Literature Review PVs below water(Initial)[edit | edit source]

Performance of Photovoltaic Cells in Undersea Environment[1][edit | edit source]

  • intended application is power source for oceanographic buoys.
  • Powerful review and overview article about PVs and how they are affected by being underwater
  • Above ocean surface: water spray, defecation of birds and dense fog decrease performance
  • Under ocean surface: withstand hydrostaic pressure, biofouling, electrical connectors must remain dry
    • encased in silicon-rubber to isolate from water to prevent corrosion
  • <60degree of light to normal incidence of water surface is ideal - after that massive light reflection (fig 5)
  • outside 450-550nm range of light is lost after 25m of depth. (Secchi disc used for visibility testing)
  • Max depth of visibility results in about 5% of surface efficiency of cell. (up to 100ft tested)
  • To combat biofouling this project would ideally incorporate an ecosystem to remove it(fish which feed from it?)
  • Paper concludes that solar cells perform successfully - PCE varies with clarity of water (dependent on type of water/location/season)
  • recommended read

Submerged photovoltaic solar panel: SP2[edit | edit source]


The behavior of a photovoltaic (PV) panel submerged in water is studied. A sizeable increase of electric power output is found for shallow water. Experiments have been carried out for single crystalline silicon panels. Results are discussed and the increase in efficiency is investigated and understood. Operating problems are analyzed and the advantages of using underwater solar panels are pointed out.

  • Benefits of PVs in water: removal of thermal drift and lowering light reflection
  • clean water is a strong light absorber, mainly in red-infrared region
  • Figure 5 is worth looking at. panel above water: 12.3% 4cm below water: 14.05% 40cm below water: 9.25% effiency
  • land panel was on average 70C in temp, panels in water were below 30C throughout the day. almost no variation below water
  • This paper is useful for indicating that there is in fact an efficiency gain when the PV is submerged slightly in water.

Improving The Efficiency Of Polycrystalline Solar Panel Via Water Immersion Method[edit | edit source]


Cooling of the solar cells is a critical issue, especially when designing concentrating photovoltaic (PV) systems. In the present work, the cooling of a photovoltaic panel via Water immersion technique is investigated. The aim of this project is to optimize the efficiency of a solar panel by submerged it in distillated water at different depths. Experiment is done for polycrystalline silicon panel. An evident increase of efficiency is found with increasing the water depth. Results are discussed; thermal drift has been reduced and the solar panel efficiency has increased by about 11% at water depth 6 cm.

  • Causes: Reduction of light reflection (lower refraction index), Absence of thermal drift
  • Methodology full described
  • Figures 3-5 are useful vs depths of water used.
  • Useful for design of pontoon structures. Recommended for referencing.



With the increase in surface temperature of solar cells or panels their efficiency decreases quite dramatically. To overcome the heating of solar cell surface, water immersion cooling technique can be used i.e. it can be submerged in water so as to maintain its surface temperature and provide better efficiency at extreme temperatures. In this study, electrical parameters of solar cell were calculated which showed that the cooling factor plays an important role in the electrical efficiency enhancement. Solar cell immersed in water was monitored under real climatic conditions, cell surface temperature can be controlled from 31- 39 .C. Electrical performance of cell increases up to great extent. Results are dicussed; panel efficiency has increased about 17.8% at water depth 1cm. The study can give support to the Concentrated Photovoltaics System by submerging the solar cells in different mediums.

  • Detailed construction, methodology and equations used.
  • Variaton of electrical properties with water depth/time of day (Figures 2-6)
  • Substrate markup for large body of water integration
  • 17.8% increase in electrical efficiency observed
  • Ideal depth of 1cm determined for polycrystalline silicon panel
  • Useful for comparison of ideal depth to be used.

Water absorption characterisation, electrical reliability and mechanical testing of a submerged laminated a-Si thin film photovoltaic (PV) cells[edit | edit source]


Floating photovoltaic (PV) technology is emerging as a new application field for solar PVs. The research in this paper aims to characterise the water absorption in ETFE laminated a-Si PV panels in relation to the floating PV application and scope any apparent electrical or mechanical impacts. Short term electrical impacts were analysed through 45 day testing of such a floating thin film PV array, for which results showed greater reduction at 1% due to sediment/dirt accumulation on the face of the array rather than due to water absorption which accounted to 0.5%. The stiffness of sample panels of such array, saturated and dry was tested in order to assess any significant changes which might impact such an array's modulation with oncoming waves. Results showed only minor changes in the deformation stiffness modulus of the two sets of samples, indicated that mechanical reliability would not be compromised due to water absorption. Observations made throughout the various stages of the experimentation were noted in the article and discussed upon. Concluding recommendations are for longer term electrical testing to be undertaken in order to determine if water absorption will have deteriorating effects in the long run.

