Generation Analysis of Floating PV System Considering Environmental Impact [19][edit | edit source]


The floating photovoltaic system is a new concept in energy technology to meet the needs of our time. The system integrates existing land based photovoltaic technology with a newly developed floating photovoltaic technology. Because module temperature of floating PV system is lower than that of overland PV system, the floating PV system has 11% better generation efficiency than overland PV system. In the thesis, superiority of floating PV system is verified through comparison analysis of generation amount by 2.4kW, 100kW and 500kW floating PV system installed by K-water and the cause of such superiority was analyzed. Also, effect of wind speed, and waves on floating PV system structure was measured to analyze the effect of the environment on floating PV system generation efficiency.

  • Compares energy generation with 33degree tilt of solar cells. (lower temp leads to 11% increase for on water panels)
  • Details effect of wind/waves on drift of array
  • Good paper for reference of this research lit review.

Stochastic hydroelastic analysis of pontoon-type very large floating structures considering directional wave spectrum [20][edit | edit source]


The hydroelastic response of pontoon-type very large floating structures (VLFS) is obtained by resolving the interaction between the surface waves and the floating elastic body. We carry out the analysis in the frequency domain, assuming that the surface waves can be described by a directional wave spectrum. The response spectra can then be computed by application of stationary random vibration analysis. Applying the modal expansion method, we obtain a discrete representation of the required transfer matrices for a finite number of frequencies, while the influence of the wave direction is obtained by numerical integration of the directional components of the spectrum. Moreover, assuming a Gaussian input, we can apply well known approximations to obtain the distribution of extremes. The method is applied to an example VLFS and the effect of different mean wave angles on the stochastic response is investigated.

  • Figure 1 and following equations
  • Section 4 depicts a numerical example
  • Figures 4-10 demonstrate wave analysis
  • Powerful paper for modeling large structures(useful for design of an array)


  • Powerful comparison of water use in industry
  • Use for paper

A review of Safety, Health and Environmental (SHE) issues of solar energy system[22][edit | edit source]


Solar energy is one of the cleanest forms of energy sources and considered as a green source of energy. Solar energy benefit ranges from low carbon emission, no fossil fuel requirement, long term solar resources, less payback time and other. However like other power generation sources, solar energy has also some Safety, Health and Environmental (SHE) concerns. This paper presents the overview of solar energy technologies and addresses the SHE impact of solar energy technologies to the sustainability of human activities. This paper will also recommend the possible ways to reduce the effect of potential hazards of widespread use of solar energy technologies.

  • Good for paper
  • saves water/natural resources.

Scientific Review on the Environmental and Health Safety (EHS) aspects of CdTe photovoltaic (PV) systems over their entire life cycle [23][edit | edit source]


The reviewers investigated the written and presented materials related to the potential environmental, health, and safety risks and benefits associated with CdTe PV systems during their life cycle.

The lead reviewer visited the First Solar’s Perrysburg, Ohio facility in the United States on May 2nd, 2012 to receive: A tour of the manufacturing and recycling facilities; Presentations on the EHS aspects of CdTe PV modules; and Presentations on the EHS practices in place at First Solar’s manufacturing and recycling facilities.

Electrical Behavior and Optimization of Panels and Reflector of a Photovoltaic Floating Plant[24][edit | edit source]


The purpose of this work is to study the PV module efficiency in the presence of flat reflectors that can determine an uneven irradiance on the PV surface. In particular the effect of different connections (in series and/or in parallel) of PV cells strings constituting a PV module is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. Furthermore, the presence of the water cooling system that keeps the temperature of PV cells low and uniform is carefully considered. General considerations are applied to a photovoltaic power plant, floating in the water with tracking and cooling system, that consists in a circular floating platform which supports PV panels. The cooling of the panel is ensured by a veil of water generated by a set of irrigators located on the top of the panel. A set of reflectors on the back of the PV panel further increases the plant efficiency. Two possible solutions for this system have been considered. An experimental set-up has been realized in the laboratory of the University of Catania where two strings of three modules have been installed as well as a string of mirrors on the back of the first row. These different configurations have been studied using a suitable data acquisition system.

Literature Review PVs below water(Initial)[edit | edit source]

Performance of Photovoltaic Cells in Undersea Environment [25][edit | edit source]

  • intended application is power source for oceanographic buoys.
  • Powerful review and overview article about PVs and how they are affected by being underwater
  • Above ocean surface: water spray, defecation of birds and dense fog decrease performance
  • Under ocean surface: withstand hydrostaic pressure, biofouling, electrical connectors must remain dry
    • encased in silicon-rubber to isolate from water to prevent corrosion
  • <60degree of light to normal incidence of water surface is ideal - after that massive light reflection (fig 5)
  • outside 450-550nm range of light is lost after 25m of depth. (Secchi disc used for visibility testing)
  • Max depth of visibility results in about 5% of surface efficiency of cell. (up to 100ft tested)

  • To combat biofouling this project would ideally incorporate an ecosystem to remove it(fish which feed from it?)
  • Paper concludes that solar cells perform successfully - PCE varies with clarity of water (dependent on type of water/location/season)
  • recommended read

Submerged photovoltaic solar panel: SP2 [26][edit | edit source]


The behavior of a photovoltaic (PV) panel submerged in water is studied. A sizeable increase of electric power output is found for shallow water. Experiments have been carried out for single crystalline silicon panels. Results are discussed and the increase in efficiency is investigated and understood. Operating problems are analyzed and the advantages of using underwater solar panels are pointed out.

  • Benefits of PVs in water: removal of thermal drift and lowering light reflection
  • clean water is a strong light absorber, mainly in red-infrared region
  • Figure 5 is worth looking at. panel above water: 12.3% 4cm below water: 14.05% 40cm below water: 9.25% effiency
  • land panel was on average 70C in temp, panels in water were below 30C throughout the day. almost no variation below water
  • This paper is useful for indicating that there is in fact an efficiency gain when the PV is submerged slightly in water.

Improving The Efficiency Of Polycrystalline Solar Panel Via Water Immersion Method [27][edit | edit source]


Cooling of the solar cells is a critical issue, especially when designing concentrating photovoltaic (PV) systems. In the present work, the cooling of a photovoltaic panel via Water immersion technique is investigated. The aim of this project is to optimize the efficiency of a solar panel by submerged it in distillated water at different depths. Experiment is done for polycrystalline silicon panel. An evident increase of efficiency is found with increasing the water depth. Results are discussed; thermal drift has been reduced and the solar panel efficiency has increased by about 11% at water depth 6 cm.

  • Causes: Reduction of light reflection (lower refraction index), Absence of thermal drift
  • Methodology full described
  • Figures 3-5 are useful vs depths of water used.
  • Useful for design of pontoon structures. Recommended for referencing.



With the increase in surface temperature of solar cells or panels their efficiency decreases quite dramatically. To overcome the heating of solar cell surface, water immersion cooling technique can be used i.e. it can be submerged in water so as to maintain its surface temperature and provide better efficiency at extreme temperatures. In this study, electrical parameters of solar cell were calculated which showed that the cooling factor plays an important role in the electrical efficiency enhancement. Solar cell immersed in water was monitored under real climatic conditions, cell surface temperature can be controlled from 31- 39 .C. Electrical performance of cell increases up to great extent. Results are dicussed; panel efficiency has increased about 17.8% at water depth 1cm. The study can give support to the Concentrated Photovoltaics System by submerging the solar cells in different mediums.

  • Detailed construction, methodology and equations used.
  • Variaton of electrical properties with water depth/time of day (Figures 2-6)
  • Substrate markup for large body of water integration
  • 17.8% increase in electrical efficiency observed
  • Ideal depth of 1cm determined for polycrystalline silicon panel
  • Useful for comparison of ideal depth to be used.

Water absorption characterisation, electrical reliability and mechanical testing of a submerged laminated a-Si thin film photovoltaic (PV) cells [29][edit | edit source]


Floating photovoltaic (PV) technology is emerging as a new application field for solar PVs. The research in this paper aims to characterise the water absorption in ETFE laminated a-Si PV panels in relation to the floating PV application and scope any apparent electrical or mechanical impacts. Short term electrical impacts were analysed through 45 day testing of such a floating thin film PV array, for which results showed greater reduction at 1% due to sediment/dirt accumulation on the face of the array rather than due to water absorption which accounted to 0.5%. The stiffness of sample panels of such array, saturated and dry was tested in order to assess any significant changes which might impact such an array’s modulation with oncoming waves. Results showed only minor changes in the deformation stiffness modulus of the two sets of samples, indicated that mechanical reliability would not be compromised due to water absorption. Observations made throughout the various stages of the experimentation were noted in the article and discussed upon. Concluding recommendations are for longer term electrical testing to be undertaken in order to determine if water absorption will have deteriorating effects in the long run.

  • No natural de-bonding of laminate due to water ingress
  • De-bonding occurs when enough water absorption happens to laminate
  • Figure 7 is useful, water absorption over time - maxes at 2%
  • More long-term/other environmental testing is recommended
  • Useful for thinking about 3D printed polymers

Literature Review - Aquafarms(Initial)[edit | edit source]

Farming Fish for the Future[30][edit | edit source]

  • Focus of aquaculture towards full ecosystems(ex. oysters to filter water so sunlight penetrates further)
  • if done correctly fish farming can have a net possitive impact on environment (ex. framework for coral reefs)
  • Potential for on land fishfarming(warehouse idea of indoor controlled farming)
  • promotes research in breeding fish
  • Fastest growing food industry
  • Potentially healthier than wild fish(metal/chemical contamination)
  • Very good source for overview of aquaculture and its current/future impact on global/local levels.

Management by life cycle of wolffish, Anarhichas lupus L., a new species for cold-water aquaculture. A technical paper [31][edit | edit source]


Interest in the cultivation of wolffish arose in recent years due to their high-quality meat and fast growth in captivity. In wolffish, an almost juvenile organism, more than 20 mm long, hatches from the egg and can be fed dry pellets just after that. This makes the technology for wolffish breeding much simpler than for other marine fishes, even salmonids. This paper is devoted to common wolffish. Anarhichas lupus L., as the captive breeding of this species has been studied most completely. Experience with broodstock management, insemination, incubation of eggs, start feeding, and growth of rearing juveniles until maturation is described, based mainly on investigations made in Norway and in the Russian Federation. The conditions for obtaining maximum production in the shortest time are assessed. Prospects for using wolffish in aquaculture are briefly discussed.

