For background information on

For background information on Photovoltaics.

Similar to what we intend

Snapshot so far:

  • Huge for sustainability - local and global effects
  • PVs are good for energy generation
  • PVs over water allow for more flexible use, as well as providing space in land precious locations.
  • Aquaculture can result in a net positive impact on the environment/ecosystems.
  • Aquaculture - fastest growing food source.
  • Combining provides both food and electricity anywhere there is at least a pond.

Companies in the buisiness

IP to consider

Goals[edit | edit source]

  1. Understand water-based Photovoltaics
  2. Understand aquaculture needs and effects PVs could have
  3. Create an aquaculture calculator
  4. Design 3D printable HDPE OS floating proof of concept
  5. Summarize findings in paper

Helpful Info[edit | edit source]

  • Short-circuit current (Isc)
  • Maximum power current (Imp)
  • Open-circuit voltage (Voc)
  • Maximum power voltage (Vmp)
  • Maximum power Pmp = Imp*Vmp,
  • Global panel efficiency (η).

Initial Concepts/Thoughts in Progress[edit | edit source]

See Direction of Paper section below for more finalized ideas

Sketches pending

  • Floatovoltaics can be built: aqueducts, ponds, reservoirs, lakes, dam-created lakes - coastal areas, aquaculture farms
  • Typically fish grow better when longer photoperiods are experienced. Although quality and intensity of light would need to be adjusted per species a constant light could be used to promote fish growth.
  • This light could be generated on the underside of a floating PV module. In this set up, both the PV would be benefited(through increased cooling) and fish through longer day-length(artificially done).
  • A floating PV design may(in some designs) be anchored for structural safety, this may also provide a building block for a developing aquaculture ecosystem(in coastal areas - coral reefs) - mimic fish nursery
  • Literature suggests a full ecosystem is beneficial for reducing pollution and potentially using waste products as other inputs for various animals(plants algae). This would also increase the stability of the ecosystem and lead to higher quality fish growth.
  • The main loads acting on a PV and module system are dead loads, PV panels, maintenance live loads, wind pressure and buoyancy forces. Thus a system must be built to withstand. Unless the system is of flexible solar design with no stiff structure.
  • Rotating a field around a body of water would mitigate affects. Pumps could be used to increase O2 mixing to increase biomass.
  • Need greater understanding of fishes - pelegic, demersal, reef, and others.

Online searches[edit | edit source]

PV focus

  • aquaculture photovoltaic
  • Floatovoltaics
  • Development of Floating Photovoltaic System

Aquaculture focus

  • Effect of Darkness on growing fish
  • Marine renewable energy
  • Biofouling on submerged structures

Feasibility of design[edit | edit source]

  • calculator to be added
  • Structure and base materials to be decided(depends on printability of polymers for the intended function)
  • Terrestrial system less $ than Floatovolatic system
    • increase in power output from cooling(water)
    • value of water saved from evaporation/cleaning
    • unknown effect on the ecosystem underneath.(should be able to be tweaked to be +)

Literature Review - PVs on water (Initial)[edit | edit source]

The Fish Site[edit | edit source]

  • National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service
  • Article(secondary source) indicates a aquaculture system currently using PVs.
  • Provides list of needed solar equipment for a given aquaculture system(Tank, closed,open, raceway, pond)
  • Good article to read for a general overview - recommended

A review of floating photovoltaic installations: 2007–2013"[1][edit | edit source]


The paper gives a review of the various projects that have been realised in throughout the years. These have all been in enclosed water bodies such as reservoirs, ponds and small lakes. The main motivation for the floating photovoltaic (PV) panels was the land premium, especially for agricultural sites were the land was more valuable for growth of the crops (in these cases, grapes because the sites were wineries). The PV panels of the existing projects are mounted on a rigid pontoon structure and vary between horizontal and tilted installations. Future concepts proposed for marine and large lacusterine sites are envisaged to incorporate laminated thin film PV, which would allow the structure to be flexible and able to yield with the oncoming waves, and submergible arrays, which would be submerged in harsh weather conditions. Interest and research has been developing in this niche field throughout the years and has currently reached the megawatt scale with even bigger plans for the future.

