# Choice of crystal plane for InGaN opto-electonics applications

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 This is in a series of literature reviews on InGaN solar cells, which supported the comprehensive review by D.V.P. McLaughlin & J.M. Pearce, "Progress in Indium Gallium Nitride Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Energy Conversion"Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A 44(4) pp. 1947-1954 (2013). open access Others: InGaN solar cells| InGaN PV| InGaN materials| InGan LEDs| Nanocolumns and nanowires| Optical modeling of thin film microstructure| Misc.

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This page describes many potential applications of using $[11\bar{2}2]$ plane for InGaN based PV, LED, LASER diodes and other applications. Its important to know that role of crystal orientation plays a vital role is determining the overall properties and behavior of electronic structure especially when the material is polar/ piezoelectric material like ZnO, GaN, InGaN etc.

Some of interesting properties of InGaN $[11\bar{2}2]$ plane are as following.

• Semi polar plane: [plane such as [0001] are highly polar, whereas plane such as $[10\bar{1}0]$ are non polar. Highly polar planes have disadvantage of large number of recombination states caused by stain in the crystal, whereas non polar lane are having large number of non-radiative recombination centers. Semipolar planes, as the name suggest have the polarization effects in between those of highly polar planes and non-polar plane. This property can be utilize to optimize the internal quantum efficiency of electronic devices based on InGaN/ GaN materials.
• Their is a large reduction in recombination centers which is the main cause of poor efficiency.
• Significant reduction in threading dislocations, as they mostly grow in [0001] plane and bent by 90 degree in $[11\bar{2}0]$ plane.
• most optimized efficiency can be achieved by utilizing these planes as they reduce the number of TDs and recombination centers.
• Higher In Incorporation is possible for the same growth conditions as compared to [0001] plane.
• Almost twice internal quantum efficiency can be achieved by using $[11\bar{2}2]$ plane.