  • Proof of concept paper that the entire life cycle of the wolffish can be reproduced.
  • Wolffish is ideal for cold environment aquacultures
  • Synergistic with a mussel plantation (food for them, also can be used to control macro-biofouling)
  • High growth rates potential - model for development
  • Useful proof of concept paper with various aspects described about a fish species

Integrating Seaweeds into Marine Aquaculture Systems: A Key Toward Sustainability[32][edit | edit source]

  • Monospecific practices can lead to problems -> diversification leads to wastes of a resource become a resource for another source.
  • Seaweeds can be used in a balanced ecosystem
  • Lots of info on integrated aquaculture(old practice in asia)
  • detailed review of land and open-water based systems.
  • Notable paper for optimizing aquaculture

The importance of selective breeding in aquaculture to meet future demands for animal protein: A review [33][edit | edit source]


Aquaculture is the fastest growing food production industry, and the vast majority of aquaculture products are derived from Asia. The quantity of aquaculture products directly consumed is now greater than that resulting from conventional fisheries. The nutritional value of aquatic products compares favourably with meat from farm animals because they are rich in micronutrients and contain high levels of healthy omega-3 fatty acids. Compared with farm animals, fish are more efficient converters of energy and protein. If the aquaculture sector continues to expand at its current rate, production will reach 132 million tonnes of fish and shellfish and 43 million tonnes of seaweed in 2020. Future potential for marine aquaculture production can be estimated based on the length of coastline, and for freshwater aquaculture from available land area in different countries. The average marine production in 2005 was 103 tonnes per km coastline, varying from 0 to 1721 (China). Freshwater aquaculture production in 2005 averaged 0.17 tonnes/ha, varying from 0 to close to 6 tonnes per ha (Bangladesh), also indicating potential to dramatically increase freshwater aquaculture output. Simple estimations indicate potential for a 20-fold increase in world aquaculture production. Limits imposed by the availability of feed resources would be lessened by growing more herbivorous species and by using more of genetically improved stocks.

  • Discusses potential of aquaculture production (section 5)
  • Details production of aquaculture per continent/country
  • Current breeding programs - table 12-13
  • Breeding provides improved quality, economy and efficiency in resource allocation
  • Aquaculture's future is more reliant on future demand/market than technological development
  • Useful paper for arguing in favor of aquaculture's relevance in the food production industry

Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies [34][edit | edit source]


Global production of farmed fish and shellfish has more than doubled in the past 15 years. Many people believe that such growth relieves pressure on ocean fisheries, but the opposite is true for some types of aquaculture. Farming carnivorous species requires large inputs of wild fish for feed. Some aquaculture systems also reduce wild fish supplies through habitat modification, wild seedstock collection and other ecological impacts. On balance, global aquaculture production still adds to world fish supplies; however, if the growing aquaculture industry is to sustain its contribution to world fish supplies, it must reduce wild fish inputs in feed and adopt more ecologically sound management practices.

  • Over-fishing can be made up by farming in sustainable ways
  • Ecological links between aquaculture and wild fish stocks (pg 1020) Some bad characteristics
  • Aquaculture can be sustainable -> polyculture systems
  • Balanced view on pros and cons of aquaculture as it is currently with direction to improve the industry sustainably.

Lighting: How It Affects Freshwater Fish[edit | edit source]

  • Reasonable sources - Secondary source
  • Gives insight into direct effects day light has on fish. Reactions/response of fish
  • Semi-useful article for quick general understanding, geared towards tanks not aquaculture, but topics should translate.

Does light have an influence on fish growth?[35][edit | edit source]


Light compares a complex of external and ecological factors, including colour spectrum, intensity and photoperiod. Light characteristics are very specific in an aquatic environment and light is extremely variable in nature. `Receptivity' of fish to light profoundly changes according to the species and the developmental status. Specific photoreceptor cells are present in both eye and pineal. If it is easy to change the light in experimentation and to observe the effects on fish growth, it is much more difficult in nature to make such determinations. In larvae, many studies have been dedicated to the influence of intensity and photoperiod on growth: generally, species need a minimal threshold intensity to be able to develop normally and grow. This is probably related to the aptitude to localize, catch and ingest prey. Light is also indispensable for body pigmentation, an important phenomenon involved in early development and growth. Too intense light can be stressful or even lethal. A few species are able to develop and grow at very low intensities or, sometimes, in the absence of light. Generally, long daylength improves larval rearing quality. The synergistic effect of `food availability-daylength' appears to be determining at this stage. In older fish, there is very little information about the influence of light `quality' but more about intensity and much more about photoperiod. Light intensity effects are not so clear and depend on the species and the experimental procedures: it is probably not an important factor for growth stimulation. Daylength appears much more important. Many species, including both marine species and salmonids, react to photoperiod treatments and long daylength stimulates growth. The most studied species is the Atlantic salmon, which is very sensitive, both during the freshwater stage, with the parr–smolt transformation very dependent on the photoperiod, and also in sea water. In this last condition, lighting also influences early maturation. An important point is to be certain that light affects fish growth through a better food conversion efficiency and not just through stimulated food intake. Also included in this review is a discussion about the endolymph–otolith system, which is very sensitive to daylight and seasonal cycles and a review of the present knowledge on the involvement of light influence on hormone levels (melatonin, somatotropin, thyroid hormones and other hormones).

  • Highly dependent on species of fish
  • Fish are more affected by day-length than intensity of light
  • Some fish thrive in lower light such as European sea bass(low pigmentation in larvae form)
  • Fish typically have a 24-h cycle(feed in day) inactivity increases at night(passive displacement)
  • Paper goes into detail on specific light intensity levels for several species for optimal growth. (table 1)
  • Very important paper for light effects. Several sections are a must read to gauge effects PVs may have on fish(blocking light)

Effect of diet and light regime on growth and survival of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) larvae and early juveniles [36][edit | edit source]


Growth of larval sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus fed live Artemia nauplii, a specially prepared dry feed (MN-3), a commercial dry salmon starter feed (Silver Cup 3600), or a combination of 50% live Artemia and 50% MN-3, under conditions of either light or dark for 21 days was studied. For all diets, fish reared in darkened tanks were significantly larger than those in illuminated tanks from day 8 onwards. Fish fed a combination of live Artemia plus MN-3 grew significantly more quickly than those fed either live Artemia or MN-3 only. On day 21 of the experiment, average weight of fish fed the combined diet was 649 ± 30 mg (mean ±sem) in darkened tanks and 445 ± 16 mg in illuminated tanks, while those fed Artemia alone were 242 ± 9 and 198 ± 13 mg (dark and light, respectively) and fish fed MN-3 only were intermediate at 377 ± 20 and 267 ± 16 mg (dark and light, respectively). Catfish fed the salmon starter initially grew slowly, but after day 11 grew more quickly than the other groups. Mortalities were highest for fish fed salmon feed.

Permanent darkness enhances the growth of C. gariepinus larvae during and after metamorphosis. While dry diets promoted higher growth rate than live Artemia nauplii alone, a combination of the two resulted in the fastest growth.

  • requested from researchgate 1/24
  • Not Useful

Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Imo State of Nigeria [37][edit | edit source]


This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty– two respondents were randomly selected from the three zones of the state. Data were collected through structured interview schedule. The results showed that the level of adoption of the technology was low. Less than half of the respondents adopted the technology. After the construction of the ponds, which were usually not to specification, the farmers found it difficult to adopt the other recommendations, (e.g., pond maintenance, feeding, harvesting, and fish preservation). It was discovered that the farmers did not have adequate funds to maintain their small ponds and to purchase the necessary feed and other necessities for aquaculture. To increase the level of adoption of aquaculture technologies in Nigeria, it is necessary to change its perception from subsistence to commercial and sustainable farming practice; to assist the farmers with credit facilities and to provide closer monitoring of the process by extension agents.

  • Paper goes into detail on expanding the use of aquaculture to farmers
  • Details the struggles of implementing new technology/adoption rate -> low
  • Main reason of low adoption was poor economy, farms were not of sufficient size or sustainability to provide enough immediate income.
  • rethink implementation method in such environments(to people)
  • Paper is useful for understanding a process for spreading the aquaculture tech. for sustainability.

Aquaculture Production and Biodiversity Conservation [38][edit | edit source]


This overview examines the status and trends of seafood production, and the positive and negative impacts of aquaculture on biodiversity conservation. Capture fisheries have been stabilized at about 90 million metric tons since the late 1980s, whereas aquaculture increased from 12 million metric tons in 1985 to 45 million metric tons by 2004. Aquaculture includes species at any trophic level that are grown for domestic consumption or export. Aquaculture has some positive impacts on biodiversity; for example, cultured seafood can reduce pressure on overexploited wild stocks, stocked organisms may enhance depleted stocks, aquaculture often boosts natural production and species diversity, and employment in aquaculture may replace more destructive resource uses. On the negative side, species that escape from aquaculture can become invasive in areas where they are nonnative, effluents from aquaculture can cause eutrophication, ecologically sensitive land may be converted for aquaculture use, aquaculture species may consume increasingly scarce fish meal, and aquaculture species may transmit diseases to wild fish. Most likely, aquaculture will continue to grow at significant rates through 2025, and will remain the most rapidly increasing food production system.

  • Details historical trends (table 1)
  • Aquaculture has the potential to save high risk species from extinction
  • Various positive and negative impacts are discussed
  • Good paper for stating effects of aquaculture as well as realistic future outlook

Fish aggregation device (FAD) research: Gaps in current knowledge and future directions for ecological studies. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries [39][edit | edit source]


We reviewed the literature concerning fish aggregation devices (FADs) to determine areas of relative research deficiency. Using specific searches of the Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA) database from 1978 to December 2003 and a classical search of the pre-1978 literature, we collected 407 references on FADs. Publications before 1980 were predominantly peer-reviewed, although non-peer reviewed literature has dominated since 1980, due to the numerous technical reports produced as FADs became more widely used in artisinal and large-scale industrial fisheries in the 1980s. Most studies of the ecology of FAD-associated fish were descriptive, with few mensurative experimental studies and even fewer manipulative experimental studies that tested specific hypotheses, due to inherent difficulties in working in the open ocean on objects that are temporary in space and time. Research on the ecology of FAD-associated fish has focused on moored FADs, despite the major FAD-based fisheries being around drifting FADs. Publications presenting information on moored FADs outnumbered papers on drifting FADs by a ratio of 3.5:1. We recommend that greater emphasis be placed by fisheries scientists and funding agencies on researching drifting FADs to provide better information for management of large-scale FAD-based industrial fisheries. Future research should focus on determining the patterns of use of drifting FADs by pelagic species, the underlying sensory processes of attraction and the ecological consequences for individual fish stocks and the wider pelagic ecosystem of the use of FADs as fisheries enhancement tools.