  • No natural de-bonding of laminate due to water ingress
  • De-bonding occurs when enough water absorption happens to laminate
  • Figure 7 is useful, water absorption over time - maxes at 2%
  • More long-term/other environmental testing is recommended
  • Useful for thinking about 3D printed polymers

Literature Review - Aquafarms(Initial)[edit | edit source]

Farming Fish for the Future[edit | edit source]

  • Focus of aquaculture towards full ecosystems(ex. oysters to filter water so sunlight penetrates further)
  • if done correctly fish farming can have a net possitive impact on environment (ex. framework for coral reefs)
  • Potential for on land fishfarming(warehouse idea of indoor controlled farming)
  • promotes research in breeding fish
  • Fastest growing food industry
  • Potentially healthier than wild fish(metal/chemical contamination)
  • Very good source for overview of aquaculture and its current/future impact on global/local levels.

Management by life cycle of wolffish, Anarhichas lupus L., a new species for cold-water aquaculture. A technical paper[edit | edit source]


Interest in the cultivation of wolffish arose in recent years due to their high-quality meat and fast growth in captivity. In wolffish, an almost juvenile organism, more than 20 mm long, hatches from the egg and can be fed dry pellets just after that. This makes the technology for wolffish breeding much simpler than for other marine fishes, even salmonids. This paper is devoted to common wolffish. Anarhichas lupus L., as the captive breeding of this species has been studied most completely. Experience with broodstock management, insemination, incubation of eggs, start feeding, and growth of rearing juveniles until maturation is described, based mainly on investigations made in Norway and in the Russian Federation. The conditions for obtaining maximum production in the shortest time are assessed. Prospects for using wolffish in aquaculture are briefly discussed.

  • Proof of concept paper that the entire life cycle of the wolffish can be reproduced.
  • Wolffish is ideal for cold environment aquacultures
  • Synergistic with a mussel plantation (food for them, also can be used to control macro-biofouling)
  • High growth rates potential - model for development
  • Useful proof of concept paper with various aspects described about a fish species

Integrating Seaweeds into Marine Aquaculture Systems: A Key Toward Sustainability[edit | edit source]

  • Monospecific practices can lead to problems -> diversification leads to wastes of a resource become a resource for another source.
  • Seaweeds can be used in a balanced ecosystem
  • Lots of info on integrated aquaculture(old practice in asia)
  • detailed review of land and open-water based systems.
  • Notable paper for optimizing aquaculture

The importance of selective breeding in aquaculture to meet future demands for animal protein: A review[edit | edit source]


Aquaculture is the fastest growing food production industry, and the vast majority of aquaculture products are derived from Asia. The quantity of aquaculture products directly consumed is now greater than that resulting from conventional fisheries. The nutritional value of aquatic products compares favourably with meat from farm animals because they are rich in micronutrients and contain high levels of healthy omega-3 fatty acids. Compared with farm animals, fish are more efficient converters of energy and protein. If the aquaculture sector continues to expand at its current rate, production will reach 132 million tonnes of fish and shellfish and 43 million tonnes of seaweed in 2020. Future potential for marine aquaculture production can be estimated based on the length of coastline, and for freshwater aquaculture from available land area in different countries. The average marine production in 2005 was 103 tonnes per km coastline, varying from 0 to 1721 (China). Freshwater aquaculture production in 2005 averaged 0.17 tonnes/ha, varying from 0 to close to 6 tonnes per ha (Bangladesh), also indicating potential to dramatically increase freshwater aquaculture output. Simple estimations indicate potential for a 20-fold increase in world aquaculture production. Limits imposed by the availability of feed resources would be lessened by growing more herbivorous species and by using more of genetically improved stocks.

  • Discusses potential of aquaculture production (section 5)
  • Details production of aquaculture per continent/country
  • Current breeding programs - table 12-13
  • Breeding provides improved quality, economy and efficiency in resource allocation
  • Aquaculture's future is more reliant on future demand/market than technological development
  • Useful paper for arguing in favor of aquaculture's relevance in the food production industry

Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies[edit | edit source]


Global production of farmed fish and shellfish has more than doubled in the past 15 years. Many people believe that such growth relieves pressure on ocean fisheries, but the opposite is true for some types of aquaculture. Farming carnivorous species requires large inputs of wild fish for feed. Some aquaculture systems also reduce wild fish supplies through habitat modification, wild seedstock collection and other ecological impacts. On balance, global aquaculture production still adds to world fish supplies; however, if the growing aquaculture industry is to sustain its contribution to world fish supplies, it must reduce wild fish inputs in feed and adopt more ecologically sound management practices.

