Ethanol can contribute to energy and environmental goals[edit | edit source]

Source: Farrell, Alexander E.."Ethanol can contribute to energy and environmental goals " Science 311.5760 (2006): 506-508.[1]

The study reviews 6 paper related to the study of ethanol energy balance. It focuses mainly on the calculation of net energy produce of ethanol as it confirms that most studies ignore the byproducts in ethanol production.one ml of gasoline needs more petroleum than one ml of ethanol. The cellulosic ethanol is being considered far more advanced technology. Energy and Resource group Biofuel analysis meta model has been used to compare data across different studies. The study reported that ethanol and co-products yielded a positive net energy 4MJ/L to 9 MJ/L

Ethanol Industry and process descriptions[edit | edit source]

Source: Ethanol Industry and process descriptions[2]

The process involved in ethanol produce has been studied.

Integrated bio refineries are envisioned as key model for future, Bio refineries which use fuels, chemicals animal fuels as they increase profitability. Corn is the most used ethanol product in USA

The main process of ethanol production . Corn dry milling- cleaning, milling, liquefaction, addition of alpha amylase to break down starch.

Saccharification, Distillation, Dehydration, Distillation, dehydration, rectifying columns, molecular sieve.

Co-products – silage of distillation columns, centrifuge-solids.

Wet milling- Similar process but corn kernel is separated into its components Cleaning, steeping, germ fiber starch separation, saccharification, Fermentation, Distillation,dehydration Co-product processing-corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed

Biomass-to-bioenergy and biofuel supply chain optimization: overview, key issues and challenges[edit | edit source]

Source: Yue, Dajun, Fengqi You, and Seth W. Snyder. "Biomass-to-bioenergy and biofuel supply chain optimization: overview, key issues and challenges" Computers & Chemical Engineering 66 (2014): 36-56.[3]

The paper focuses on optimization and planning of biomass and biofuel generation. The planning strategy from Bio feed stock supply to biomass energy storage and the technicalities of different biofuel procedures have been considered. Biomass pathways-terrestrial, aquatic biomass feedstocks Cellulosic ethanol is being considered due to the adverse effect on food crops Biodiesel, Intermediates corn, pretreatment, hydrolysis, Lipids, syngas, Bio oil, Feed stock supply needs to be regular. Thermochemical technologies-gasification, pyrolysis, algae harvesting and conversion. Distribution over long distance is very difficult. It reviews that cellulosic procedure is best.

Exergy Based Energy efficiency and renewability Assessment of Bio Fuel Production[edit | edit source]

Source: Dewulf, Jo, Herman Van Langenhove, and B. Van De Velde. "Exergy Based Energy efficiency and renewability Assessment of Bio Fuel Production" Environmental science & technology 39.10 (2005): 3878-3882.[4]

The article provides comparative exergy based efficiency analysis of three crops mainly corn,soy bean, Rapeseeds in the produce of bio fuel. Exergy Based analysis to assess the net Renewable energy from non-renewable resources Highest amount of exergy 220 GJ ha-1 yr-1 is obtained from corn produce. Solar energy is the major input for all the three crops rather than the seeding material The net efficiency of solar energy input is negligible. Corn proves to be the best on the overall process and major part of energy produce has a low non renewable energy part.

Resource use efficiency and environmental performance of nine major biofuel crops,processed by first generation conversion techniques[edit | edit source]

Source: de Vries, Sander C.."Resource use efficiency and environmental performance of nine major biofuel crops,processed by first generation conversion techniques " Biomass and Bioenergy 34.5 (2010): 588-601.[5]

In this article nine main crops like maize, wheat, sugar beet, cassava, sweet sorghum, sugarcane, winter oil seed rape, soy bean, oil palm have been considered. GHG emissions have not been considered as CO2 has already been absorbed from atmosphere Net energy yield has been calculated taking into account non-renewable inputs. Land use and soil erosion have been considered basis on the crop conditions, it was found that cassava and sugarcane have most soil erosion . It was found that crop with favorable energy ratios don't necessarily produce Net yield per unit of water has been considered, but water usage in industrial conversion stage has not been considered. A crop with more usage of pesticide has been considered less sustainable. The study states that corn has the highest energy conversion efficiency. Sweet sorghum, sugar cane and palm oil seed found to deliver more energy than the energy input.