  • Association with floating structures is displayed by fish of almost all ontogenetic stages

Stress and welfare of culture fish [40][edit | edit source]


Cultured species of aquatic animals span more than five phyla. Animal welfare attention is directed towards the vertebrates because of the their neural complexity, and is currently focused on the finfish because of the size and visibility of that segment of the aquaculture industry. The characteristics of the aquatic environment and their impact on the animal have forced growers to develop cultural practices designed to control and minimize animal stress. This was not done as a result of social awareness, but out of necessity to keep fish alive and healthy; and managing stress is a principal key in ensuring animal welfare. Aquatic farmers are aware of the consequences of fish stress, but have limited knowledge of the basic biological principles of animal stress and have little exposure to the linkages between these concepts and the issues critical to animal welfare. Although the industry has many tools available for monitoring and preventing stress, not all growers have had exposure to the information that is available or know of its value when addressing issues of animal welfare.

  • Text requested through researchgate 1/29
  • Not Useful

Current issues in fish welfare [41][edit | edit source]


Human beings may affect the welfare of fish through fisheries, aquaculture and a number ofother activities. There is no agreement on just how to weigh the concern for welfare of fishagainst the human interests involved, but ethical frameworks exist that suggest how this mightbe approached.

Different definitions of animal welfare focus on an animal’s condition, on its subjectiveexperience of that condition and/or on whether it can lead a natural life. These providedifferent, legitimate, perspectives, but the approach taken in this paper is to focus on welfareas the absence of suffering.

  • Mental capabilities of fish are unknown - responses to stimuli
  • In-depth analysis of actions humans take which can disrupt lives of fish
  • Not Useful

Fish welfare: Current issues in aquaculture[42][edit | edit source]


With the continued growth of the aquaculture industry and increasing scientific discussion over the potential for negative events to give rise to suffering, research into the welfare of cultured fish is vital. How we define and measure welfare is cause for debate, particularly in fish. However, research into the effects of aquaculture procedures on welfare is crucial to produce data and recommendations for best practice and future legislation. Both behavioural and physiological measures of welfare are necessary for correct interpretation and while there is a wealth of knowledge on the physiological consequences of many aquaculture practices it is now equally important for us to understand the behavioural responses to these practices and to relate them to fish welfare. Here I review the scientific data that allows us to interpret the effects of disease, handling, transport, food deprivation, and slaughter technique on fish welfare. The effects of stocking density, also an area of welfare concern, are complex and appear to comprise of numerous interacting and case specific factors. Investigation into the relative importance of these factors, particularly through behavioural studies, will serve to improve welfare. Stocking density, diet, feeding technique, and management procedures all have strong effects on stress responses, subsequent stress tolerance, health, and the occurrence of aggressive behaviour. Strategies to reduce disease susceptibility, minimise stress responses, and avoid aggression are, therefore, vital. However, caution should be taken when interpreting “abnormal” fish behaviour and further research is required to allow us to establish the importance of the expression of “natural” behaviours. Collectively this growing area of research serves to improve our knowledge of the impacts of aquaculture and intensive farming procedures on fish welfare and is the first step in improving welfare wherever possible.

  • Requested Via interlibrary Loan 2/1
  • Not Useful

Marine Biofouling on Fish Farms and Its Remediation [43][edit | edit source]

Abstract The fish farming industry suffers significantly from the effects of biofouling. The fouling of cages and netting, which is costly to remove, is detrimental to fish health and yield and can cause equipment failure. With rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry, coupled with the tightening of legislation on the use of antifouling biocides, the problems of fish farm biofouling are increasing. The nature of the biological communities that develop on fish farm equipment and the antifouling practices that can be employed to reduce it are described here. Particular emphasis is placed on antifouling legislature and the future needs of the industry.

The biological communities that develop on fish cages and netting are distinctive, in comparison to those that foul ships. Temperate species of particular importance, because of their cosmopolitan distribution and opportunistic nature, include the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Antifouling practices include predominantly the use of copper-based antifoulant coatings, in combination with practical fish husbandry and site management practices. The antifouling solutions presently available are not ideal, and it is widely accepted that there is an urgent need for research into combatant technologies. Such alternatives include the adoption of “foul-release” technologies and “biological control” through the use of polyculture systems. However, none of these have, as yet, been proven satisfactory. In view of current legislative trends and the possible future “phasing out” of available antifouling materials, there is a need to find alternative strategies.

  • Conventional methods do not work. Most are hazardous to the environment.
  • Biocides kill ecosystems
  • Alternatives to copper based systems dont yet exist(2005)
  • Non-toxic alternative needed if aquaculture is to flourish.

The impact and control of biofouling in marine aquaculture: a review. [44][edit | edit source]


Biofouling in marine aquaculture is a specific problem where both the target culture species and/or infrastructure are exposed to a diverse array of fouling organisms, with significant production impacts. In shellfish aquaculture the key impact is the direct fouling of stock causing physical damage, mechanical interference, biological competition and environmental modification, while infrastructure is also impacted. In contrast, the key impact in finfish aquaculture is the fouling of infrastructure which restricts water exchange, increases disease risk and causes deformation of cages and structures. Consequently, the economic costs associated with biofouling control are substantial. Conservative estimates are consistently between 5-10% of production costs (equivalent to US$ 1.5 to 3 billion yr(-1)), illustrating the need for effective mitigation methods and technologies. The control of biofouling in aquaculture is achieved through the avoidance of natural recruitment, physical removal and the use of antifoulants. However, the continued rise and expansion of the aquaculture industry and the increasingly stringent legislation for biocides in food production necessitates the development of innovative antifouling strategies. These must meet environmental, societal, and economic benchmarks while effectively preventing the settlement and growth of resilient multi-species consortia of biofouling organisms.

  • Table 1 - common fouling organisms
  • Impact of several species is dicussed
  • Many methods use heavy metals or chemicals which harm the environment
  • Six criteria are explored for future anti-biofouling strategies
  • non-toxic methods are explored
  • Helpful, but there is just not that much novel literature on the topic of anti-biofouling for aquaculture

Environmental Effects of Shellfish Aquaculture in the Northeast [45][edit | edit source]


One of the great impediments to further development of shellfish aquaculture in the Northeast Region is a perception that industry expansion could have negative environmental effects on our coastal waters. Although considerable research over the last 25 years has focused on both the positive and negative effects of rebuilding mollusc populations, which could filter enormous quantities of algae, such studies are sometimes classed as environmental “impacts,” which has a connotation of aesthetic loss and a perceived “loss of nature.” The purpose of this fact sheet is to discuss the potential environmental effects of expanding shellfish aquaculture and social issues surrounding such expansion and to provide key scientific resources.

  • Filter feeding can increase water purity - cycle minerals - buffer
  • Diseases are discussed
  • Shellfish farming more limited by socio-political than by technological limitations - poor environmental image.
  • Useful paper for understanding shellfish - short though

Aquaculture: Issues and Opportunities for Sustainable Production and Trade [46][edit | edit source]


Aquaculture can be considered a recent success story in helping to feed the world’s population. Production has increased from about 3.5 million tonnes in 1970 to more than 50 million tonnes in 2003, with most of this growth taking place in the developing world, which now accounts for more than 80 percent of global aquaculture production. This tremendous growth has provided a number of opportunities for greater food security, improved livelihoods and reduced poverty. However, it has also created challenges with respect to environmental issues and sustainability.

  • Competitive nature of aquaculture assessed, profitability
  • Technological aspect of aquaculture is discussed (table Fig 2-4)
  • Environmental and socio-economic issues discussed
  • Useful article for understanding where aquaculture is on a political level and its direction. Good for reference

Growing Premium Seafood—Inland[47][edit | edit source]


People who know seafood know that cobia and Florida pompano are among the world’s best. Found in the warm waters off the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, these saltwater superstars are prized for both commercial and sport fishing. Pompano (pronounced POM-puh-no) and cobia (COEbee-uh) have firm, mostly white flesh that’s perfect for grilling, pan-frying, or baking. Some people find that pompano has a pleasing, slightly sweet note.

  • Article details requirements for fish to be grown in tanks(food, water, and space)
  • Water quality is imperative to good fish farming
  • Good article for proof of concept of growing fish in tanks away from large bodies of water
  • Not Used

A Fish Farmer's Guide to Understanding Water Quality [48][edit | edit source]

  • Physical Characteristics of Water
  • Water Balance in Fish
  • Sources of Water
  • Water Quantity
  • Water’s Physical Factors
  • Water’s Chemical Factors
  • Helpful for understanding the livable conditions fish need in order to thrive in aquaculture

Modern approaches to marine antifouling coatings [49][edit | edit source]


Marine structures such as platforms, jetties and ship hulls are subject to diverse and severe biofouling. Methods for inhibiting both organic and inorganic growth on wetted substrates are varied but most antifouling systems take the form of protective coatings. Biofouling can negatively affect the hydrodynamics of a hull by increasing the required propulsive power and the fuel consumption. This paper reviews the development of antifouling coatings for the prevention of marine biological fouling. As a result of the 2001 International Maritime Organization (IMO) ban on tributyltin (TBT), replacement antifouling coatings have to be environmentally acceptable as well as maintain a long life. Tin-free self-polishing copolymer (SPC) and foul release technologies are current applications but many alternatives have been suggested. Modern approaches to environmentally effective antifouling systems and their performance are highlighted.

  • Detailed understanding of fouling process
  • Significant biofouling would increase weight.
  • Table 1 is a summary of major antifouling coatings in last 50 years
  • Biomimetics is a likely future direction to advanced antifouling surfaces --. broad spectrum activity and species specific antifouling performance
  • Very useful for consideration for construction of floating array. - Must follow table 6 guidelines

Marine renewable energy: potential benefits tobiodiversity? An urgent call for research [50][edit | edit source]

  • marine renewable energy installations (MREI) concerns are discussed
  • If done correctly MREI installations may increase local biodiversity and potentially benefit the wider marine environment. Can act as both artificial reefs and fish aggregation devices
  • Potential political hurtles are discussed
  • Win-Win - energy and rebuilding marine habitats
  • Solid paper, doesn't mention floatovoltaics, but very useful nonetheless.