  • Over-fishing can be made up by farming in sustainable ways
  • Ecological links between aquaculture and wild fish stocks (pg 1020) Some bad characteristics
  • Aquaculture can be sustainable -> polyculture systems
  • Balanced view on pros and cons of aquaculture as it is currently with direction to improve the industry sustainably.

Lighting: How It Affects Freshwater Fish[edit | edit source]

  • Reasonable sources - Secondary source
  • Gives insight into direct effects day light has on fish. Reactions/response of fish
  • Semi-useful article for quick general understanding, geared towards tanks not aquaculture, but topics should translate.

Does light have an influence on fish growth?[edit | edit source]


Light compares a complex of external and ecological factors, including colour spectrum, intensity and photoperiod. Light characteristics are very specific in an aquatic environment and light is extremely variable in nature. `Receptivity' of fish to light profoundly changes according to the species and the developmental status. Specific photoreceptor cells are present in both eye and pineal. If it is easy to change the light in experimentation and to observe the effects on fish growth, it is much more difficult in nature to make such determinations. In larvae, many studies have been dedicated to the influence of intensity and photoperiod on growth: generally, species need a minimal threshold intensity to be able to develop normally and grow. This is probably related to the aptitude to localize, catch and ingest prey. Light is also indispensable for body pigmentation, an important phenomenon involved in early development and growth. Too intense light can be stressful or even lethal. A few species are able to develop and grow at very low intensities or, sometimes, in the absence of light. Generally, long daylength improves larval rearing quality. The synergistic effect of `food availability-daylength' appears to be determining at this stage. In older fish, there is very little information about the influence of light `quality' but more about intensity and much more about photoperiod. Light intensity effects are not so clear and depend on the species and the experimental procedures: it is probably not an important factor for growth stimulation. Daylength appears much more important. Many species, including both marine species and salmonids, react to photoperiod treatments and long daylength stimulates growth. The most studied species is the Atlantic salmon, which is very sensitive, both during the freshwater stage, with the parr–smolt transformation very dependent on the photoperiod, and also in sea water. In this last condition, lighting also influences early maturation. An important point is to be certain that light affects fish growth through a better food conversion efficiency and not just through stimulated food intake. Also included in this review is a discussion about the endolymph–otolith system, which is very sensitive to daylight and seasonal cycles and a review of the present knowledge on the involvement of light influence on hormone levels (melatonin, somatotropin, thyroid hormones and other hormones).

  • Highly dependent on species of fish
  • Fish are more affected by day-length than intensity of light
  • Some fish thrive in lower light such as European sea bass(low pigmentation in larvae form)
  • Fish typically have a 24-h cycle(feed in day) inactivity increases at night(passive displacement)
  • Paper goes into detail on specific light intensity levels for several species for optimal growth. (table 1)
  • Very important paper for light effects. Several sections are a must read to gauge effects PVs may have on fish(blocking light)

Effect of diet and light regime on growth and survival of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) larvae and early juveniles[edit | edit source]


Growth of larval sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus fed live Artemia nauplii, a specially prepared dry feed (MN-3), a commercial dry salmon starter feed (Silver Cup 3600), or a combination of 50% live Artemia and 50% MN-3, under conditions of either light or dark for 21 days was studied. For all diets, fish reared in darkened tanks were significantly larger than those in illuminated tanks from day 8 onwards. Fish fed a combination of live Artemia plus MN-3 grew significantly more quickly than those fed either live Artemia or MN-3 only. On day 21 of the experiment, average weight of fish fed the combined diet was 649 ± 30 mg (mean ±sem) in darkened tanks and 445 ± 16 mg in illuminated tanks, while those fed Artemia alone were 242 ± 9 and 198 ± 13 mg (dark and light, respectively) and fish fed MN-3 only were intermediate at 377 ± 20 and 267 ± 16 mg (dark and light, respectively). Catfish fed the salmon starter initially grew slowly, but after day 11 grew more quickly than the other groups. Mortalities were highest for fish fed salmon feed.

Permanent darkness enhances the growth of C. gariepinus larvae during and after metamorphosis. While dry diets promoted higher growth rate than live Artemia nauplii alone, a combination of the two resulted in the fastest growth.