  • Review is helpful for various floating photovoltaic installations
  • States benefits of dual use such as reduction in water evaporation and cooling of PV - up to a 20% increase in electricity output(need to confirm)
  • To date most systems have been constructed on ponds, reservoirs or smaller lakes.
  • Detailed list with pictures of prominent projects done globally 2007-13
  • Main objective so far: use water for energy generation where land was valuable in other ways. Such as a vineyard
  • Materials used to support rigid PV- foam PS board, hollow PE cubes, MDPE, metal pins
  • alternatives to rigid structure:
    • flexible thin film structure can ride the waves rather than endure them.
    • submersible PV array
    • panels on a foam surface arrayed so they flow with waves.
  • direction from this paper is to optimize design and build larger systems for rougher environments
    • I think this is a solid start to the search.

Assessment of the renewable energy-mix and land use trade-off at a regional level: A case study for the Kujawsko–Pomorskie Voivodship[2][edit | edit source]



Renewable energy sources (RES) can undoubtedly contribute to protecting the environment and conserving fossil fuels, as well as enhancing regional and rural development opportunities. However, every energy production process affects the environment and involves the use of land resources. The risks linked to intensified RES use should be adequately taken into consideration in any planning process, as ill-conceived energy policies may adversely impact land and local ecosystems, and lead to increases in public spending. Therefore, before designing any instruments for the regulation of both RES and land-use, the most essential step is to explore investment possibilities in different contexts. This paper intends to locate and quantify the potentials of biomass, wind and solar as well as to explore some of the potential planning issues associated with their development. The methods and findings presented in this paper may help to build a vision for the development of an optimal RES portfolio and to highlight emerging problems associated with RES deployment.

  • Renewable energy sources described take up land. Land - which may be used for farming/biocrops/wind. (Land use demand increases)
  • PV systems have only a small negative impact on ecosystems.
  • PVs need flat land (ideally unsuited to agriculture) as inclined increases costs - forests or other land types make PV adaption more difficult

Environmental impacts from the installation and operation of large-scale solar power plants[3][edit | edit source]


Large-scale solar power plants are being developed at a rapid rate, and are setting up to use thousands or millions of acres of land globally. The environmental issues related to the installation and operation phases of such facilities have not, so far, been addressed comprehensively in the literature. Here we identify and appraise 32 impacts from these phases, under the themes of land use intensity, human health and well-being, plant and animal life, geohydrological resources, and climate change. Our appraisals assume that electricity generated by new solar power facilities will displace electricity from traditional U.S. generation technologies. Altogether we find 22 of the considered 32 impacts to be beneficial. Of the remaining 10 impacts, 4 are neutral, and 6 require further research before they can be appraised. None of the impacts are negative relative to traditional power generation. We rank the impacts in terms of priority, and find all the high-priority impacts to be beneficial. In quantitative terms, large-scale solar power plants occupy the same or less land per kW h than coal power plant life cycles. Removal of forests to make space for solar power causes CO2 emissions as high as 36 g CO2 kW h−1, which is a significant contribution to the life cycle CO2 emissions of solar power, but is still low compared to CO2 emissions from coal-based electricity that are about 1100 g CO2 kW h−1.

  • Discusses land use intensity and impact on land area per electric energy generated for energy sources
  • Discusses impact to human health, wildlife/habitat, land use, CO2, and climate change Table 1-5.
  • This paper is useful for making an argument for using solar over other forms of energy generation. It does not discuss auqavoltaics.
  • Impacts discussed: 22 beneficial, 4 neutral, 0 detrimental, 6 need more research

Novel offshore application of photovoltaics in comparison to conventional marine renewable energy technologies[4][edit | edit source]


An original proposal for the deployment of photovoltaic (PV) systems in offshore environments is presented in this paper. Crystalline PV panels are considered where they are deployed on pontoon type structures and there are six case study examples precedent practise of such deployments in lakes and reservoirs (but not seas). The authors put forward an alternative based on flexible thin film PV that floats directly on the waterline. The paper then concentrates on the techno-economic appraisal of offshore PV systems in comparison to conventional marine renewable energy technologies. The difficulties of comparing offshore technology projects developed in various countries, using different currencies and in different years are overcome so that such comparisons are made on an equitable basis. The discounted cost of electricity generated by each scheme is determined, including capital expenditure (CAPEX) and yearly operation and maintenance (O&M) costs.