Marine renewable energy: The ecological implications of altering the hydrodynamics of the marine environment [51][edit | edit source]


Many countries now recognise the need for mitigation of climate change induced by human activities and have incorporated renewable energy resources within their energy policy. There are extensive resources of renewable energy within the marine environment and increasing interest in extracting energy from locations with either large tidal range, rapid flow with and without wave interaction, or large wave resources. However, the ecological implications of altering the hydrodynamics of the marine environment are poorly understood. Ecological data for areas targeted for marine renewable developments are often limited, not least because of the considerable challenges to sampling in high energy environments. In order to predict the scale and nature of ecological implications there is a need for greater understanding of the distribution and extent of the renewable energy resource and in turn, of how marine renewable energy installations (MREIs) may alter energy in the environment. Regional ecological implications of a MREI need to be considered against the greater and global ecological threat of climate change. Finally, it is recommended that the identification of species and biotopes susceptible to the removal of hydrokinetic energy could be a suitable strategy for understanding how a MREI may alter flow conditions.

  • In-depth understanding of movement and dynamics on organisms in a variety of aqua environments.
  • There are "safe limits" of energy to remove from the environment without detrimental effects. - good for solar vs other forms of energy
  • Organisms rely on the energy and heat generated by waves for their physical and chemical responses to the environment
  • Any structure can remove energy from currents up to 10s of km
  • Ecological effects are discussed, and a focus should be on local over global for a given system
  • Good paper for Floatovoltaics over other forms of MREI.

Collision risks between marine renewable energy devices and mammals, fish and diving birds [52][edit | edit source]


This report summarises the risks of injurious collision that marine renewable devices may pose to marine mammals, fish and birds using Scottish waters within the SEA assessment area. A collision is considered to be a physical contact between a device or its pressure field and an organism, that may result in an injury (however slight) to that organism. We did not consider the physical impacts of sound. Vertebrates may avoid collisions by moving away from the immediate area around a device (avoidance) or by escaping at close range (evasion, analagous to swerving to prevent collision with an obsticle in the road).

  • Sound from operation of equipment is a needed consideration on marine animals
  • In-depth analysis on how marine animals interact with fixed submerged and/or moored devices + structures
  • Table 4 for fish aggregation devices(FADs) - most important section
  • Section 4 details submerged structure structure hazards
  • Section 6 details feature density - sound and light (underwater)
  • Good paper for understanding how humans can affect marine animals
  • Not Used

Marine Renewable Energy Converters Biofouling: A Critical Review on Impacts and Prevention [53][edit | edit source]


In recent years, a number of studies have been performed to assess the damages caused by biofouling, which is simply the attachment of organisms to a surface in contact with water for a period of time. This explanation sounds fairly straightforward, but there are several organisms that cause biofouling, many different types of affected surfaces, and therefore many solutions dealing with this problem. Regarding the marine renewable energy emerging and promising area of research, this paper aims to provide a critical review of the biofouling issue in the context of Marine Renewable Energy Converters (MRECs). The proposed review will specifically highlight biofouling impacts on MRECs and solutions to prevent fouling. In addition, a discussion will highlight challenges that MRECs market needs to undertake to overcome the biofouling problem.

  • Micro vs macrofouling organisms discussed
  • Biofouling development modes discussed - absorption of macromolecules to surface after integration into water
  • least complex the better, smoother the better
  • Section V indicates way to prevent biofouling. Table 1. - Electrochemical foul prevention appears to be most effective/long lasting
  • Figure 13. - Key interactive parameters affecting an antifouling coating system

Aquaculture—A Gateway for Exotic Species[54][edit | edit source]


Aquaculture—the farming of fish, shellfish, and aquatic plants—is among the fastest-growing segments of the world food economy. Global aquaculture production more than doubled in volume and value during the past decade and now supplies one-third of seafood consumed worldwide. Growth in U.S. production parallels the global trend (see figure, this page). Spread across all 50 states in the United States, farms collectively raise over 100 different species of aquatic plants and animals (1). Plans are under way for a fivefold increase in domestic aquaculture output by 2025 with more lenient regulatory oversight in accordance with the National Aquaculture Act (1, 2).

  • Aquaculture has led to introductions of unwanted seaweeds, fish, invertebrates, parasites, and pathogens.
  • Accidental escapes and even purposeful releases create “biological pollution” with irreversible and unpredictable ecological impacts.
  • Freshwater mollusks are the most endangered group of animals in North America, and 90% of native mussel species designated as endangered, threatened or of special concern are found in the Southeast where the catfish industry is concentrated
  • More than a half-million Atlantic salmon escaped on the West Coast of North America between 1987 and 1997

Integrated Agri-Aquaculture Systems[55][edit | edit source]

Integrated agri-aquaculture systems (IAAS) are those which link aquaculture to conventional farming systems. The development of such systems has been driven by different needs in different parts of the world, including a desire to improve food security on small, subsistence family farms; or to minimise pollution and use valuable resources (such as water) more efficiently and effectively.

  • good for integrated farming systems

Aquaculture systems and species [56][edit | edit source]

Driving force

There are a number of factors, which drive aquaculture, again covering a spectrum from the needs of people (the provision of local employment, food security and the alleviation of poverty) to the needs of industries (with particular emphasis on profits, productivity and consistent-quality products).

Consequently, the requirements for sustainable aquaculture development will include both technological and people based approaches From this range of choices, the design and selection of appropriate culture systems can be made, which most effectively meets their needs and best, fits the opportunities and constraints of the local environment.

Wastewater treatment and use in agriculture - FAO irrigation and drainage paper 47 [57][edit | edit source]


Wastewater Treatment and Use in Agriculture is presented as a guide to the use of treated effluent for irrigation and aquaculture. This document presents the latest views on health risks, environmental hazards and crop production potential associated with the use of treated wastewater. It draws on the WHO Guidelines for health protection measures considered appropriate under various conditions. It explains the basis for conventional wastewater treatment processes and introduces natural biological treatment systems as viable alternatives in developing countries, particularly in hot climate regions. Recharge of aquifers as a means of treatment and indirect use of wastewater is covered in some detail.

Overview of the Australian Fishing and Aquaculture Industry: Present and Future[58][edit | edit source]

  • immensely useful for overview of general aquaculture concepts.

Food chain patterns in the Ría de Arosa, Spain: an area of intense mussel aquaculture[59][edit | edit source]


The Rías of Galicia in northwest Spain, particularly the Ría de Arosa, are among the world's greatest producers of commercially-valuable shellfish, especially by raft culture of the edible mussel. We have investigated the nutrient conditions and biota of the Ria de Arosa to under- stand: 1) the role of nutrient intrusion and upwelling and concomitant primary productivity and 2) the effect of the intense mussel culture on food chain patterns. The Ria de Arosa is in reality an oceanic system with coastal wind patterns and the stratigraphy of the Ría causing displacement upwelling of nitrate-rich oceanic water. This periodic upwelling results in high primary productivity rates and phytoplankton standing crops that support the large mussel culture. Surveys of the mussels and associated epifauna and infaunal benthos indicate that the three dimensional raft culture provides habitat and that the associated food resource of mussel biodeposits provides a food ressource that enhances secondary production in the Ría. The food chain pattern of the Ría appears to effectively exploit the primary production and the detritus produced by the mussels supports a great production of macrobenthic epifauna that in turn are fed upon by fish and crab populations.

  • Mussels can enhance fish and crab populations.
  • Cant find full paper.

Opportunities and Challenges to Sustainability in Aquaponic Systems [60][edit | edit source]


Aquaponics combines the hydroponic production of plants and the aquaculture production of fish into a sustainable agriculture system that uses natural biological cycles to supply nitrogen and minimizes the use of nonrenewable resources, thus providing economic benefits that can increase over time. Several production systems and media exist for producing hydroponic crops (bench bed, nutrient film technique, floating raft, rockwool, perlite, and pine bark). Critical management requirements (water quality maintenance and biofilter nitrification) for aquaculture need to be integrated with the hydroponics to successfully manage intensive aquaponic systems. These systems will be discussed with emphasis on improving sustainability through management and integration of the living components [plants and nitrifying bacteria (Nitrosomonas spp. and Nitrobacter spp.)] and the biofilter system. Sustainable opportunities include biological nitrogen production rates of 80 to 90 gm–3 per day nitrate nitrogen from trickling biofilters and plant uptake of aquaculture wastewater. This uptake results in improved water and nutrient use efficiency and conservation. Challenges to sustainability center around balancing the aquaponic system environment for the optimum growth of three organisms, maximizing production outputs and minimizing effluent discharges to the environment.

  • Great source overview on aquaponics

Helpful Terms[edit | edit source]

General terms

Fish aggregating device(FAD): A man-made object used to attract ocean going pelagic fish such as marlin, tuna and mahi-mahi (dolphin fish). Over 300 species of fish gather around FADs.

Irradiance(W*m^-2): the flux of radiant energy per unit area (normal to the direction of flow of radiant energy through a medium).

Paper direction

Quality of light: different wavelengths which are absorbed by water.

Quantity of light: different intensities.

Periodicity: cycles, may vary daily, or seasonally(Photoperiod).

Photoperiod: the period of time each day during which an organism receives illumination; day length.

Dry weight: the mass of a fish after it has been smoked.

Direction of Paper(More focused papers)[edit | edit source]

  • Light sources - influence on growth and reproduction for use in aquaculture in combination with solar cells.
Intended focus 
  • Design - open-source polymer based module
  1. pontoon structure for c-Si tilted modules - touching water (cooling conducted up backside of module)
  2. pontoon structure for c-Si flat modules to be 1-6cm below water
  3. Thin-film structure for a-Si modules to lay upon water surface
    • Structure must be naturally buoyant with cells/cables(walk-way ideal)(to increase options in tethering)
    • Structure must be movable around water surface(so not to focus shadow on any given waterbed location)(simple motor, novel connection, rotating mini-sail)
    • Surface of polymer/cell characterized to limit bio-fouling
    • Polymer analysed to understand long-term degradation in UV/water environments(beach/ocean/inland water compositions)
  • Add design concept - combine benefits of thin-film to pontoon structure - water dynamic wave motion, energy pass not absorb
  • Light source attached on bottom of pontoon to control light intensity, quality, and duration towards waterbed
    • Light measurements to be measured at varying depths below pontoon structure
    • Assessment of probable effect on local fish/typical aquaculture breeds
  • Generate calculator for all costs involved to this specific region/capability for other regions vs other methods
  • Discuss synergistic and negative effects of dual PV and aquaculture.(locations, advantages, drawbacks/how to circumvent)
    • Indicate progressive and efficient process for aquaculture development practices

Direction of Paper(General Papers)[edit | edit source]

UK solar’s first steps on the water[61][edit | edit source]

  • 3MW system
  • Great example of floatovoltaics being used in the U.K.