  • requested from researchgate 1/24
  • Not Useful

Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Imo State of Nigeria[edit | edit source]


This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty– two respondents were randomly selected from the three zones of the state. Data were collected through structured interview schedule. The results showed that the level of adoption of the technology was low. Less than half of the respondents adopted the technology. After the construction of the ponds, which were usually not to specification, the farmers found it difficult to adopt the other recommendations, (e.g., pond maintenance, feeding, harvesting, and fish preservation). It was discovered that the farmers did not have adequate funds to maintain their small ponds and to purchase the necessary feed and other necessities for aquaculture. To increase the level of adoption of aquaculture technologies in Nigeria, it is necessary to change its perception from subsistence to commercial and sustainable farming practice; to assist the farmers with credit facilities and to provide closer monitoring of the process by extension agents.

  • Paper goes into detail on expanding the use of aquaculture to farmers
  • Details the struggles of implementing new technology/adoption rate -> low
  • Main reason of low adoption was poor economy, farms were not of sufficient size or sustainability to provide enough immediate income.
  • rethink implementation method in such environments(to people)
  • Paper is useful for understanding a process for spreading the aquaculture tech. for sustainability.

Aquaculture Production and Biodiversity Conservation[edit | edit source]


This overview examines the status and trends of seafood production, and the positive and negative impacts of aquaculture on biodiversity conservation. Capture fisheries have been stabilized at about 90 million metric tons since the late 1980s, whereas aquaculture increased from 12 million metric tons in 1985 to 45 million metric tons by 2004. Aquaculture includes species at any trophic level that are grown for domestic consumption or export. Aquaculture has some positive impacts on biodiversity; for example, cultured seafood can reduce pressure on overexploited wild stocks, stocked organisms may enhance depleted stocks, aquaculture often boosts natural production and species diversity, and employment in aquaculture may replace more destructive resource uses. On the negative side, species that escape from aquaculture can become invasive in areas where they are nonnative, effluents from aquaculture can cause eutrophication, ecologically sensitive land may be converted for aquaculture use, aquaculture species may consume increasingly scarce fish meal, and aquaculture species may transmit diseases to wild fish. Most likely, aquaculture will continue to grow at significant rates through 2025, and will remain the most rapidly increasing food production system.

  • Details historical trends (table 1)
  • Aquaculture has the potential to save high risk species from extinction
  • Various positive and negative impacts are discussed
  • Good paper for stating effects of aquaculture as well as realistic future outlook

Fish aggregation device (FAD) research: Gaps in current knowledge and future directions for ecological studies. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries[edit | edit source]


We reviewed the literature concerning fish aggregation devices (FADs) to determine areas of relative research deficiency. Using specific searches of the Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA) database from 1978 to December 2003 and a classical search of the pre-1978 literature, we collected 407 references on FADs. Publications before 1980 were predominantly peer-reviewed, although non-peer reviewed literature has dominated since 1980, due to the numerous technical reports produced as FADs became more widely used in artisinal and large-scale industrial fisheries in the 1980s. Most studies of the ecology of FAD-associated fish were descriptive, with few mensurative experimental studies and even fewer manipulative experimental studies that tested specific hypotheses, due to inherent difficulties in working in the open ocean on objects that are temporary in space and time. Research on the ecology of FAD-associated fish has focused on moored FADs, despite the major FAD-based fisheries being around drifting FADs. Publications presenting information on moored FADs outnumbered papers on drifting FADs by a ratio of 3.5:1. We recommend that greater emphasis be placed by fisheries scientists and funding agencies on researching drifting FADs to provide better information for management of large-scale FAD-based industrial fisheries. Future research should focus on determining the patterns of use of drifting FADs by pelagic species, the underlying sensory processes of attraction and the ecological consequences for individual fish stocks and the wider pelagic ecosystem of the use of FADs as fisheries enhancement tools.

  • Association with floating structures is displayed by fish of almost all ontogenetic stages

Stress and welfare of culture fish[edit | edit source]


Cultured species of aquatic animals span more than five phyla. Animal welfare attention is directed towards the vertebrates because of the their neural complexity, and is currently focused on the finfish because of the size and visibility of that segment of the aquaculture industry. The characteristics of the aquatic environment and their impact on the animal have forced growers to develop cultural practices designed to control and minimize animal stress. This was not done as a result of social awareness, but out of necessity to keep fish alive and healthy; and managing stress is a principal key in ensuring animal welfare. Aquatic farmers are aware of the consequences of fish stress, but have limited knowledge of the basic biological principles of animal stress and have little exposure to the linkages between these concepts and the issues critical to animal welfare. Although the industry has many tools available for monitoring and preventing stress, not all growers have had exposure to the information that is available or know of its value when addressing issues of animal welfare.