Actual wind, tidal (current turbines and barrages) and wave projects were considered in the analysis alongside crystalline and thin film PV. Thin film PV was found to be economically competitive with offshore wind energy projects for latitudes ranging from 45°N to 45°S. The specific yield, assessed in terms of GWh/km2 was higher for thin film PV than for wind, wave and tidal barrage systems. In addition the specific installed capacity, expressed in MW/km2 was also higher than the other conventional technologies considered (excluding tidal current turbines).

  • Idea to adapt established offshore renewable energy technologies to provide structure for PVs
  • In-depth analysis of current offshore PV technology - 2012
  • idea of flexible cells vs pontoon structure
  • Cost analysis and case studies completed so far(tables 2&3)
  • Thin film tech is probably the way to go
    • low cost, self cleaning, higher efficiencies, less vessel collision potential
    • Thin film has potential to be more economic than wind for offshore

A new photovoltaic floating cover system for water reservoirs[5][edit | edit source]


This paper describes a new photovoltaic floating cover system for water reservoirs developed jointly by the company CELEMIN ENERGY and the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia. The system consists of polyethylene floating modules which, with the use of tension producing elements and elastic fasteners, are able to adapt to varying reservoir water levels.

A full-scale plant located near Alicante (Spain) was built in an agriculture reservoir to study the behaviour of the system. The top of the reservoir has a surface area of 4700 m2 but only 7% of such area has been covered with the fixed solar system.

The system also minimizes evaporation losses from water reservoirs.

  • Various design methods to reduce water evaporation - 80% (covers/modules) + other general benefits
  • Geometric design of PV modules needs to be flexible so that it can match the internal geometry of water reservoirs
  • Tilt angles are effected by wind uplift and drifting - consideration for design
  • Fully detailed design of their PV flotation structure.
  • FEM and CAD were used for designing
  • Detailed economic viability also discussed. (their model is 30% more expensive than a land unit) - viable due to water savings and efficient land use. (not needing to change agricultural lands)
  • A versatile design is essential as water systems conform to the landscape and are variable in geometry.

Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies[6][edit | edit source]


Solar energy systems (photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar power) provide significant environmental benefits in comparison to the conventional energy sources, thus contributing, to the sustainable development of human activities. Sometimes however, their wide scale deployment has to face potential negative environmental implications. These potential problems seem to be a strong barrier for a further dissemination of these systems in some consumers.

To cope with these problems this paper presents an overview of an Environmental Impact Assessment. We assess the potential environmental intrusions in order to ameliorate them with new technological innovations and good practices in the future power systems. The analysis provides the potential burdens to the environment, which include—during the construction, the installation and the demolition phases, as well as especially in the case of the central solar technologies—noise and visual intrusion, greenhouse gas emissions, water and soil pollution, energy consumption, labour accidents, impact on archaeological sites or on sensitive ecosystems, negative and positive socio-economic effects.

  • Absence of air emissions or waste products
  • Capability of use in off grid systems
  • Multi-purpose capability - water, space heating, cooling
  • Standard paper going through benefits of solar compared to non-renewable energy sources - useful for reference

Environmental impacts of utility-scale solar energy[7][edit | edit source]



Renewable energy is a promising alternative to fossil fuel-based energy, but its development can require a complex set of environmental tradeoffs. A recent increase in solar energy systems, especially large, centralized installations, underscores the urgency of understanding their environmental interactions. Synthesizing literature across numerous disciplines, we review direct and indirect environmental impacts – both beneficial and adverse – of utility-scale solar energy (USSE) development, including impacts on biodiversity, land-use and land-cover change, soils, water resources, and human health. Additionally, we review feedbacks between USSE infrastructure and land-atmosphere interactions and the potential for USSE systems to mitigate climate change. Several characteristics and development strategies of USSE systems have low environmental impacts relative to other energy systems, including other renewables. We show opportunities to increase USSE environmental co-benefits, the permitting and regulatory constraints and opportunities of USSE, and highlight future research directions to better understand the nexus between USSE and the environment. Increasing the environmental compatibility of USSE systems will maximize the efficacy of this key renewable energy source in mitigating climatic and global environmental change