Aquaculture PHYSICAL FEATURES OF WATER [62][edit | edit source]

  • Good for water turbidity approximation

Prospective energy needs in Mediterranean offshore aquaculture: Renewable and sustainable energy solutions [63][edit | edit source]

Fishery and Aquaculture Statistics[64][edit | edit source]

The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2011[65][edit | edit source]

  • Hunger crisis - 2008 numbers

The thin film flexible floating PV (T3F-PV) array: The concept and development of the prototype [66][edit | edit source]

Proposing offshore photovoltaic (PV) technology to the energy mix of the Maltese islands[67][edit | edit source]

Scenarios for use of floating photovoltaic plants in Brazilian reservoirs [68][edit | edit source]

Study on performance of 80 watt floating photovoltaic panel[69][edit | edit source]

  • efficiency drop of 0.485% per1°C temperature increment above 25C
  • Figure 1 has simple and inexpensive design

Analysis of the Potential for Use of Floating Photovoltaic Systems on Mine Pit Lakes: Case Study at the Ssangyong Open-Pit Limestone Mine in Korea [70][edit | edit source]

  • as of 2016.
  • efficient reuse for abandoned mine pit lakes
  • Assesses payback year - Figure 7
  • SunEye210 for onsite shading analysis
  • System Advisor Model(SAM) via NREL for determining optimal tilt angle/array spacing
  • 4641 solar modules. 87650m^2. Tilt of 40degrees. 971.57 MWh annually. Payback period of 12.3 years. Present value of $897,000 USD. CO2 reduction of 471.21 tCO2/year.

Empirical Research on the efficiency of Floating PV systems compared with Overland PV Systems[71][edit | edit source]

A review of solar photovoltaic technologies[72][edit | edit source]


Global environmental concerns and the escalating demand for energy, coupled with steady progress in renewable energy technologies, are opening up new opportunities for utilization of renewable energy resources. Solar energy is the most abundant, inexhaustible and clean of all the renewable energy resources till date. The power from sun intercepted by the earth is about 1.8 × 1011 MW, which is many times larger than the present rate of all the energy consumption. Photovoltaic technology is one of the finest ways to harness the solar power. This paper reviews the photovoltaic technology, its power generating capability, the different existing light absorbing materials used, its environmental aspect coupled with a variety of its applications. The different existing performance and reliability evaluation models, sizing and control, grid connection and distribution have also been discussed.

  • 5 types of solar to be considered

Photovoltaic technologies [73][edit | edit source]


Photovoltaics is already a billion dollar industry. It is experiencing rapid growth as concerns over fuel supplies and carbon emissions mean that governments and individuals are increasingly prepared to ignore its current high costs. It will become truly mainstream when its costs are comparable to other energy sources. At the moment, it is around four times too expensive for competitive commercial production. Three generations of photovoltaics have been envisaged that will take solar power into the mainstream. Currently, photovoltaic production is 90% first-generation and is based on silicon wafers. These devices are reliable and durable, but half of the cost is the silicon wafer and efficiencies are limited to around 20%. A second generation of solar cells would use cheap semiconductor thin films deposited on low-cost substrates to produce devices of slightly lower efficiency. A number of thin-film device technologies account for around 5–6% of the current market. As second-generation technology reduces the cost of active material, the substrate will eventually be the cost limit and higher efficiency will be needed to maintain the cost-reduction trend. Third-generation devices will use new technologies to produce high-efficiency devices. Advances in nanotechnology, photonics, optical metamaterials, plasmonics and semiconducting polymer sciences offer the prospect of cost-competitive photovoltaics. It is reasonable to expect that cost reductions, a move to second-generation technologies and the implementation of new technologies and third-generation concepts can lead to fully cost-competitive solar energy in 10–15 years.

Volcanic carbon dioxide vents show ecosystem effects of ocean acidification [74][edit | edit source]


The atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) will almost certainly be double that of pre-industrial levels by 2100 and will be considerably higher than at any time during the past few million years. The oceans are a principal sink for anthropogenic CO2 where it is estimated to have caused a 30% increase in the concentration of H1 in ocean surface waters since the early 1900s and may lead to a drop in seawater pH of up to 0.5 units by 2100 (refs 2, 3). Our understanding of how increased ocean acidity may affect marine ecosystems is at present very limited as almost all studies have been in vitro, short-term, rapid perturbation experiments on isolated elements of the ecosystem4,5. Here we show the effects of acidification on benthic ecosystems at shallow coastal sites where volcanic CO2 vents lower the pH of the water column. Along gradients of normal pH (8.1–8.2) to lowered pH (mean 7.8–7.9, minimum 7.4–7.5), typical rocky shore communities with abundant calcareous organisms shifted to communities lacking scleractinian corals with significant reductions in sea urchin and coralline algal abundance. To our knowledge, this is the first ecosystem-scale validation of predictions that these important groups of organisms are susceptible to elevated amounts of pCO2.Sea-grass production was highest in an area at mean pH 7.6 (1,827 matm pCO2 ) where coralline algal biomass was significantly reduced and gastropod shells were dissolving due to periods of carbonate sub-saturation. The species populating the vent sites comprise a suite of organisms that are resilient to naturally high concentrations of pCO2 and indicate that ocean acidification may benefit highly invasive non-native algal species. Our results provide the first in situ insights into how shallow water marine communities might change when susceptible organisms are removed owing to ocean acidification

Meta-analysis reveals negative yet variable effects of ocean acidification on marine organisms [75][edit | edit source]


Ocean acidification is a pervasive stressor that could affect many marine organisms and cause profound ecological shifts. A variety of biological responses to ocean acidification have been measured across a range of taxa, but this information exists as case studies and has not been synthesized into meaningful comparisons amongst response variables and functional groups. We used meta-analytic techniques to explore the biological responses to ocean acidification, and found negative effects on survival, calcification, growth and reproduction. However, there was significant variation in the sensitivity of marine organisms. Calcifying organisms generally exhibited larger negative responses than non-calcifying organisms across numerous response variables, with the exception of crustaceans, which calcify but were not negatively affected. Calcification responses varied significantly amongst organisms using different mineral forms of calcium carbonate. Organisms using one of the more soluble forms of calcium carbonate (high-magnesium calcite) can be more resilient to ocean acidification than less soluble forms (calcite and aragonite). Additionally, there was variation in the sensitivities of different developmental stages, but this variation was dependent on the taxonomic group. Our analyses suggest that the biological effects of ocean acidification are generally large and negative, but the variation in sensitivity amongst organisms has important implications for ecosystem responses.

Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms [76][edit | edit source]


Today’s surface ocean is saturated with respect to calcium carbonate, but increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are reducing ocean pH and carbonate ion concentrations, and thus the level of calcium carbonate saturation. Experimental evidence suggests that if these trends continue, key marine organisms—such as corals and some plankton—will have difficulty maintaining their external calcium carbonate skeletons. Here we use 13 models of the ocean–carbon cycle to assess calcium carbonate saturation under the IS92a ‘business-as-usual’ scenario for future emissions of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. In our projections, Southern Ocean surface waters will begin to become undersaturated with respect to aragonite, a metastable form of calcium carbonate, by the year 2050. By 2100, this undersaturation could extend throughout the entire Southern Ocean and into the subarctic Pacific Ocean. When live pteropods were exposed to our predicted level of undersaturation during a two-day shipboard experiment, their aragonite shells showed notable dissolution. Our findings indicate that conditions detrimental to high-latitude ecosystems could develop within decades, not centuries as suggested previously.

Open-source mobile water quality testing platform [77][edit | edit source]


The developing world remains plagued by lack of access to safe drinking water. Although, many low-cost methods have been developed to treat contaminated water, low-cost methods for water-quality testing are necessary to determine if these appropriate technologies are needed, effective, and reliable. This paper provides a methodology for the design, development, and technical validation of a low-cost open-source water testing platform. A case study is presented where the platform is developed to provide both the colorimetry for BOD/COD and nephalometry to measure turbidity using method ISO 7027. This approach resulted in equipment that is as accurate, but costs between 7.5 and 15 times less than current commercially-available tools. It is concluded that open-source hardware development is a promising solution for the equipment necessary to perform water quality measurements in both developed and developing regions

The Water-Energy-Food Nexus[78][edit | edit source]


Water, energy and food are essential for human well-being, poverty reduction and sustainable development. Global projections indicate that demand for freshwater, energy and food will increase significantly over the next decades under the pressure of population growth and mobility, economic development, international trade, urbanisation, diversifying diets, cultural and technological changes, and climate change (Hoff 2011). Agriculture accounts for 70 percent of total global freshwater withdrawals, making it the largest user of water. Water is used for agricultural production, forestry and fishery, along the entire agri-food supply chain, and it is used to produce or transport energy in different forms (FAO 2011a). At the same time, the food production and supply chain consumes about 30 percent of total energy consumed globally (FAO 2011b). Energy is required to produce, transport and distribute food as well as to extract, pump, lift, collect, transport and treat water. Cities, industry and other users, too, claim increasingly more water, energy and land resources, and at the same time, face problems of environmental degradation and in some cases, resources scarcity.

National Conference 2016-food-energy-water-nexus[79][edit | edit source]


Efforts to meet the needs of 7.2 billion people for food, water, and energy will fail unless these three sectors are fully understood as a system of interdependent components; and solutions are developed based on multi-sector engagement.

The complexity of this challenge begins with the assertions that: water supply is influence by demands from energy and food sectors; food production requires both water and energy; and, energy requires water for a large fraction of its operations. Climate change, in particular drought, only exacerbates the system balance.

Fortunately, rapid advances in science and innovations in technology and practices are creating capabilities to more effectively understand the connections between food, energy and water systems in new ways. These advances can change the day-to-day practices of farmers, engineers, resource managers, and policy-makers to meet human needs in a far more sustainable manner.

Combining solar photovoltaic panels and food crops for optimising land use: Towards new agrivoltaic schemes [80][edit | edit source]


The need for new sources of renewable energies and the rising price of fossil fuels have induced the hope that agricultural crops may be a source of renewable energy for the future. We question in this paper the best strategies to convert solar radiation into both energy and food. The intrinsic efficiency of the photosynthetic process is quite low (around 3%) while commercially available monocristalline solar photovoltaic (PV) panels have an average yield of 15%. Therefore huge arrays of solar panels are now envisaged. Solar plants using PV panels will therefore compete with agriculture for land. In this paper, we suggest that a combination of solar panels and food crops on the same land unit may maximise the land use. We suggest to call this an agrivoltaic system. We used Land Equivalent Ratios to compare conventional options (separation of agriculture and energy harvesting) and two agrivoltaic systems with different densities of PV panels. We modelled the light transmission at the crop level by an array of solar panels and used a crop model to predict the productivity of the partially shaded crops. These preliminary results indicate that agrivoltaic systems may be very efficient: a 35e73% increase of global land productivity was predicted for the two densities of PV panels. Facilitation mechanisms similar to those evidenced in agroforestry systems may explain the advantage of such mixed systems. New solar plants may therefore combine electricity production with food production, especially in countries where cropping land is scarce. There is a need to validate the hypotheses included in our models and provide a proof of the concept by monitoring prototypes of agrivoltaic systems.