Variation in corn stover composition and energy content with crop maturity[edit | edit source]

Source: de Vries, Sander C.."Variation in corn stover composition and energy content with crop maturity" Biomass and Bioenergy 34.5 (2010): 588-601.[6]

In this article corn stover over crop maturity has been considered. Total Exp was conducted for 213 days by harvesting corn (32K61,32K64) and they found that the crop which is harvested at a maturity state has given 54% of stover and 64% of grain The crops which have harvested a 213 days lost 74% of dry matter which is due to respiration of microbes. The end of experiment it was found that the amount of dry matter in stover found to be 11.7 ton ha-1 ,the dry matter and the green is same as 11.7 ton ha-1 The gross energy of corn stover is 17.65 KJ gm-1 by calerometric analysis. It can be clearly stated that the stover with dry content has given better result.

Life cycle assessment of various cropping systems utilized for producing biofuels :Bioethanol and biodiesel[edit | edit source]

Source: Kim, Seungdo, and Bruce E. Dale. "Life cycle assessment of various cropping systems utilized for producing biofuels :Bioethanol and biodiesel " Biomass and bioenergy 29.6 (2005): 426-439.[7]

In this article life cycle assessment of crops in ethanol and biodiesel production has been considered. Corn stover which is complete upper part of crop except grain uses more energy in harvesting, and has increased ethanol production ha-1 41-65% than continuous corn grain. Cropping system scenarios of Continuous corn, corn with soy bean. Corn grain is processed into ethanol via corn wet milling with a ethanol yield of 0.3 kg ethanol per kg of dry corn grains. Corn-soy bean rotation crop had less renewable energy resources and has lowest ethanol production. The CC ,CS cropping system has negative green house gas emissions. Corn stover as raw material for ethanol saw a increase of ethanol production of 41-65% per hectare.

Engineering aspects of collecting corn stover for bioenergy[edit | edit source]

Source: Sokhansanj, Shahab."Engineering aspects of collecting corn stover for bioenergy." Biomass and Bioenergy 23.5 (2002): 347-355.[8]

In this article Corn Stover isconsidered including the moisture content .where it is considered in 1:1 ratio for dry matter of corn grain to dry matter of dry stover . Yield of stover is calculated from the corn grain produce with an increase in mass of above ground crop The moisture content of stalks and leaves has found to be 82% and grain was about 34 % Monitoring of moisture content has been consider A field test was conducted with corn grain yield of 8.8 t ha-1 as we considered 1:1ratio stover is 8.8 t ha-1. Losses due to delayed harvesting has been observed. It is observed that timely harvest and stover handling has to be done accordingly.

Techno-Economic comparision of process technologies for biochemical ethanol production from corn stover[edit | edit source]

Source: Kazi, Feroz Kabir."Techno-Economic comparision of process technologies for biochemical ethanol production from corn stover" Fuel 89 (2010): S20-S28.'[9]

The study has been conducted by comparing different process technologies of ethanol from lignocellulosic material. Different treatment technologies of biochemical analogies have been considered for biochemical ethanol production. Ethanol yield per mass of feed stock is lower in 2-stage dilute acid treatment and high in C5 and C6 fermentation. The advantage of cellulosic ethanol is the internal energy is supplied by the plants by-products Ethanol product value increase when feedstock value is increased. The product value can be considered based on enzyme cost . It was observed that the ethanol yield by 2-stage dilute acid being the lowest (76gal/mg)

Evaluation of Solar energy as a potential source[edit | edit source]

Annual exergy evaluation on photovoltaic-thermal hybrid collector[edit | edit source]

Source: Fujisawa, Toru, and Tatsuo Tani. "Annual exergy evaluation on photovoltaic-thermal hybrid collector" Solar energy materials and solar cells 47.1 (1997): 135-148.[10]

  • Makes a more complete use of solar energy.
  • It extracts electric as well as thermal power from solar energy.
  • Exergy based comparison and evaluation was done as electric and thermal energy has different units associated with them.
  • The paper discusses the problem associated with thermal energy as it requires a certain temperature difference so that we can extract that energy to do some work.
  • 3 cases were considered-
1)A simple PV module
2)A PV/T module (Hybrid Cover Less)
3)A PV/T module (Hybrid Single Cover)
  • Monthly and annual data were obtained for daily and seasonal variations in solar radiations.
  • Findings :
1)It was found out that the exergy gain for electrical energy was high although the exergy gain for thermal energy was much smaller.
2)Electrical exergy was in the order of
1)Coverless PV/T
2)Simple PV
3)Single Cover PV/T
3)Thermal exergy was in the order of
1)Single Cover PV/T
2)Coverless PV/t

TAKE AWAYS

1)Formulation to find the total exergy.
2)Heat and power generation characteristics.
3)Single covered PV/T should be used as they have high exergy.

