This didactic material encompass the knowledge and principles of lower-limb deformity corrections required for both surgery planning and psychomotor skills as well as information of application of the external fixator implant required for psychomotor skills. The material is enriched with easy to understand schematic diagrams and annotated videos of real workshop conducted by an expert surgeon. The material is listed in the order in which they should be learned, as follows:

Principles of Deformity Correction[edit | edit source]

Line Diagrams of long bones[edit | edit source]

  • To better understand limb alignment and joint orientation, the complex three-dimensional shapes of bones and joints can be simplified to basic line drawings. Read more >>

Joint Centers[edit | edit source]

  • The joint centers of hip, knee and ankle joints are defined in the frontal plane. They are very useful landmarks in defining axis and angular parameters of the long bones. Read more >>

Axes of the long bones - Mechanical and Anatomical[edit | edit source]

  • The axes of long bones are very useful in defining how the mechanical (weight, gait, flexion, extension, etc) forces impact the morphology of the bone structure. They help in the surgical planning of the deformed bones. Read more >>

Joint Orientation Lines/Joint Lines[edit | edit source]

  • Joint Orientation Line or Joint Line is a line representing the orientation of the bone joints in a frontal or sagittal plane. Read more >>

Joint Orientation Angles/Angular parameters of the long bones[edit | edit source]

  • The joint lines in the frontal and sagittal planes have a characteristic or well-defined orientation to the mechanical and anatomic axes. This is defined as Joint Orientation Angles. Read more >>

Mechanical Axis Deviation (MAD) and Hip-Knee-Ankle angle (HKA)[edit | edit source]

  • The mechanical axis of the lower limb or the leg is different from the mechanical axis of femur and tibia bones. It is defined as a line drawn from femoral head center to the ankle center. Read more >>

Malalignment and Malorientation - Source of Deformity[edit | edit source]

  • Malalignment refers to loss of collinearity of the hip, knee & ankle in the frontal plane. Read more >>

Rules of Bone Osteotomy[edit | edit source]

  • There are three rules of Osteotomy which summarise the correction of a deformed bone. Read more >>

Mechanical and Anatomical Axis Planning - Frontal plane[edit | edit source]

  • When there is Malalignment or Malorientation in femur or tibia bone, the bone with deformity can be divided into proximal and distal bone segments. The correction of a deformity in frontal plane can be planned in Frontal plane. Read more >>

Mechanical and Anatomical Axis Planning - Sagittal plane[edit | edit source]

  • When there is Malalignment or Malorientation in femur or tibia bone, the bone with deformity can be divided into proximal and distal bone segments. The correction of a deformity in sagittal plane can be planned in Sagittal plane. Read more >>

Oblique Plane Deformity - Graphical method[edit | edit source]

  • Angular deformity in long bones can occur in any plane. Deformities in which angulation is seen on both AP and LAT x-rays are actually uniapical or multiapical deformities in an oblique plane. They are also known as Oblique plane deformities. Read more >>

Implant fixation (to be done in psychomotor training)[edit | edit source]

External fixation devices - Rail Fixator[edit | edit source]

  • External fixation devices like Rail fixator (LRS) are used to fix or to hold the resected bone segments in corrected positions. Read more >>
Note: More information on the Post Operative management will be added in this section/page.
Page data
Part of Deformity Correction Of Lower Limb Bones
Type Medical course
SDG Sustainable Development Goals SDG03 Good health and well-being
Authors Amit Dinanath Maurya, OpenSurgiSim
Published 2021
License CC-BY-SA-4.0
Affiliations OpenSurgiSim, Global Surgical Training Challenge
Impact Number of views to this page and its redirects. Updated once a month. Views by admins and bots are not counted. Multiple views during the same session are counted as one. 72
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