  • Solar dwarfs the potential of other renewable energy techs by several orders of magnitude.(wind and biomass)
  • Fig 2 details effects on environments(land)
  • water primarily used to clean panels of dust(lowers efficiency). Dust generation can increase based on land use change
  • Fig 4 has global map of temperature impact on solar energy potential.
  • Section 4.4 deals with Floatovoltaics - reduces need for land transformation and conserves water.
  • Good review article for utility scale solar. Will be useful to show benefits of moving to water implementation over land PVs

A-review-on-global-solar-energy-policy_2011_Renewable-and-Sustainable-Energy-Reviews[8][edit | edit source]


To overcome the negative impacts on the environment and other problems associated with fossil fuels have forced many countries to inquire into and change to environmental friendly alternatives that are renewable to sustain the increasing energy demand. Solar energy is one of the best renewable energy sources with least negative impacts on the environment. Different countries have formulated solar energy policies to reducing dependence on fossil fuel and increasing domestic energy production by solar energy. This paper discusses a review about the different solar energy policies implemented on the different countries of the world. According to the 2010 BP Statistical Energy Survey, the world cumulative installed solar energy capacity was 22928.9 MW in 2009, a change of 46.9% compared to 2008. Also this paper discussed the existing successful solar energy policies of few selected countries. Based on literatures, it has been found that FIT, RPS and incentives are the most beneficial energy policies implemented by many countries around the world. These policies provide significant motivation and interest for the development and use of renewable energy technologies. Also the status of solar energy policy for Malaysia is investigated and compared with that of the successful countries in the world

  • Section 2.1.1. is USA solar energy policy
  • Paper says many good things about solar compared to other energy sources
  • Not particularly useful for this review

Neural network based model for estimating the produced power of a photovoltaic module 2013 Renewable Energy[9][edit | edit source]


In this paper, a methodology to estimate the profile of the produced power of a 50 Wp Si-polycrystalline photovoltaic (PV) module is described. For this purpose, two artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been developed for use in cloudy and sunny days respectively. More than one year of measured data (solar irradiance, air temperature, PV module voltage and PV module current) have been recorded at the Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey (from 1-1-2011 to 24-2-2012) and used for the training and validation of the models. Results confirm the ability of the developed ANN-models for estimating the power produced with reasonable accuracy. A comparative study shows that the ANN-models perform better than polynomial regression, multiple linear regression, analytical and one-diode models. The advantage of the ANN-models is that they do not need more parameters or complicate calculations unlike implicit models. The developed models could be used to forecast the profile of the produced power. Although, the methodology has been applied for one polycrystalline PV module, it could also be generalized for large scale photovoltaic plants as well as for other PV technologies.

  • The method described in this paper may be adaptable for estimating the profile of the produced power for underwater cells.(it is intended for comparison between sunny and cloudy days).

Implementation of a photovoltaic floating cover for irrigation reservoirs[10][edit | edit source]


The article presents the main features of a floating photovoltaic cover system (FPCS) for water irrigation reservoirs whose purpose is to reduce the evaporation of water while generating electrical power. The system consists of polyethylene floating modules which are able to adapt to varying reservoir water levels by means of tension bars and elastic fasteners.

  • Figure 1 - graphic of system implemented
  • System discussed in paper was proven to be technically feasible and economically viable
  • Evaporation rate was reduced due to solar array
  • Useful paper for proof of concept

Theoretical-and-experimental-analysis-of-a-floating-photovoltaic-cover-for-water-irrigation-reservoirs_2014_Energy[11][edit | edit source]


The article presents the main design features and photovoltaic requirements of a FPCS (floating photovoltaic cover system) for water irrigation reservoirs whose purpose is to reduce the evaporation of water while generating electrical power. Also, a summary of installation costs and relationship with the yield performance is deeply analyzed. A prototype of 20 kWp was implemented, and given the success of the results observed, the whole surface reservoir was covered (4490 m2 and 300 kWp). The paper analyses the first electricity productions of the system and from these data the CO2 balance of the facility is calculated.

  • Figure 1 - covered vs uncovered reservoir system.
  • Geometry of solar array and reservoir are important for consideration during design process - modular is imperative
  • Paper details their dimensions and materials used in construction of pontoon structure
  • Economic assessment is detailed
  • Annual saving or 5000 m^3 water saved
  • useful paper for detailed proof of concept and compelling data.