Productivity and radiation use efficiency of lettuces grown in the partial shade of photovoltaic panels [81][edit | edit source]


Combining photovoltaic panels (PVPs) and crops on the same land unit were recently proposed as an alternative to the conversion of cropland into photovoltaic plants. This could alleviate the increasing competition for land between food and energy production. In such agrivoltaic systems, an upper layer of PVPs partially shades crops at ground level. The aim of this work was to (i) assess the effect on crop yield of two PVPs densities, resulting in two shade levels equal to 50% and 70% of the incoming radiation and (ii) identify morphological and physiological determinants of the plant response to shade. Experiments were conducted on four varieties of lettuces (two crisphead lettuces and two cutting lettuces), during two seasons. In all cases, the relative lettuce yield at harvest was equal or higher than the available relative radiation. Lettuce yield was maintained through an improved Radiation Interception Efficiency (RIE) in the shade, while Radiation Conversion Efficiency (RCE) did not change significantly. Enhanced RIE was explained by (i) an increase in the total leaf area per plant, despite a decrease in the number of leaves and (ii) a different distribution of leaf area among the pool of leaves, the maximal size of leaves increasing in the shade. Our result provides a framework for the selection of adapted varieties according to their morphological traits and physiological responses to PVP shade, in order to optimize agrivoltaic systems.

NREL: Dynamic Maps, GIS Data, and Analysis Tools - Solar Maps[82][edit | edit source]


Solar maps provide monthly average daily total solar resource information on grid cells. The insolation values represent the resource available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal to equal to the latitude of the collector location. This is typical practice for PV system installation, although other orientations are also used.

US Energy Overvew [83][edit | edit source]

  • US Energy Data

Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies: a review of existing literature[84][edit | edit source]


This report provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. The water factors presented may be useful in modeling and policy analyses where reliable power plant level data are not available. Major findings of the report include: water withdrawal and consumption factors vary greatly across and within fuel technologies, and water factors show greater agreement when organized according to cooling technologies as opposed to fuel technologies; a transition to a less carbon-intensive electricity sector could result in either an increase or a decrease in water use, depending on the choice of technologies and cooling systems employed; concentrating solar power technologies and coal facilities with carbon capture and sequestration capabilities have the highest water consumption values when using a recirculating cooling system; and non-thermal renewables, such as photovoltaics and wind, have the lowest water consumption factors. Improved power plant data and further studies into the water requirements of energy technologies in different climatic regions would facilitate greater resolution in analyses of water impacts of future energy and economic scenarios. This report provides the foundation for conducting water use impact assessments of the power sector while also identifying gaps in data that could guide future research.

  • Solid values to compare water usage with coal vs solar

Polices for Controlling Groundwater Pollution from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations[85][edit | edit source]

Abstract Thesis

Animal waste from animal feeding operations (AFOs) is a significant contributor to nitrate contamination of groundwater. Some animal waste also contains heavy metals and salts that may build up in cropland and underlying aquifers. This thesis focuses on pollution reduction from the largest AFOs, in particular, Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs), which present the greatest potential risk among all AFOs to environmental quality and public health. To find cost effective policies for controlling pollution at the field level and at the farm level, a dynamic environmental-economic modeling framework for representative CAFOs is developed.

  • Great source for info and policy on CAFOs

Aquavoltaics: Synergies for dual use of water area for solar photovoltaic electricity generation and aquaculture[1][edit | edit source]


This paper reviews the fields of floatovoltaic(FV) technology (water deployed solar photovoltaic systems) and aquaculture (farming of aquatic organisms) to investigate the potential of hybrid floatovoltaic-aquaculture synergistic applications for improving food-energy-water nexus sustainibility. If a U.S. national average value of solar flux is used then current aquaculture surface areas in use, if incorporated with appropriate solar technology could account for 10.3% of total U.S. energy consumption as of 2016.

  • Potential synergies between FVs and aquaculture include, increase in water conservation, controlled aquatic environment and ecosystem restoration
  1. Controlling parameters such as nutrients, photoperiod (using FPV powered LEDs)
  2. Combining multiple aquatic species, more robust aquavoltaic system
  • Detrimental elements between FVs and aquaculture - reduced available light for aquatic organisms and biofouling
  • Unexplored micro-encapsulated phase change material(MEPCM)
  • Blue LED most versatile for improving plant growth, affecting fish behavior and controlling plant diseases
  • Comparison of different installations (thin-film FV, surface mounted and submerged FV)
  • Good review article for possible ways of synergies between floatovoltaics and aquaculture
  • Possible ideas for article
  1. impact of different LEDs on aquaculture
  2. MEPCM application in floatovoltaics

Direction of Paper(Light effects based)[edit | edit source]


  • Useful for reference
  • Not Used

Photoperiod and light intensity effects on growth and utilization of nutrients by the aquaculture feed microalga, Tetraselmis chui[87][edit | edit source]

Some effects of light intensity and photoperiod on the sea bass larvae (Dicentrarchus labrax (L.)) reared at the Centre Oceanologique de Bretagne[88][edit | edit source]

  • Not Used

Effects of photoperiod on growth, survival and feeding periodicity of larval and juvenile barramundi Lates calcarifer (Bloch)[89][edit | edit source]

  • Not Used

Effects of continuous additional light on growth and sexual maturity in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, reared in sea cages[90][edit | edit source]

The effects of density, light and shelter on the growth and survival of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell), 1822 fingerlings[91][edit | edit source]

  • Not Used

Fatty acid and elemental composition of the marine diatom Chaetoceros gracilis Schütt. Effects of silicate deprivation, temperature and light intensity[92][edit | edit source]

  • Not Used

Continuous light increases growth rate of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) postsmolts in sea cages[93][edit | edit source]

  • Not Used

Effects of photoperiod and light intensity on growth and activity of juvenile haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus)[94][edit | edit source]

Cellular mechanisms of post-embryonic muscle growth in aquaculture species[95][edit | edit source]

  • Not Used

Comparative effects of UVA and UVB irradiation on the immune system of fish[96][edit | edit source]

  • Not Used

Effects of continuous light and short-day photoperiod on smolting, seawater survival and growth in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)[97][edit | edit source]

  • Not Used

Light-emitting diodes' light qualities and their corresponding scientific applications[98][edit | edit source]

Applications of light-emitting diodes in researches conducted in aquatic environment[99][edit | edit source]



Suspended sediment causes a range of environmental damage, including benthic smothering, irritation of fish gills, and transport of absorbed contaminants. Much of the impact, while sediment remains suspended, is related to its light attenuation, which reduces visual range in water and light availability for photosynthesis. Thus measurement of the optical attributes of suspended matter in many instances is more relevant than measurement of its mass concentration. Nephelometric turbidity, an index of light scattering by suspended particles, has been widely used as a simple,cheap, instrumental surrogate for suspended sediment, that also relates more directly than mass concentration to optical effects of suspended matter. However, turbidity is only a relative measure of scattering (versus arbitrary standards) that has no intrinsic environmental relevance until calibrated to a 'proper' scientific quantity. Visual clarity (measured as Secchi or black disc visibility) is a preferred optical quantity with immediate environmental relevance to aesthetics, contact recreation, and fish habitat. Contrary to common perception, visual clarity measurement is not particularly subjective and is more precise than turbidity measurement. Black disc visibility is inter-convertible with beam attenuation, a fundamental optical quantity that can be monitored continuously by beam transmissometry. Visual clarity or beam attenuation should supplant nephelometric turbidity in many water quality applications, including environmental standards.

Direction of Paper(material/solar based)[edit | edit source]

Biofouling and stability of synthetic polymers in sea water[101][edit | edit source]

Cold spray metal embedment: an innovative antifouling technology[102][edit | edit source]

  • Not Used

Durability of HDPE geomembranes[103][edit | edit source]

  • Not Used

Mechanical, thermal and microstructure evaluation of HDPE after weathering in Rio de Janeiro City[104][edit | edit source]

  • Not Used

Mechanical property and molecular weight distribution changes with photo- and chemical-degradation on LDPE films[105][edit | edit source]

  • Not Used

Comparison of UV-degradation depth-profiles in polyethylene, polypropylene and an ethyleneepropylene copolymer[106][edit | edit source]

  • Not Used

Thermal and electrical performance of a water-surface floating PV integrated with a water-saturated MEPCM layer[107][edit | edit source]

Thermal and electrical performances of a water-surface floating PV integrated with double water-saturated MEPCM layers [108][edit | edit source]

Design and installation of floating type photovoltaic energy generation system using FRP members[109][edit | edit source]

  • Not Used

Losses produced by soiling in the incoming radiation to photovoltaic modules [110][edit | edit source]


The accumulation of dust on the surface of a photovoltaic module decreases the radiation reaching the solar cell and produces losses in the generated power. Dust not only reduces the incoming radiation on the solar cell but also changes the dependence on the angle of incidence of such radiation. This work presents the results of a study carried out at the University of Malaga to quantify radiation losses caused by soiling on the surface of photovoltaic modules. Our results show that the mean of the daily irradiation losses in a year caused by dust deposited on the surface of a photovoltaic module is around 4%. After long periods without rain, daily irradiation losses can be higher than 20%. In addition, the irradiance losses are not constant throughout the day, and they are strongly dependent on the angle of incidence and the ratio between diffuse and direct radiations. The irradiance losses as a function of solar time are symmetric with respect to noon, where they reach the minimum value. We also propose a simple theoretical model that describes the qualitative behaviour of the irradiance losses during the day. This model takes into account the percentage of dirty surface and the diffuse/direct irradiance ratio. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Analysis of dust losses in photovoltaic modules[111][edit | edit source]


The accumulation of dust on the surface of a photovoltaic module decreases the radiation reaching the solar cell and produces losses in the generated power. Dust not only reduces the radiation on the solar cell, but also changes the dependence on the angle of incidence of such radiation. This work presents the results of a study carried out at the University of Malaga to quantify losses caused by the accumulation of dust on the surface of photovoltaic modules. Our results show that the mean of the daily energy loss along a year caused by dust deposited on the surface of the PV module is around 4.4%. In long periods without rain, daily energy losses can be higher than 20%. In addition, the irradiance losses are not constant throughout the day and are strongly dependent on the sunlight incident angle and the ratio between diffuse and direct radiations. When studied as a function of solar time, the irradiance losses are symmetric with respect noon, where they reach the minimum value. We also propose a simple theoretical model that, taking into account the percentage of dirty surface and the diffuse/direct radiation ratio, accounts for the qualitative behavior of the irradiance losses during the day.