Case Studies of large-scale PV systems distributed around desert area of the world[edit | edit source]

Source: Kurokawa, Kosuke."Case Studies of large-scale PV systems distributed around desert area of the world" Solar energy materials and solar cells 47.1 (1997): 189-196.[11]

  • The author challenges the present conventional energy sources which have a lion share in the energy market with large scale PV establishments.
  • Major factors governing a PV power plant design were considered.

TAKE AWAYS

1)PV power plant design
2)Size optimizations
3)Cost estimations

Cost reduction in PV manufacturing and Impact on grid-connected and building-integrated markets[edit | edit source]

Source: Maycock, Paul D. "Cost reduction in PV manufacturing and Impact on grid-connected and building-integrated markets" Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 47.1 (1997): 37-45.[12]

  • This paper suggests different ways to limit the pricing of PV systems to a lower level.
  • Increased size of the plant reduces the cost per watt of energy.
  • It advocates the use of thin film modules and manufacturing of amorphous silicon for a better cost to efficiency ratio.
  • Some of the worlds' governments have cash subsidies of about 50% in practice.

TAKE AWAYS

1)Roll-to-roll continuous process plants should be adopted rather than batch process plants.
2)Government subsidies makes PV plant cheap.
3)Making use of thin film amorphous silicon.
4)Establishing PV plant in more than one Biofuel growing crop field.

Low cost solar module manufacturing[edit | edit source]

Source: Little, Roger G.."Low cost solar module manufacturing" Solar energy materials and solar cells 47.1 (1997): 251-257.[13]

  • The burgeoning solar industry has been expanding many folds which has made the manufacturers to adopt numerous ways to make PV cells affordable.
  • PV cells manufacturers have developed several cost cutting ways which will help them against the growing competition.
  • This paper gives stress on high automation and a higher throughput capacity of module manufacturing and fabrication plants.

TAKE AWAYS

1)Similar output cells clubbed together to form a module with higher efficiency.
2)An assembler developed by Spire can make series cell soldering a much faster process hence saving time and money.
3)Larger area cells helps in cost reduction.

Photovoltaic systems: A cost competitive option to supply energy to off-grid agricultural communities in arid regions[edit | edit source]

Source: Qoaider, Louy, and Dieter Steinbrecht. "Photovoltaic systems: A cost competitive option to supply energy to off-grid agricultural communities in arid regions" Applied Energy 87.2 (2010): 427-435.[14]

  • In order to connect rural and remote inhabited locations to the power grid, the generating public utility needs to build a network of electrification which seems impractical as far as the cost parameters are concerned.
  • The author compares
1)A diesel generator set
2)A PV system
  • Procedure conducted

1)Identifying the solar energy potential and the demand.

2)Optimizing the PV cell size to accommodate the demand of entire locality.

3)Comparing the life cycle cost of both systems.

TAKE AWAYS

1)Decentralized power generation.
2)Electrification of such locations are feasible only when the generation is cheap.
3)Although the energy cost of PV electricity is lower, PV was found out to be more capital centric which puts us in a position where we need to find out ways to make the manufacturing and set up cost a couple of notches lower.
4)When set up in locations of high solar irradiations its profitability increases manifolds.

Energy and Exergy analysis of photovoltaic-thermal collector with and without glass cover[edit | edit source]

Source: Chow, Tin Tai."Energy and Exergy analysis of photovoltaic-thermal collector with and without glass cover" Applied Energy 86.3 (2009): 310-316.[15]

  • This paper gives a thermodynamics viewpoint on the PV/T collector module.
  • PV/T cell with glass cover has a greater total energy absorption while it lowers the photovoltaic efficiency owing to the reduced absorption and increased reflection of irradiation.
  • If the thermal energy extraction is secondary with less or little importance then the PV/T should be without cover.