The Feasibility of a Municipally Operated Electric Grid in Santa Fe, New Mexico[12][edit | edit source]

Santa Fe, NM adopted the Sustainable Santa Fe Plan in 2008 to provide environmentallyconscious considerations to local policies which would help Santa Fe be resilient to climate change and rising energy costs, but Santa Fe has no control over one of the biggest contributors to greenhouse gases: energy production. The lack of control over energy production and policy has led to interest in the acquisition of the electrical infrastructure from Public Service Utility of New Mexico (PNM) in order to create a municipally owned utility which could incorporate renewable energy. This study assesses the value of the existing electrical infrastructure in Santa Fe to provide some preliminary information for its purchase. The replacement cost of the infrastructure was estimated to be $100 million, an amount the city could afford with a slight rate increase.

  • Various energy sources are discussed.
  • section 2.4.7 deals with Floatovoltaics
  • This report uses a pontoon structure over bodies of water.
  • 215 acres of floatovoltaics (30MW) in reservoirs would offset enough coal usage to meet the goal
  • This isnt terribly useful for this lit review, but it is good to see floatovoltaics being seen as an option to move cities towards sustainability

Floating photovoltaic arrays to power the mining industry: A case study for the McFaulds lake (Ring of Fire)[13][edit | edit source]


The article looks at the integration of crystalline and thin film (a-Si) floating photovoltaic (PV) arrays for electricity generation in remote mine sites. Floating PV arrays rather than regular ground mounted PV arrays are considered more suitable for the site because it decreases the environmental impacts—in terms of not requiring landscaping or deforestation. The research provides a techno-economic analysis for the integration of varying levels of PV with 40 MW of diesel generation. The main challenge was the consideration of the gen sets part load together with the variability of the solar resource at the site. Applications of alternative technologies at remote mine sites are fairly limited. Results show that at a diesel fuel cost greater than $129c/L a-Si floating PV would offer some financial benefits. At this price, this is not applicable to floating crystalline PV arrays because the infrastructure required to keep them floating would offset the cost savings from the PV array. Further savings could be achieved if energy storage or load shedding could be implemented at the mine, or extra revenue could be generated through carbon credits. Solar energy for remote mine sites is not a solution to 100% of its electricity demands, unless an energy storage is available, so diesel generation is still a requirement. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2015

  • Thin film - more inline with water - better cooling
  • Thin film - low infrastructure and mooring costs
  • Successful integration of floating PVs with a diesel engine
  • Pontoon type can be oriented towards the sun more - thin can not
  • Techno-economical development discussed
  • Good paper for practical use of floating PVs with some design aspects. - Nice economical part


  • Antifouling/Self-cleaning coatings
  • Existing PV/floating concepts
  • Hydrodynamics of large scale floating PV arrays
  • Electrical yeild modelling of thin film solar arrays
  • Characterization of submerged laminated a-Si thin film
  • Thin film flexible PV array development
  • Techno-Economic analysis of prototype array and other techs
  • Several implemented examples(remote mine, isolated island community)
  • Basically everything about thin film PVs in water was her Thesis.
  • Massively helpful paper(her sources and research are quite holistic for Floatovoltaics)

Floatovoltaics: Quantifying the Benefits of a Hydro-Solar Power Fusion[15][edit | edit source]

Floatovoltaics have:
    • wide
spaces and
    • Water is flat
, so
    • No
 issues, and low environmental
    • On a reservoir: save
  • pg 14 has info on US water coverage/NREL estimates
  • pg 16-19 Temperature cooling equations for panels in water
  • Ecological discussion on page 31 - recommended for future study
  • 8-10%increase in power production, 70% water savings from reduced evaporation. Powerful when paired with hydroelectic power plants. Great promise.

Review of hydroelasticity theories for global response of marine structures[16][edit | edit source]


Existing hydroelastic theories are reviewed. The theories are classified into different types: two dimensional linear theory, two-dimensional nonlinear theory, three-dimensional linear theory and three-dimensional nonlinear theory. Applications to analysis of very large floating structures (VLFS) are reviewed and discussed in details. Special emphasis is placed on papers from China and Japan (in native languages) as these papers are not generally publicly known in the rest of the world.