  • Text requested through researchgate 1/29
  • Not Useful

Current issues in fish welfare[edit | edit source]


Human beings may affect the welfare of fish through fisheries, aquaculture and a number ofother activities. There is no agreement on just how to weigh the concern for welfare of fishagainst the human interests involved, but ethical frameworks exist that suggest how this mightbe approached.

Different definitions of animal welfare focus on an animal's condition, on its subjectiveexperience of that condition and/or on whether it can lead a natural life. These providedifferent, legitimate, perspectives, but the approach taken in this paper is to focus on welfareas the absence of suffering.

  • Mental capabilities of fish are unknown - responses to stimuli
  • In-depth analysis of actions humans take which can disrupt lives of fish
  • Not Useful

Fish welfare: Current issues in aquaculture[edit | edit source]


With the continued growth of the aquaculture industry and increasing scientific discussion over the potential for negative events to give rise to suffering, research into the welfare of cultured fish is vital. How we define and measure welfare is cause for debate, particularly in fish. However, research into the effects of aquaculture procedures on welfare is crucial to produce data and recommendations for best practice and future legislation. Both behavioural and physiological measures of welfare are necessary for correct interpretation and while there is a wealth of knowledge on the physiological consequences of many aquaculture practices it is now equally important for us to understand the behavioural responses to these practices and to relate them to fish welfare. Here I review the scientific data that allows us to interpret the effects of disease, handling, transport, food deprivation, and slaughter technique on fish welfare. The effects of stocking density, also an area of welfare concern, are complex and appear to comprise of numerous interacting and case specific factors. Investigation into the relative importance of these factors, particularly through behavioural studies, will serve to improve welfare. Stocking density, diet, feeding technique, and management procedures all have strong effects on stress responses, subsequent stress tolerance, health, and the occurrence of aggressive behaviour. Strategies to reduce disease susceptibility, minimise stress responses, and avoid aggression are, therefore, vital. However, caution should be taken when interpreting "abnormal" fish behaviour and further research is required to allow us to establish the importance of the expression of "natural" behaviours. Collectively this growing area of research serves to improve our knowledge of the impacts of aquaculture and intensive farming procedures on fish welfare and is the first step in improving welfare wherever possible.

  • Requested Via interlibrary Loan 2/1
  • Not Useful

Marine Biofouling on Fish Farms and Its Remediation[edit | edit source]

Abstract The fish farming industry suffers significantly from the effects of biofouling. The fouling of cages and netting, which is costly to remove, is detrimental to fish health and yield and can cause equipment failure. With rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry, coupled with the tightening of legislation on the use of antifouling biocides, the problems of fish farm biofouling are increasing. The nature of the biological communities that develop on fish farm equipment and the antifouling practices that can be employed to reduce it are described here. Particular emphasis is placed on antifouling legislature and the future needs of the industry.

The biological communities that develop on fish cages and netting are distinctive, in comparison to those that foul ships. Temperate species of particular importance, because of their cosmopolitan distribution and opportunistic nature, include the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Antifouling practices include predominantly the use of copper-based antifoulant coatings, in combination with practical fish husbandry and site management practices. The antifouling solutions presently available are not ideal, and it is widely accepted that there is an urgent need for research into combatant technologies. Such alternatives include the adoption of "foul-release" technologies and "biological control" through the use of polyculture systems. However, none of these have, as yet, been proven satisfactory. In view of current legislative trends and the possible future "phasing out" of available antifouling materials, there is a need to find alternative strategies.

  • Conventional methods do not work. Most are hazardous to the environment.
  • Biocides kill ecosystems
  • Alternatives to copper based systems dont yet exist(2005)
  • Non-toxic alternative needed if aquaculture is to flourish.

The impact and control of biofouling in marine aquaculture: a review.[edit | edit source]


Biofouling in marine aquaculture is a specific problem where both the target culture species and/or infrastructure are exposed to a diverse array of fouling organisms, with significant production impacts. In shellfish aquaculture the key impact is the direct fouling of stock causing physical damage, mechanical interference, biological competition and environmental modification, while infrastructure is also impacted. In contrast, the key impact in finfish aquaculture is the fouling of infrastructure which restricts water exchange, increases disease risk and causes deformation of cages and structures. Consequently, the economic costs associated with biofouling control are substantial. Conservative estimates are consistently between 5-10% of production costs (equivalent to US$ 1.5 to 3 billion yr(-1)), illustrating the need for effective mitigation methods and technologies. The control of biofouling in aquaculture is achieved through the avoidance of natural recruitment, physical removal and the use of antifoulants. However, the continued rise and expansion of the aquaculture industry and the increasingly stringent legislation for biocides in food production necessitates the development of innovative antifouling strategies. These must meet environmental, societal, and economic benchmarks while effectively preventing the settlement and growth of resilient multi-species consortia of biofouling organisms.