Impact of dust on solar photovoltaic (PV) performance: Research status, challenges and recommendations [112][edit | edit source]


The peaking of most oil reserves and impending climate change are critically driving the adoption of solar photovoltaic's (PV) as a sustainable renewable and eco-friendly alternative. Ongoing material research has yet to find a breakthrough in significantly raising the conversion efficiency of commercial PV modules. The installation of PV systems for optimum yield is primarily dictated by its geographic location (latitude and available solar insolation) and installation design (tilt, orientation and altitude) to maximize solar exposure. However, once these parameters have been addressed appropriately, there are other depending factors that arise in determining the system performance (efficiency and output). Dust is the lesser acknowledged factor that significantly influences the performance of the PV installations.

Thermal stability of phase change materials used in latent heat energy storage systems: A review [113][edit | edit source]


Successful utilization of the latent heat energy storage system depends considerably on the thermal reliability and stability of the phase change materials (PCMs) used. Thermal stability of phase change material can be established by measuring the thermo-physical properties of the PCM after a number of repeated thermal cycles. A comprehensive knowledge of thermal stability of the PCMs as functions of number of repeated thermal cycles is essential to ensure the long-term performance and economic feasibility of the latent heat storage systems. In this paper, a detailed review is reported for thermal stability of different groups of PCMs. The PCMs are categorized as organic (paraffins and non-paraffins), inorganic (salt hydrates and metallics) and eutectics (organic eutectics and inorganic eutectics). Further, a broad database of different PCMs is developed for which thermal cycling tests were carried out by different researchers and reported in the literature. Some conclusions are derived after critical evaluation of thermal stability of different groups of PCMs. This review will assist to identify the most reliable PCM to be used for a particular application of latent heat energy storage system.

Performance of a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal solar collector [114][edit | edit source]


The performance of a parabolic trough photovoltaic/thermal collector with a geometric concentration ratio of 37× is described. Measured results under typical operating conditions show thermal efficiency around 58% and electrical efficiency around 11%, therefore a combined efficiency of 69%. The impact of non-uniform illumination on the solar cells is investigated using purpose built equipment that moves a calibrated solar cell along the line of the receiver and measures short circuit current. The measured illumination flux profile along the length shows significant variation, despite the mirror shape error being less than 1 mm for most of the mirror area. The impact of the illumination non-uniformities due to the shape error, receiver support post shading and gaps between the mirrors is shown to have a significant effect on the overall electrical performance. The flux profile transverse to the receiver length is also investigated. Peak flux intensities are shown to be around 100 suns. The impact on efficiency due to open circuit voltage reduction is discussed.

  • useful for showing the effects of concentrators on solar cells
  • primarily a temperature gradation forms(up to 14C higher in center) which leads to decreased performance.

EVA browning and the time-dependence of I−V curve parameters on PV modules with and without mirror-enhancement in a desert environment [115][edit | edit source]


Two independent experiments are described that were performed on samples of EVA-laminated photovoltaic modules which form part of a grid-connected PV system in the Negev desert. Both types of experiment provide quantitative assessments of the rate at which module output power decreases when mirror-enhancement is employed under such conditions. One of the experiments, performed on 60 modules which have been exposed to mirror-enhanced solar radiation for the past 8.4 years, compared the measured I−V curve parameters of these modules with corresponding measurements that had been made 3.4 years earlier. The second experiment consisted of monthly I−V curve measurements, spread over the last 3.4 years, on three specific mirror-enhanced modules and on another three from which the mirrors had been removed. These experiments indicated that the mirror-enhanced modules are continuing to degrade at a comparable rate to an indirect estimate that had previously been made, i.e. approximately 1% per year. On the other hand, the modules from which mirrors were removed 3.4 years ago, although visually as “brown” as the others are degrading at an, as yet, unmeasurably small rate.

  • shows the increase in degradation when mirrors are used. good long term study.
  • moderately useful.

Floating tracking cooling concentrating (FTCC) systems [116][edit | edit source]

The photovoltaic technology is limited by costs, by the availability of spaces for photovoltaic fields and by the storage problems. The solution suggested in this work is the use of artificial basins or small lakes for installing PV floating plants with the following characteristics: a tracking system around the vertical axis, a panels cooling system achieved with water sprinklers and a set of reflectors that, by concentrating the radiation, increase the energy harvesting. We call these plants FTCC, the acronym of Floating, Tracking, Cooling, Concentrating. Additional benefits are possible using hydroelectric basins in particular when they are equipped, as often happens, with pumping facilities. In these structures, the existing pumping devices allow to store the energy produced by the FTCC avoiding energy dispersion problems and the electric grid stress. Three FTCC system solutions are presented and discussed theoretically and experimental results are also discussed. They are characterized by different levels of geometrical concentration, Cg: <;1.5, ≈2 and ≈20. In particular the first two systems use flat reflectors, whereas the third one uses parabolic mirrors. An important issue that arises when these systems are designed and operated is the uniformity of irradiance on the PV surface. This can be reached by means of an effective sensing and tracking of the system taking into account the relative position of sun and reflectors, as well as the acceptance angle of the concentrators. A first plant of 200 kWp based on these concepts is completed and grid connected in Suvereto - Livorno (Li Italy); another 30 kWp pilot plant has been built nearby Pisa (Italy).

  • cooling via water dramatically increases the lifetime of the module due to the removal of thermal stresses.
  • These systems when put on water become economically competitive.
  • largely synergistic with hydroelectric damns and their water basins.

A new method to determine the effects of hydrodynamic surface coatings on the snow shedding effectiveness of solar photovoltaic modules[117][edit | edit source]


As solar photovoltaic (PV) installations have become more common in regions that experience substantial snowfall, losses in energy production due to snow coverage have grown in concern. Several post-production surface coatings have been proposed to enhance snow shedding to reduce these snow related losses. In this paper, a novel methodology is developed to determine the effectiveness of a snow clearing from a PV module and is used to evaluate the snow shedding effectiveness of any module surface treatment. Measured PV output is compared to modeled PV output in a generalizable method that allows for the determination of the length of time a panel is covered with snowfall using electrical performance data. This model accounts for module degradation during long-term outdoor testing and other external factors effecting performance, such as persistent soiling losses. This methodology was tested on modules that had one of four hydrodyanmic surface coatings, as well as one module with a prismatic glass front in order to determine the snow clearing effectiveness of these surfaces as compared to conventional plain glass. The methodology was validated, but the surface coatings tested did not have an appreciable positive effect on snow clearance, and in some cases tended to impede the shedding of snow. The physical mechanisms responsible for the results are discussed.

  • Potentially useful coatings.
  • Would need to investigate the effect on the surround water(absorption, bioaborption)

Multi-axes sun-tracking system with PLC control for photovoltaic panels in Turkey[118][edit | edit source]


In the present study, the azimuth and solar altitude angles of the sun were calculated for a period of 1 year at 37.6° latitude in the Northern hemisphere, where Turkey is located, and according to these angles, an electromechanical system which tracks the sun on both axes and which is controlled via a programmable logic control (PLC) and an analog module was designed and implemented.

After the mechanical control unit of the designed system was started, the performance measurements of the solar panel were carried out first when the solar panel was in a fixed position and then the solar panel was controlled while tracking the sun on azimuth and solar altitude angles and the necessary measurements were performed. It was observed that the control system operated without a problem. Besides, when the data obtained from the measurements were compared, it was seen that 42.6% more energy was obtained in the two-axes sun-tracking system when compared to the fixed system.

  • Useful for tracking to flat angle on land comparison

Two axes sun tracking system with PLC control [119][edit | edit source]


In this paper, an electromechanical, two axes sun tracking system is designed and constructed. The programming method of control with an open loop system is employed where the programmable logic controller is used to control the motion of the sun tracking surface.

An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of using two axes tracking on the solar energy collected. The collected energy was measured and compared with that on a fixed surface tilted at 32° towards the south. The results indicate that the measured collected solar energy on the moving surface was significantly larger than that on a fixed surface. The two axes tracking surface showed a better performance with an increase in the collected energy of up to 41.34% compared with the fixed surface.

  • Useful for tracking to flat angle on land comparison

Optical performance of vertical single-axis tracked solar panels [120][edit | edit source]


To investigate the optical performance of the vertical single-axis (v-axis, in short) tracked solar panels as compared with fixed and full 2-axis tracked solar panels, a mathematical procedure to estimate the annual collectible radiation on fixed and tracked panels is suggested based on the monthly horizontal radiation. Calculation results showed that the yearly optimal tilt-angle of a v-axis tracked solar panel for maximizing the annual energy collection was almost linearly proportional to the site latitude, and the corresponding maximum annual collectible radiation on such tracked panel was about 96% of solar radiation annually collected by a dual-axis tracked panel. Compared with a traditional fixed south-facing solar panel inclined at the optimal tilt-angle, the annual collectible radiation due to the use of the v-axis sun-tracking was increased by 28% in the areas with abundant solar resources and increased by16% in the areas with poor solar resources. An empirical correlation for a quick estimation of yearly optimal tilt-angles of v-axis tracked solar panels was also proposed based on climatic data of 31 sites in China.

  • Comparison for single axis tracking land based solar modules

Direction of Paper(Aquaculture based)[edit | edit source]

Integrated aquaculture: rationale, evolution and state of the art emphasizing seaweed biofiltration in modern mariculture [121][edit | edit source]

Aquaponic Systems: Nutrient recycling from fish wastewater by vegetable production[122][edit | edit source]


This chapter describes the possibility to combine wastewater treatment in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) with the production of crop plants biomass. In an aquaponic RAS established in Waedenswil, Zurich, the potential of three crop plants was assessed to recycle nutrients from fish wastewater. A special design of trickling filters was used to provide nitrification of fish wastewater: Light-expanded clay aggregate (LECA) was filled in a layer of 30 cm in vegetable boxes, providing both surface for biofilm growth and cultivation area for crop plants. Aubergine, tomato and cucumber cultures were established in the LECA filter and nutrient removal rates calculated during 42–105 days. The highest nutrient removal rates by fruit harvest were achieved during tomato culture: over a period of >3 months, fruit production removed 0.52, 0.11 and 0.8 g m2 d1 for N, P and K in hydroponic and 0.43, 0.07 and 0.4 g m2 d1 for N, P and K in aquaponic. In aquaponic, 69% of nitrogen removal by the overall system could thus be converted into edible fruits. Plant yield in aquaponic was similar to conventional hydroponic production systems. The experiments showed that nutrient recycling is not a luxury reserved for rural areas with litlle space limitation; instead, the additionally occupied surface generates income by producing marketable goods. By converting nutrients into biomass, treating wastewater could become a profitable business.