TAKE AWAYS

1)The factors working in favor of PV/T without cover are
1)PV cell efficiency
2)Packing factor
3)Water mass to collector area
4)Wind velocity
2)The factors working in favor of PV/T with cover
1)Ambient Temperature

Low cost processing of CIGS thin film solar cells[edit | edit source]

Source: Kaelin, M., D. Rudmann, and A. N. Tiwari. "Low cost processing of CIGS thin film solar cells" Solar Energy 77.6 (2004): 749-756.[16]

  • This paper discusses the use of thin layer CIGS (Copper Indium Gallium Selenide) for low cost PV module.
  • The machinery required for such kind of module manufacturing is also low as compared to conventional silicon wafer.
  • The following properties of CIGS were highlighted
1)High optical absorption
2)Tunable bandgap
  • The process manufacturing process of CIGS PV module is explained and it's also stated that this process can be set up as a roll-to-roll process which in turn decreases its production cost.

TAKE AWAYS

1)CIGS PV module stacks up a very bold case for itself even though the efficiency is compromised.
2)If cost is the primary constraint then the use of CIGS would prove vital.
3)Or even a hybrid combination of silicon wafer and CIGS module would do a great job in cutting down the cost to a great extent.

Photovoltaic technology: The case for thin-film solar cells[edit | edit source]

Source: Kaelin, M., D. Rudmann, and A. N. Tiwari. "Photovoltaic technology: The case for thin-film solar cells" Solar Energy 77.6 (2004): 749-756.[17]

  • This paper is based on the argument that although the prices of PV cells have gone down with a substantial increase in the our reliability on PV cells, the cost associated with silicone wafer will eventually go up owing to the availability of limited silicon resources.
  • Silicone thin film cells are made by depositing silicon which is in its gas phase on a low cost substrate.
  • It builds up the case for use of amorphous silicon vs crystalline silicon.
  • Amorphous silicon has low deposition temperatures which enables us to use glass (low cost substrate) as a substrate.

TAKE AWAYS

1)Use of polycrystalline wafers instead of conventional monocrystalline could prove beneficial in cutting down cost but the efficiency would be compromised.
2)The thickness of thin film cells being a few microns, this terminates the very problem which was the limited availability of silicon.
3)Amorphous silicon has a higher absorption coefficient than crystalline silicon.

Life cycle assessment and energy pay-back time of advanced photovoltaic modules: CdTe and CIS compared to poly-Si[edit | edit source]

Source: Raugei, Marco, Silvia Bargigli, and Sergio Ulgiati. "Life cycle assessment and energy pay-back time of advanced photovoltaic modules: CdTe and CIS compared to poly-Si" Energy 32.8 (2007): 1310-1318.[18]

  • This paper stacks up the case for CdTe and CIS PV module against the conventional polycrystalline silicon.
  • The efficiencies were found out to be in the order of:
1)CdTe: 9%
2)CIS: 11%
3)Poly-Si: 14%
  • CdTe and CIS based PV modules are found out to be toxic in nature. Hence their use and disposable must be done in a reliable manner.

TAKE AWAYS

1)Thin film operate at higher efficiencies in overcast condition.
2)Overall performance was found out ot be competitive with poly-Si based PV module.
3)The choice of CdTe or CIS type PV module will decrease the capital cost but would increase the maintenance and disposal cost.

Cumulative exergy extraction from the natural environment: A comprehensive life cycle impact assessment method for resource accounting[edit | edit source]

Source: Dewulf, Jo."Cumulative exergy extraction from the natural environment: A comprehensive life cycle impact assessment method for resource accounting" Environmental science & technology 41.24 (2007): 8477-8483.[19]

  • This article talks about the total exergy derived from nature which is used to generate power in the form we can make use of.

TAKE AWAYS

The exergy data of different resources can be of very vital use in our project.

Energy Viability of photo-voltaic Systems[edit | edit source]

Source: Alsema, Erik A., and E. Nieuwlaar. "Energy Viability of photo-voltaic Systems" Energy policy 28.14 (2000): 999-1010.[20]

  • This paper talks about the different processes involved in manufacturing, processing and assembling of the solar panels.
  • Factors included in the calculation of payback time and carbon dioxide emissions

PV Watts Calculator-NREL website[edit | edit source]

Source: PV Watts Calculator[21]

This is a tool that has been developed by the NREL and is used to "estimate the energy production and cost of energy of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) energy systems throughout the world. It allows homeowners, small building owners, installers and manufacturers to easily develop estimates of the performance of potential PV installations" by entering the system details like climate data ,PV module information. This tool is useful for this project to estimate net solar output energy and possible losses at the chosen location of installation.