  • Table 1 - common fouling organisms
  • Impact of several species is dicussed
  • Many methods use heavy metals or chemicals which harm the environment
  • Six criteria are explored for future anti-biofouling strategies
  • non-toxic methods are explored
  • Helpful, but there is just not that much novel literature on the topic of anti-biofouling for aquaculture

Environmental Effects of Shellfish Aquaculture in the Northeast[edit | edit source]


One of the great impediments to further development of shellfish aquaculture in the Northeast Region is a perception that industry expansion could have negative environmental effects on our coastal waters. Although considerable research over the last 25 years has focused on both the positive and negative effects of rebuilding mollusc populations, which could filter enormous quantities of algae, such studies are sometimes classed as environmental "impacts," which has a connotation of aesthetic loss and a perceived "loss of nature." The purpose of this fact sheet is to discuss the potential environmental effects of expanding shellfish aquaculture and social issues surrounding such expansion and to provide key scientific resources.

  • Filter feeding can increase water purity - cycle minerals - buffer
  • Diseases are discussed
  • Shellfish farming more limited by socio-political than by technological limitations - poor environmental image.
  • Useful paper for understanding shellfish - short though

Aquaculture: Issues and Opportunities for Sustainable Production and Trade[edit | edit source]


Aquaculture can be considered a recent success story in helping to feed the world's population. Production has increased from about 3.5 million tonnes in 1970 to more than 50 million tonnes in 2003, with most of this growth taking place in the developing world, which now accounts for more than 80 percent of global aquaculture production. This tremendous growth has provided a number of opportunities for greater food security, improved livelihoods and reduced poverty. However, it has also created challenges with respect to environmental issues and sustainability.

  • Competitive nature of aquaculture assessed, profitability
  • Technological aspect of aquaculture is discussed (table Fig 2-4)
  • Environmental and socio-economic issues discussed
  • Useful article for understanding where aquaculture is on a political level and its direction. Good for reference

Growing Premium Seafood—Inland[edit | edit source]


People who know seafood know that cobia and Florida pompano are among the world's best. Found in the warm waters off the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, these saltwater superstars are prized for both commercial and sport fishing. Pompano (pronounced POM-puh-no) and cobia (COEbee-uh) have firm, mostly white flesh that's perfect for grilling, pan-frying, or baking. Some people find that pompano has a pleasing, slightly sweet note.

  • Article details requirements for fish to be grown in tanks(food, water, and space)
  • Water quality is imperative to good fish farming
  • Good article for proof of concept of growing fish in tanks away from large bodies of water
  • Not Used

A Fish Farmer's Guide to Understanding Water Quality[edit | edit source]

  • Physical Characteristics of Water
  • Water Balance in Fish
  • Sources of Water
  • Water Quantity
  • Water's Physical Factors
  • Water's Chemical Factors
  • Helpful for understanding the livable conditions fish need in order to thrive in aquaculture

Modern approaches to marine antifouling coatings[edit | edit source]


Marine structures such as platforms, jetties and ship hulls are subject to diverse and severe biofouling. Methods for inhibiting both organic and inorganic growth on wetted substrates are varied but most antifouling systems take the form of protective coatings. Biofouling can negatively affect the hydrodynamics of a hull by increasing the required propulsive power and the fuel consumption. This paper reviews the development of antifouling coatings for the prevention of marine biological fouling. As a result of the 2001 International Maritime Organization (IMO) ban on tributyltin (TBT), replacement antifouling coatings have to be environmentally acceptable as well as maintain a long life. Tin-free self-polishing copolymer (SPC) and foul release technologies are current applications but many alternatives have been suggested. Modern approaches to environmentally effective antifouling systems and their performance are highlighted.

  • Detailed understanding of fouling process
  • Significant biofouling would increase weight.
  • Table 1 is a summary of major antifouling coatings in last 50 years
  • Biomimetics is a likely future direction to advanced antifouling surfaces --. broad spectrum activity and species specific antifouling performance
  • Very useful for consideration for construction of floating array. - Must follow table 6 guidelines

Marine renewable energy: potential benefits tobiodiversity? An urgent call for research[edit | edit source]

  • marine renewable energy installations (MREI) concerns are discussed
  • If done correctly MREI installations may increase local biodiversity and potentially benefit the wider marine environment. Can act as both artificial reefs and fish aggregation devices
  • Potential political hurtles are discussed
  • Win-Win - energy and rebuilding marine habitats
  • Solid paper, doesn't mention floatovoltaics, but very useful nonetheless.