  • Integrated farming systems

Opportunities and challenges for the development of an integrated seaweed-based aquaculture activity in Chile: determining the physiological capabilities of Macrocystis and Gracilaria as biofilters[123][edit | edit source]


Seaweed production is a reality in Chile. More than ten species are commercially used to produce phycocolloids, fertilizers, plant growth control products, human food or animal fodder and feed additives. These multiple uses of algae offer a number of possibilities for coupling this activity tosalmon, abalone and filter-feeder farming. In this context, different experiments carried out in Chile have demonstrated that Gracilaria chilensis and Macrocystis pyrifera have great potential in the development of an integrated aquaculture strategy. The present Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) approach study showed that Gracilaria can be cultured best at 1 m depth whereas Macrocystis has an especially good growth response at 3 m depth. Both species use available nitrogen efficiently. On the other hand, high intensities of solar radiation (UV and PAR) can be critical at low depths of cultivation, and our results indicate that both species show photosynthetic susceptibility mainly at noon during the summer. The demand of Macrocystis for abalone feeding is increasing, thus improving the opportunity for developing an integrated nutrient waste recycling activity in Chile. Although Gracilaria shows a higher nitrogen uptake capacity than Macrocystis, its market value does not yet allow a massive commercial scaling.

  • Integrated aquacultures

The retinular responses of common squid Todarodes pacificus for energy efficient fishing lamp using LED[124][edit | edit source]


Blue light has outstanding transmission characteristics in the sea, and is known to cause the most sensitive visual response in common squid Todarodes pacificus. Application of a light emitting diode (LED) that can efficiently emit monochromatic light is expected to bring enormous energy savings. LED can produce cost-effective low-wattage irradiance at the specific wavelength. This study investigated the retinular responses of common squid T. pacificus to colored LED lights and light adaptation conditions based on the Perkinje effect, which is the tendency for the luminance sensitivity of the human eye to shift depending on the bright and dark adaptation states. The changes of the retinular response to blue, red and white LED were investigated in the bright and dark adaptation conditions in the water tank experiment. The degree of light adaptation was similar between the bright adaptation state and dark adaptation state to blue light, which suggests that squid retina is highly sensitive to blue light as it has been reported to date. On the other hand, the degree of light adaptation to red LED light showed a tendency to increase, albeit slightly, over time. However, the degree of light adaptation to white light with wide wavelength band showed similar tendencies as to the case of red light in the dark adaptation condition, and was actually superior to the case of blue light in the bright adaptation condition. Also, the degree of light adaptation of the retina cells collected from the sea experiment was found to be between the range of 20 and 40%. From these results, blue light may be regarded as an excellent luring source as the retina of squid is highly sensitive to it, but it cannot be determined as the most ideal LED color for the purpose of catching fish.

The effect of light intensity and spectrum on the incidence of first feeding by larval haddock [125][edit | edit source]


Under full-spectrum white light, feeding success of haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus first feeding larvae, as measured both by proportion of larvae feeding and mean prey consumed, peaked at 1·7–18 �mol s�1 m�2. Feeding was significantly reduced at lower and higher intensities. A similar result was observed for larvae feeding under blue (470 nm) light, with significantly greater feeding success at intermediate light intensity (1·8 �mol s�1 m�2 ). When different light qualities were compared, larvae had significantly greater feeding success when exposed to blue (470 nm) light than either full-spectrum white or green (530 nm) light. Haddock larvae were capable of prey capture under all light treatments tested, indicating a necessary degree of adaptive flexibility in feeding response. The results are consistent with predisposition of haddock larvae to optimal feeding in a visual environment comparable with open ocean nursery grounds. Information on the impact of light on haddock first feeding can be incorporated into models of larval growth, survival, year-class strength and recruitment, and assist in developing husbandry protocols to maximize larval survival in aquaculture.

Effects of light on Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae performances: focus on spectrum [126][edit | edit source]


Most farmed marine fish species are carnivorous visual feeders which mainly rely on visual photoreceptors to detect their prey. As such the light environment can directly affect feeding behaviour and consequently larval growth and survival. Light is a complex environmental factor that depends on the lighting systems used (intensity and spectrum), photoperiod, water absorbance properties as well as the specific light sensitivities of the species being reared. While it is well documented that light intensity (Downing and Litvak 1999; Puvanendran & Brown, 2002; Brown et al., 2003) and to a lesser degree photoperiod (Downing and Litvak, 2000) can play a significant role in improving gadoid larvae growth and survival, little is known on the importance of light spectral properties with very few studies on marine larvae reported to date (Villamizar et al., 2009). This communication will present the findings from a number of studies during which the impact of light intensity and spectrum on cod larvae growth and survival to weaning were investigated. The optimised rearing of Atlantic cod is of great commercial interest as juvenile supply is one of the key production bottlenecks that limits this industry.

Effects of irradiance and light spectrum on growth of the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis — Applicability of LEP and LED lighting to coral aquaculture[127][edit | edit source]


Due to global degradation of coral reefs and high demand for scleractinian corals, aquaculture of these marine organisms is gaining importance. To make coral aquaculture economically viable, optimisation of culture protocols is vital. We determined the effects of irradiance and light spectrum on the growth of a model scleractinian coral species, Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus 1767). Single polyps (n=10) were cultured under six different treatments; LED (light emitting diode) at a PPFD of 40–60, 125–150 and 275–325 μmol m−2 s−1; and LEP (light emitting plasma) at a PPFD of 40–60, 125–150 and 275–325 μmol m−2 s−1. Specific growth and survival rates were monitored over a 69-day interval. Mean specific growth rates were 0.031±0.006 day−1 for the LED 40–60 treatment, 0.030±0.007 day−1 for LED 125–150, 0.022±0.009 day−1 for LED 275–325, 0.024±0.011 day−1 for LEP 40–60, 0.040±0.008 day−1 for LEP 125–150, and 0.031±0.006 day−1 for LEP 275–325. Coral survival rate at the end of the growth interval was 95%. A significant main effect of irradiance on coral specific growth rate was found (factorial ANOVA, P= 0.018), whereas spectrum did not show a significant main effect (factorial ANOVA, P=0.085). A significant interactive effect between irradiance and spectrum was found (factorial ANOVA, P=0.013), as LEP lighting resulted in higher coral growth rates at the two higher irradiance levels applied. The effect of irradiance and its interaction with spectrum were likely modulated by water flow rates. Our results show that balanced as well as light sources skewed towards the blue part of the spectrum result in high coral growth. Specifically, LEP and LED have shown to be suitable lighting technologies for coral aquaculture, where LEP yields higher G. fascicularis growth rates at higher irradiance levels.

National Aquaculture Sector Overview [128][edit | edit source]


The aquaculture industry in the United States of America has become well established over the last 35 years but faces significant challenges to maintain continued growth. Total aquaculture production of 496 907 tonnes in 2008 generated USD 924 million. The mainstay of the industry is the production of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) which occurs largely in earthen ponds in the southeastern States of Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Alabama. Catfish represent 81 percent of the 287 132 tonnes of finfish produced in 2008 and 65 percent of the finfish value of USD 601 million. Catfish production increased steadily from the early 1980s reaching 300 000 tonnes in 2003, but has since declined by about 22 percent as a result of high feed costs and intense competition from imported, frozen fillet products from Asia. The culture of rainbow trout occurs throughout the country but occurs primarily in raceways in the northwestern State of Idaho. Production is relatively stable averaging about 24 000 tonnes in the decade from 1998 to 2008. Atlantic salmon is produced in ocean net pens off the northeastern coast with annual production fluctuating around 15 000 tonnes over the last decade. While, great potential exists to expand net pen culture of marine finfish, there is considerable opposition and until a supportive policy and regulatory regime are in place significant expansion of this industry sector is unlikely.

Shellfish are cultured in every coastal state but three primary production centres are located along coasts of the northeastern region, the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Northwest, primarily in Washington State. Shellfish production increased significantly from 1998 to 2008 representing 35 percent of the total industry value in 2008 generating USD 323 million with the average Annual Percentage Rate (APR) of six primary cultured species reaching 12.8 percent.

Implications of widespread algal biofuels production on macronutrient fertilizer supplies: Nutrient demand and evaluation of potential alternate nutrient sources[129][edit | edit source]


Biofuels from microalgae are currently the subject of many research projects to determine their feasibility as a replacement for fossil fuels. In order to be a successful candidate, there must be enough fertilizers available to support large scale production. Commercial fertilizers are available for biofuel production from the world fertilizer surplus, but due to nitrogen and phosphorus future production limitations, biofuels would ideally not use any of these resources to be a long term sustainable fuel. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium requirements were determined for two algal species, Chlorella and Nannochloropsis, to produce 19 billion l per year (BLPY). At this scale, both algal species would use 32–49%, 32–49% and less than 1% of the world surplus values of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively. Nutrient recycling options and alternative sources of nutrients were evaluated to determine their potential contribution of lowering the synthetic fertilizer requirement. Results show that all of the recycling scenarios reduce the nutrient requirements, but catalytic hydrothermal gasification has the largest reduction of 95% of the nitrogen and 90% of the phosphorus. Contributions from all alternative sources can also provide only 5% or less of the required nitrogen when produced in the gulf region. For phosphorus in the same region, poultry concentrated animal feeding operations can provide up to 28% of the requirement of Chlorella. To find the least amount of nitrogen that may be used, catalytic hydrothermal gasification was combined with all of the alternative nutrients available in the gulf region. The maximum amount of biofuels that could be produced in this location without using any synthetic fertilizers is 50 ± 20 BLPY from Chlorella and 45 ± 19 BLPY from Nannochloropsis. This study shows that the nutrient requirement for biofuel production from microalgae will not be a limitation if recycling methods within the process chain and alternative sources of nutrients are utilized.

  • Used for area measurements for in paper example.

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Contributors[edit | edit source]

Adam Pringle