  • investigates motion and distortion of deformable bodies responding to environmental excitations in the sea
  • Three theories are discussed. Useful for designing aspects of floating structures
  • Useful for reference

A study on development of ICT convergence technology for tracking-type floating photovoltaic systems[17][edit | edit source]


This thesis seeks to establish the foundation for tracking-type floating PV system using ICT fusion technology through acquisition of data regarding solar power generated, amount of insolation and solar tracking sensor and real time monitoring of the system. Prior to implementation in the field, Zigbee based sensor node and coordinator of 2.45GHz bandwidth has been produced and tested by transmitting data received from sensor to coordinator and allowing monitoring not only in operation management PC, but also through mobile devices. In the process, wireless communication coordinator and middleware for information collection have been designed and tracking controller was developed. This thesis also pursues formation of low-cost, high-efficiency USN framework through analysis of signal conditions and speed of transmission.

  • Logic path for developing a long range wireless mass network to monitor data
  • Allows data monitoring through PC and mobile devices
  • Meant to track location data of floating photovoltaics
  • Useful article for construction of PV's and electical/computer aspect.

A study on major design elements of tracking-type floating photovoltaic systems[18][edit | edit source]


A floating PV system results from the combination of photovoltaic power plant technology and floating technology. K-Water has installed a 100 kW floating PV system on the water surface on Hapcheon dam reservoir in October 2011 and has been operating it since then. After successfully installing the 100 kW floating PV system, K-Water additionally installed a 500 kW floating PV system on another location nearby in July 2012. The electricity generated by the two floating PV systems installed in Hapcheon dam reservoir is creating profits by being sold to the national power grid. In this article, taking a step further from such fixed-type floating PV, the basic concept of 100 kW tracking-type floating PV and the application plan for the tracking algorithm and the rotation mechanism of structure which is a major design element were explained. As the first case that can maximize the power generation efficiency of PV internationally, it is expected that this study will be utilized as a primary guide for future development of tracking type PV system.

  • Tracking types can generate 20% improvement than non-tracking types
  • Comparison of fixed vs tracking types of PVs (Table 1)
  • Paper incorperates design specifications of tracking type PVs. (azimuth and altitude of the sun)
  • Higher efficiency, but more costly, and more moving parts(higher maintenance)

A Study on Power Generation Analysis of Floating PV System Considering Environmental Impact[19][edit | edit source]


The floating photovoltaic system is a new concept in energy technology to meet the needs of our time. The system integrates existing land based photovoltaic technology with a newly developed floating photovoltaic technology. Because module temperature of floating PV system is lower than that of overland PV system, the floating PV system has 11% better generation efficiency than overland PV system. In the thesis, superiority of floating PV system is verified through comparison analysis of generation amount by 2.4kW, 100kW and 500kW floating PV system installed by K-water and the cause of such superiority was analyzed. Also, effect of wind speed, and waves on floating PV system structure was measured to analyze the effect of the environment on floating PV system generation efficiency.

  • Compares energy generation with 33degree tilt of solar cells. (lower temp leads to 11% increase for on water panels)
  • Details effect of wind/waves on drift of array
  • Good paper for reference of this research lit review.

Stochastic hydroelastic analysis of pontoon-type very large floating structures considering directional wave spectrum[20][edit | edit source]


The hydroelastic response of pontoon-type very large floating structures (VLFS) is obtained by resolving the interaction between the surface waves and the floating elastic body. We carry out the analysis in the frequency domain, assuming that the surface waves can be described by a directional wave spectrum. The response spectra can then be computed by application of stationary random vibration analysis. Applying the modal expansion method, we obtain a discrete representation of the required transfer matrices for a finite number of frequencies, while the influence of the wave direction is obtained by numerical integration of the directional components of the spectrum. Moreover, assuming a Gaussian input, we can apply well known approximations to obtain the distribution of extremes. The method is applied to an example VLFS and the effect of different mean wave angles on the stochastic response is investigated.