Marine renewable energy: The ecological implications of altering the hydrodynamics of the marine environment[edit | edit source]


Many countries now recognise the need for mitigation of climate change induced by human activities and have incorporated renewable energy resources within their energy policy. There are extensive resources of renewable energy within the marine environment and increasing interest in extracting energy from locations with either large tidal range, rapid flow with and without wave interaction, or large wave resources. However, the ecological implications of altering the hydrodynamics of the marine environment are poorly understood. Ecological data for areas targeted for marine renewable developments are often limited, not least because of the considerable challenges to sampling in high energy environments. In order to predict the scale and nature of ecological implications there is a need for greater understanding of the distribution and extent of the renewable energy resource and in turn, of how marine renewable energy installations (MREIs) may alter energy in the environment. Regional ecological implications of a MREI need to be considered against the greater and global ecological threat of climate change. Finally, it is recommended that the identification of species and biotopes susceptible to the removal of hydrokinetic energy could be a suitable strategy for understanding how a MREI may alter flow conditions.

  • In-depth understanding of movement and dynamics on organisms in a variety of aqua environments.
  • There are "safe limits" of energy to remove from the environment without detrimental effects. - good for solar vs other forms of energy
  • Organisms rely on the energy and heat generated by waves for their physical and chemical responses to the environment
  • Any structure can remove energy from currents up to 10s of km
  • Ecological effects are discussed, and a focus should be on local over global for a given system
  • Good paper for Floatovoltaics over other forms of MREI.

Collision risks between marine renewable energy devices and mammals, fish and diving birds[edit | edit source]


This report summarises the risks of injurious collision that marine renewable devices may pose to marine mammals, fish and birds using Scottish waters within the SEA assessment area. A collision is considered to be a physical contact between a device or its pressure field and an organism, that may result in an injury (however slight) to that organism. We did not consider the physical impacts of sound. Vertebrates may avoid collisions by moving away from the immediate area around a device (avoidance) or by escaping at close range (evasion, analagous to swerving to prevent collision with an obsticle in the road).

  • Sound from operation of equipment is a needed consideration on marine animals
  • In-depth analysis on how marine animals interact with fixed submerged and/or moored devices + structures
  • Table 4 for fish aggregation devices(FADs) - most important section
  • Section 4 details submerged structure structure hazards
  • Section 6 details feature density - sound and light (underwater)
  • Good paper for understanding how humans can affect marine animals
  • Not Used

Marine Renewable Energy Converters Biofouling: A Critical Review on Impacts and Prevention[edit | edit source]


In recent years, a number of studies have been performed to assess the damages caused by biofouling, which is simply the attachment of organisms to a surface in contact with water for a period of time. This explanation sounds fairly straightforward, but there are several organisms that cause biofouling, many different types of affected surfaces, and therefore many solutions dealing with this problem. Regarding the marine renewable energy emerging and promising area of research, this paper aims to provide a critical review of the biofouling issue in the context of Marine Renewable Energy Converters (MRECs). The proposed review will specifically highlight biofouling impacts on MRECs and solutions to prevent fouling. In addition, a discussion will highlight challenges that MRECs market needs to undertake to overcome the biofouling problem.

  • Micro vs macrofouling organisms discussed
  • Biofouling development modes discussed - absorption of macromolecules to surface after integration into water
  • least complex the better, smoother the better
  • Section V indicates way to prevent biofouling. Table 1. - Electrochemical foul prevention appears to be most effective/long lasting
  • Figure 13. - Key interactive parameters affecting an antifouling coating system

Aquaculture—A Gateway for Exotic Species[edit | edit source]


Aquaculture—the farming of fish, shellfish, and aquatic plants—is among the fastest-growing segments of the world food economy. Global aquaculture production more than doubled in volume and value during the past decade and now supplies one-third of seafood consumed worldwide. Growth in U.S. production parallels the global trend (see figure, this page). Spread across all 50 states in the United States, farms collectively raise over 100 different species of aquatic plants and animals (1). Plans are under way for a fivefold increase in domestic aquaculture output by 2025 with more lenient regulatory oversight in accordance with the National Aquaculture Act (1, 2).