Land-Use Requirements for Solar Power Plants in the United States[edit | edit source]

Source: Ong, Sean."Land-Use Requirements for Solar Power Plants in the United States" Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (2013).[22]

  • This is a document report released by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory which discusses about the land requirements for the different installations. This report gives a fair idea of the total area usage, system configurations and capacity and electricity generation.
  • This document also has data regarding the PV Projects within the US and gives data relating to
1.	Total capacity in MW
2.	Total area in acres
3.	Direct area in acres
4.	Solar Tracking type and module efficiency

This report is a good source of data for our project.

Life Cycle Assessment of photo-voltaic electricity generation[edit | edit source]

Source: Stoppato, A. "Life Cycle Assessment of photo-voltaic electricity generation" Energy 33.2 (2008): 224-232.[23]

  • Discusses about the net mass and energy flow right from production to final assembling the panel. The net electricity production by the panel is also captured to evaluate the total payback time and potential carbon dioxide mitigation.
  • This paper identifies all underlying processes in the manufacturing of a solar panel and the input usage and output quantity.
  • Gross energy requirement per panel was calculated and the greenhouse effect or global warming potential was also studied.
  • The Energy Pay Back Time = Einput/Esaved,

Where,

Einput = energy input during the module life cycle
Esaved = annual energy savings due to electricity generated by the PV module

Studies shows EPBT is estimated shorter than the panel operation life.

This paper is useful to estimate the approximate energy input to set up a plant with PV panels.

Iowa energy centre- Solar calculations[edit | edit source]

Source: Iowa energy centre- Solar calculations[24]

This web page is hosted by Iowa energy center and has an online solar calculator that calculates the data for Iowa county based on the chosen configuration and location and irradiation levels. This data could prove useful for our project for PV modelling considering a solar farm in Iowa .

Solar Statistics- Solar Energy industries Association[edit | edit source]

Source:Solar Statistics[25]

This site serves as a good source to collect statistics for out project .It gives us an idea of the current solar projects the locations installed and the capacity of these plants and the type of systems used.

Life cycle analysis of solar PV system[edit | edit source]

Source: Baharwani, Vishakha."Life cycle analysis of solar PV system " Int J Environ Res Dev 4.2 (2014): 183-190.[26]

The paper reviews the life cycle analysis of different PV systems modules. The entire lifecycle of PV cell from the point manufacturing and installing of PV cells and GHG are considered It reports that crystalline modules had good conversion efficiency but high energy inputs and GHG emissions.Thin film modules have less energy inputs and GHG emissions.

Energy and exergy analysis of 36w solar photovoltaic module[edit | edit source]

Source: Sudhakar, K., and Tulika Srivastava. "Energy and exergy analysis of 36w solar photovoltaic module" International journal of ambient energy 35.1 (2014): 51-57.[27]

The exergy and energy analysis of 36 w solar pv module has been considered with efficiency being calculated with the net energy delivered to the solar panel to the energy output. Percentage of power converted and collected is considered as the energy efficiency

Ƞenergy = (Voc*Isc** FF)/(A*G)

To reduce the higher surface temperature which would probably cause efficiency reduction artificial cooling by passing air or water on the back side of the module is done. Exergy input= Exergy output + Exergy loss+ Irreversibility. The thermal energy from solar radiation dissipates as heat which is considered as exergy destruction An experimental study was conducted which found that the electrical exergy was much less than that can be obtained because of loss of exergy as result of irreversibility. The exergy efficiency has reported low and can be improved with optimization in design of solar panel The PV exergy efficiency can be improved with solar radiation intensity and decreases after reaching a maximum point.

Planning guidance for the development of large scale ground mounted solar PV systems[edit | edit source]

Source: Planning guidance for the development of large scale ground mounted solar PV systems[28]

  • Those document is impotrtant in the sense that it gives a clear idea about the planning,installing and maintainence of PV panels on a large scale .
  • It also discusses about the electrical capacity of the PV system.This could be useful in understanding and planning the PV farm simulation.