  • Figure 1 and following equations
  • Section 4 depicts a numerical example
  • Figures 4-10 demonstrate wave analysis
  • Powerful paper for modeling large structures(useful for design of an array)


  • Powerful comparison of water use in industry
  • Use for paper

A review of Safety, Health and Environmental (SHE) issues of solar energy system[22][edit | edit source]


Solar energy is one of the cleanest forms of energy sources and considered as a green source of energy. Solar energy benefit ranges from low carbon emission, no fossil fuel requirement, long term solar resources, less payback time and other. However like other power generation sources, solar energy has also some Safety, Health and Environmental (SHE) concerns. This paper presents the overview of solar energy technologies and addresses the SHE impact of solar energy technologies to the sustainability of human activities. This paper will also recommend the possible ways to reduce the effect of potential hazards of widespread use of solar energy technologies.

  • Good for paper
  • saves water/natural resources.

Scientific Review on the Environmental and Health Safety (EHS) aspects of CdTe photovoltaic (PV) systems over their entire life cycle[23][edit | edit source]


The reviewers investigated the written and presented materials related to the potential environmental, health, and safety risks and benefits associated with CdTe PV systems during their life cycle.

The lead reviewer visited the First Solar's Perrysburg, Ohio facility in the United States on May 2nd, 2012 to receive: A tour of the manufacturing and recycling facilities; Presentations on the EHS aspects of CdTe PV modules; and Presentations on the EHS practices in place at First Solar's manufacturing and recycling facilities.

Electrical Behavior and Optimization of Panels and Reflector of a Photovoltaic Floating Plant[24][edit | edit source]


The purpose of this work is to study the PV module efficiency in the presence of flat reflectors that can determine an uneven irradiance on the PV surface. In particular the effect of different connections (in series and/or in parallel) of PV cells strings constituting a PV module is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. Furthermore, the presence of the water cooling system that keeps the temperature of PV cells low and uniform is carefully considered. General considerations are applied to a photovoltaic power plant, floating in the water with tracking and cooling system, that consists in a circular floating platform which supports PV panels. The cooling of the panel is ensured by a veil of water generated by a set of irrigators located on the top of the panel. A set of reflectors on the back of the PV panel further increases the plant efficiency. Two possible solutions for this system have been considered. An experimental set-up has been realized in the laboratory of the University of Catania where two strings of three modules have been installed as well as a string of mirrors on the back of the first row. These different configurations have been studied using a suitable data acquisition system.

  1. Trapani, K., Redón Santafé, M., 2015. A review of floating photovoltaic installations: 2007-2013: A review of floating photovoltaic installations. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 23, 524–532. doi:10.1002/pip.2466
  2. Sliz-Szkliniarz, B., 2013. Assessment of the renewable energy-mix and land use trade-off at a regional level: A case study for the Kujawsko–Pomorskie Voivodship Land Use Policy 35, 257–270. doi:10.1016/j.landusepol.2013.05.018
  3. Turney, D., Fthenakis, V., 2011. Environmental impacts from the installation and operation of large-scale solar power plants Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15, 3261–3270. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2011.04.023
  4. Trapani, K., Millar, D.L., Smith, H.C.M., 2013. Novel offshore application of photovoltaics in comparison to conventional marine renewable energy technologies Renewable Energy 50, 879–888. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2012.08.043
  5. Ferrer-Gisbert, C., Ferrán-Gozálvez, J.J., Redón-Santafé, M., Ferrer-Gisbert, P., Sánchez-Romero, F.J., Torregrosa-Soler, J.B., 2013. A new photovoltaic floating cover system for water reservoirs Renewable Energy 60, 63–70. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2013.04.007
  6. Tsoutsos, T., Frantzeskaki, N., Gekas, V., 2005. Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies Energy Policy 33, 289–296. doi:10.1016/S0301-4215(03)00241-6
  7. Hernandez, R.R., Easter, S.B., Murphy-Mariscal, M.L., Maestre, F.T., Tavassoli, M., Allen, E.B., Barrows, C.W., Belnap, J., Ochoa-Hueso, R., Ravi, S., Allen, M.F., 2014. Environmental impacts of utility-scale solar energy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 29, 766–779. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2013.08.041
  8. Solangi, K.H., Islam, M.R., Saidur, R., Rahim, N.A., Fayaz, H., 2011. A review on global solar energy policy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15, 2149–2163. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2011.01.007
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