  • Aquaculture has led to introductions of unwanted seaweeds, fish, invertebrates, parasites, and pathogens.
  • Accidental escapes and even purposeful releases create "biological pollution" with irreversible and unpredictable ecological impacts.
  • Freshwater mollusks are the most endangered group of animals in North America, and 90% of native mussel species designated as endangered, threatened or of special concern are found in the Southeast where the catfish industry is concentrated
  • More than a half-million Atlantic salmon escaped on the West Coast of North America between 1987 and 1997

Integrated Agri-Aquaculture Systems[edit | edit source]

Integrated agri-aquaculture systems (IAAS) are those which link aquaculture to conventional farming systems. The development of such systems has been driven by different needs in different parts of the world, including a desire to improve food security on small, subsistence family farms; or to minimise pollution and use valuable resources (such as water) more efficiently and effectively.

  • good for integrated farming systems

Aquaculture systems and species[edit | edit source]

Driving force

There are a number of factors, which drive aquaculture, again covering a spectrum from the needs of people (the provision of local employment, food security and the alleviation of poverty) to the needs of industries (with particular emphasis on profits, productivity and consistent-quality products).

Consequently, the requirements for sustainable aquaculture development will include both technological and people based approaches From this range of choices, the design and selection of appropriate culture systems can be made, which most effectively meets their needs and best, fits the opportunities and constraints of the local environment.

Wastewater treatment and use in agriculture - FAO irrigation and drainage paper 47[edit | edit source]


Wastewater Treatment and Use in Agriculture is presented as a guide to the use of treated effluent for irrigation and aquaculture. This document presents the latest views on health risks, environmental hazards and crop production potential associated with the use of treated wastewater. It draws on the WHO Guidelines for health protection measures considered appropriate under various conditions. It explains the basis for conventional wastewater treatment processes and introduces natural biological treatment systems as viable alternatives in developing countries, particularly in hot climate regions. Recharge of aquifers as a means of treatment and indirect use of wastewater is covered in some detail.

Overview of the Australian Fishing and Aquaculture Industry: Present and Future[edit | edit source]

  • immensely useful for overview of general aquaculture concepts.

Food chain patterns in the Ría de Arosa, Spain: an area of intense mussel aquaculture[edit | edit source]


The Rías of Galicia in northwest Spain, particularly the Ría de Arosa, are among the world's greatest producers of commercially-valuable shellfish, especially by raft culture of the edible mussel. We have investigated the nutrient conditions and biota of the Ria de Arosa to under- stand: 1) the role of nutrient intrusion and upwelling and concomitant primary productivity and 2) the effect of the intense mussel culture on food chain patterns. The Ria de Arosa is in reality an oceanic system with coastal wind patterns and the stratigraphy of the Ría causing displacement upwelling of nitrate-rich oceanic water. This periodic upwelling results in high primary productivity rates and phytoplankton standing crops that support the large mussel culture. Surveys of the mussels and associated epifauna and infaunal benthos indicate that the three dimensional raft culture provides habitat and that the associated food resource of mussel biodeposits provides a food ressource that enhances secondary production in the Ría. The food chain pattern of the Ría appears to effectively exploit the primary production and the detritus produced by the mussels supports a great production of macrobenthic epifauna that in turn are fed upon by fish and crab populations.

  • Mussels can enhance fish and crab populations.
  • Cant find full paper.

Opportunities and Challenges to Sustainability in Aquaponic Systems[edit | edit source]


Aquaponics combines the hydroponic production of plants and the aquaculture production of fish into a sustainable agriculture system that uses natural biological cycles to supply nitrogen and minimizes the use of nonrenewable resources, thus providing economic benefits that can increase over time. Several production systems and media exist for producing hydroponic crops (bench bed, nutrient film technique, floating raft, rockwool, perlite, and pine bark). Critical management requirements (water quality maintenance and biofilter nitrification) for aquaculture need to be integrated with the hydroponics to successfully manage intensive aquaponic systems. These systems will be discussed with emphasis on improving sustainability through management and integration of the living components [plants and nitrifying bacteria (Nitrosomonas spp. and Nitrobacter spp.)] and the biofilter system. Sustainable opportunities include biological nitrogen production rates of 80 to 90 gm–3 per day nitrate nitrogen from trickling biofilters and plant uptake of aquaculture wastewater. This uptake results in improved water and nutrient use efficiency and conservation. Challenges to sustainability center around balancing the aquaponic system environment for the optimum growth of three organisms, maximizing production outputs and minimizing effluent discharges to the environment.

  • Great source overview on aquaponics
  1. Stachiw, J.D., 1980. Performance of Photovoltaic Cells in Undersea Environment. Journal of Engineering for Industry 102, 51. doi:10.1115/1.3183829

Discussion[View | Edit]

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