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Farrell, Alexander E.."Ethanol can contribute to energy and environmental goals " Science 311.5760 (2006): 506-508.
  2. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and health administration "Ethanol Industry and process descriptions"
  3. Yue, Dajun, Fengqi You, and Seth W. Snyder. "Biomass-to-bioenergy and biofuel supply chain optimization: overview, key issues and challenges" Computers & Chemical Engineering 66 (2014): 36-56.
  4. Dewulf, Jo, Herman Van Langenhove, and B. Van De Velde. "Exergy Based Energy efficiency and renewability Assessment of Bio Fuel Production" Environmental science & technology 39.10 (2005): 3878-3882.
  5. de Vries, Sander C.."Resource use efficiency and environmental performance of nine major biofuel crops,processed by first generation conversion techniques " Biomass and Bioenergy 34.5 (2010): 588-601.
  6. Source: de Vries, Sander C.."Variation in corn stover composition and energy content with crop maturity" Biomass and Bioenergy 34.5 (2010): 588-601.
  7. ence/article/pii/S0961953405000978 Life cycle assessment of various cropping systems utilized for producing biofuels :Bioethanol and biodiesel ]" Biomass and bioenergy 29.6 (2005): 426-439.
  8. Sokhansanj, Shahab."Engineering aspects of collecting corn stover for bioenergy." Biomass and Bioenergy 23.5 (2002): 347-355.
  9. Kazi, Feroz Kabir."Techno-Economic comparision of process technologies for biochemical ethanol production from corn stover" Fuel 89 (2010): S20-S28.
  10. Fujisawa, Toru, and Tatsuo Tani. "Annual exergy evaluation on photovoltaic-thermal hybrid collector" Solar energy materials and solar cells 47.1 (1997): 135-148.
  11. Kurokawa, Kosuke."Case Studies of large-scale PV systems distributed around desert area of the world" Solar energy materials and solar cells 47.1 (1997): 189-196.
  12. Maycock, Paul D. "Cost reduction in PV manufacturing and Impact on grid-connected and building-integrated markets" Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 47.1 (1997): 37-45.
  13. Little, Roger G.."Low cost solar module manufacturing" Solar energy materials and solar cells 47.1 (1997): 251-257.
  14. Qoaider, Louy, and Dieter Steinbrecht. "Photovoltaic systems: A cost competitive option to supply energy to off-grid agricultural communities in arid regions" Applied Energy 87.2 (2010): 427-435.
  15. Chow, Tin Tai."Energy and Exergy analysis of photovoltaic-thermal collector with and without glass cover" Applied Energy 86.3 (2009): 310-316.
  16. Kaelin, M., D. Rudmann, and A. N. Tiwari. "Low cost processing of CIGS thin film solar cells" Solar Energy 77.6 (2004): 749-756.
  17. Kaelin, M., D. Rudmann, and A. N. Tiwari. "Photovoltaic technology: The case for thin-film solar cells" Solar Energy 77.6 (2004): 749-756.
  18. Raugei, Marco, Silvia Bargigli, and Sergio Ulgiati. "Life cycle assessment and energy pay-back time of advanced photovoltaic modules: CdTe and CIS compared to poly-Si" Energy 32.8 (2007): 1310-1318.
  19. Dewulf, Jo."Cumulative exergy extraction from the natural environment: A comprehensive life cycle impact assessment method for resource accounting" Environmental science & technology 41.24 (2007): 8477-8483.
  20. Alsema, Erik A., and E. Nieuwlaar. "Energy Viability of photo-voltaic Systems" Energy policy 28.14 (2000): 999-1010.
  21. PV Watts Calculator
  22. Ong, Sean."Land-Use Requirements for Solar Power Plants in the United States" Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (2013).
  23. Stoppato, A. "Life Cycle Assessment of photo-voltaic electricity generation" Energy 33.2 (2008): 224-232.
  24. Iowa energy centre- http://web.archive.org/web/20161212053446/http://www.iowaenergycenter.org:80/solar-calculator-tool/
  25. Solar Statistics
  26. Baharwani, Vishakha."Life cycle analysis of solar PV system " Int J Environ Res Dev 4.2 (2014): 183-190.
  27. K.Sudhakar,Tulika Srivastava" Energy and exergy analysis of 36w solar photovoltaic module"
  28. Planning guidance for the development of large scale ground mounted solar PV systems
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